The term hornpipe refers to any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and elsewhere from the late 17th century until the present day.
There are several traditional
folk danceforms of the hornpipe:
* The most common use of the term nowadays refers to a class of tunes in 4/4 time. It is often danced wearing a hard shoe. Perhaps the best known example is the "Sailors' Hornpipe". There are two basic types of common-time hornpipe, ones like the "Sailors' Hornpipe", moving in even notes, sometimes notated in 2/2, moving a little slower than a reel, and ones like "The Harvest Home", moving in dotted notes. Some 19th century examples mix the dotted and even styles. The form dates back to the mid 18th century or earlier, but became much more popular in the early 19th century. Many fine hornpipes were written in this period, many with known composers. In Ireland, examples include "The Groves Hornpipe" and "The Boys of Bluehill". In England, a noted composer of hornpipes on Tyneside was the influential fiddler-publican
James Hill(c.1811-1853). The form also became very popular in the United States - "President Garfield's Hornpipe" is a fine example.
* A lively 3/2 time dance rhythm, which remained popular in northern English and lowland Scottish instrumental music until the 19th century. Many examples are still well known and widely played in
Northumberland, such as the song "Dance ti thy Daddy", and the variation set "Lads of Alnwick". Often these tunes have off-beat accents, usually in even numbered bars, presumably corresponding to the (lost) dance steps. The form, having short strains, with recognisable tags at the ends, is very suitable for the playing of variations, which has probably accounted for its survival among players of the Northumbrian smallpipes. "Lads of Alnwick", in particular, has survived in the oral and manuscript tradition without major change from its earliest known appearance in the 1730s in William Dixon's MS, until the modern era, when an almost identical 5-strain version was written down by Tom Clough.
* The term was also used formerly to refer to tunes in 9/4 or 9/8 time. These may have been thought of as differing only inessentially from the 3/2 hornpipes. Some early examples of these are also
syncopated. The form survives in Northumberland and Ireland. One example, "Mad Moll", or "The Peacock Follows the Hen", has remained current since at least 1698 when it appeared in The Dancing Master. Such tunes are usually referred to nowadays by the Irish name slip jig.
Examples, current in Northumberland, of all these kinds of hornpipe may be found, either recorded or notated, on the FARNE archive website [http://www.asaplive.com/archive/index.asp] . John Offord has recently republished "John of the Green - The Cheshire Way", (ISBN 978-0-9556324-0-2) an extensive study of published and manuscript dance music in these forms from before 1750. This draws heavily on Thomas Marsden's "Original Lancashire Hornpipes, Old and New", published by
Henry Playfordin 1705, as well as other sources.
The triple-time hornpipe dance rhythm was often used by composers in England in the Baroque period. It is probably artificial to draw too rigid a distinction between the popular and art-music examples. Many country dance examples are found in
The Dancing Master, such as "The Hole in the Wall", by Purcell, and there are also extant theatrical choreographies that use steps from French court ballet, but which characteristically have step-units going across the measure. Henry Purcelland George Frideric Handelcomposed hornpipes, and Handel occasionally gave "alla hornpipe" as a tempo indication (see Handel's Water Music). Today, the most well-known baroque hornpipe tune is probably Purcell's "Hornpipe Rondeau" from the incidental music to "Abdelazer", (which was used by Benjamin Brittenas the theme for his "Young Person's Guide To The Orchestra") or the 'Alla Hornpipe' movement from the D major of Handel's Water Music suites.
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Hornpipe — Horn pipe , n. (Mus.) (a) An instrument of music formerly popular in Wales, consisting of a wooden pipe, with holes at intervals. It was so called because the bell at the open end was sometimes made of horn. (b) A lively tune played on a hornpipe … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Hornpipe — est une danse irlandaise en trois temps (3/2). Elle se pratique en hard shoes (claquettes). Il peut également s agir d un air traditionnel irlandais à 4/4, et également à 9/4 (ou 9/8). Mais il peut également s agir d un instrument de musique. C… … Wikipédia en Français
Hornpipe — (spr. hórnpaip, »Hornpfeife«), ein alter englischer Tanz, benannt nach einem nur noch dem Namen nach bekannten Instrument, besonders im 18. Jahrh. beliebt (3/2 , auch Takt, im erstern Fall vielfach synkopiert) … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
hornpipe — [hôrn′pīp΄] n. [ME] 1. an obsolete wind instrument with a bell and mouthpiece made of horn 2. a lively dance to the music of the hornpipe, formerly popular with sailors 3. music for this … English World dictionary
Hornpipe — Hornpipe, 1) (Hornpfeife), musikalisches Instrument, im Fürstenthum Wales; eine hölzerne Pfeife mit Grifflöchern u. mit einem Horne an jedem Ende, in das eine wird die Luft geblasen, aus dem andern gehen die Töne hervor; 2) nach dieser Pfeife od … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Hornpipe — (engl., spr. peip), Musikinstrument aus Holz in Gestalt einer Pfeife mit Grifflöchern und mit einem Horn an dem einen Ende, bes. in Wales gebräuchlich; auch Name eines engl. Nationaltanzes … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
*hornpipe — ● hornpipe nom masculin Danse anglaise ancienne, de rythme ternaire (devenu binaire par la suite), caractérisée par des syncopes systématiques … Encyclopédie Universelle
hornpipe — s.n. 1. (muz.) Carabă. 2. Dans popular scoţian dansat după o melodie cântată la cimpoi [pr.: hórnpaip] – cuv. engl. Trimis de gall, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98 … Dicționar Român
hornpipe — c.1400, hornepype, musical instrument with bell and mouthpiece made of horn, from HORN (Cf. horn) (n.) + PIPE (Cf. pipe) (n.). Later (late 15c.) dance associated with sailors (originally performed to music from such an instrument) … Etymology dictionary
hornpipe — (izg. hȍrnpājp) m DEFINICIJA glazb. 1. pov. stari engleski ples u 3/2 ili 4/4 mjeri 2. engleski narodni instrument, vrsta klarineta s dva volovska roga ETIMOLOGIJA engl … Hrvatski jezični portal
hornpipe — ► NOUN 1) a lively solo dance traditionally performed by sailors. 2) a piece of music for such a dance. ORIGIN originally denoting a wind instrument made of horn, played to accompany dancing: from HORN(Cf. ↑horned) + PIPE(Cf. ↑pipe) … English terms dictionary