name = Lavoslav Ružička
image_size = 180px
September 13, 1887
death_date = death date and age|1976|9|26|1887|9|13
organic chemistry biochemistry
alma_mater = Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe
Nobel Prize for Chemistry(1939)
Lavoslav Stjepan Ružička (
September 13, 1887– September 26, 1976) was a Croatian scientist, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He was awarded eight honorary doctorates (four in science, two in medicine, one in natural sciences, one in law), seven prizes and medals, and 24 honorary memberships in chemical, biochemical, and other scientific societies.
Early years and education
Ružička was born in
Vukovar(at the time part of Austria-Hungary, today Croatia). His familyof craftsmen and farmers was of Czech, German and Croatian origin. Ružička attended the classics-program secondary school in Osijek. He changed his original ideaof becoming a priest and switched to studying technical disciplines. Chemistrywas his choice, probably because he hoped to get a position at the newly opened sugar refinerybuilt in Osijek.
Due to the excessive hardship of everyday and political life, he left and chose the High Technical School in
Karlsruhein Germany. He was a good studentin areas he liked and that he thought would be necessary and beneficial in future, which was organic chemistry. That is why his physical chemistryprofessor, Fritz Haber( Nobel laureatein 1918), opposed his " summa cum laude" degree. However, in the course of his studies, Ružička set up excellent cooperation with Hermann Staudinger(a Nobel laureatein 1953). Studying within Staudinger's department, he obtained his doctor's degree in 1910. With Staudinger, Ružička went to Zurichand was his assistant.
Work and research
Ružička's first works originated during that period in the field of chemistry of natural compounds. He remained in this field of research all his life. He investigated the ingredients of the
Dalmatian insectpowder ( Pyrethrum cinereriifolium), a highly esteemed insecticide. In this way, he came into contact with the chemistry of terpene, a fragrantoil of vegetable origin, interesting to the perfume industry. He intended to start individual research and even started successful and productive cooperation with the Chuit & Naef Company (later known as Firmenich) in Geneva.
In 1916-1917, he received the support of the oldest perfume
manufacturerin the world"Haarman & Reimer", of Holzminden in Germany. With expertise in the terpene field, he became senior lecturer in 1918, and in 1923, honorary professor at the ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) as well the University in Zurich. Here, with a group of his doctoral students, he proved the structure and existence of the compounds of musconeand civet, the scents derived from the musk deer and the civet cat. The Ruzicka large ring synthesisis a method in organic chemistryfor the organic synthesisof these type of compounds.
In 1921, the Geneva perfume manufacturers Chuit & Naef asked him to collaborate. Working here, Ružička achieved financial independence, but not as big as he did plan so he left Zurich to start working for the
Ciba, Basel- based company. In 1927, he took over the organic chemistry chair at Utrecht Universityin Netherlands. In Netherlands he remained for three years, and then returned to Switzerland, which was superior in its chemical industry.
Back to Zurich, at "ETH" he became
professorof organic chemistry and started the most brilliant period of his professional career. He widened the area of his research, adding to it the chemistry of higher terpenes and steroids. After the successful synthesis of sex hormones( androsteroneand testosterone), his laboratorybecame the world center of organic chemistry.
In 1939, he won the
Nobel prizefor chemistry with Adolf Butenandt. In 1940, following the award, he was invited by the Croatian Chemical Association, where he delivered a lecture to an over packed hall of dignitaries. The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian insect powder to sex hormones. During the World War II, some of his excellent collaborators were lost, but Ružička restructured his laboratory with new, younger and promising people; among them was young scientist Vladimir Prelog. With new people and ideas new research areas were opened.
Following 1950, Ružička returned to chemistry, which had entered a new era of research. Now he turned to the field of
biochemistry, the problems of evolutionand genesis of life, particularly to the biogenesisof terpenes. He published a hypothesis titled Biogenetic isoprenerule [cite journal
title = The isoprene rule and the biogenesis of terpenic compounds
author = Lavoslav Ružička
journal = Journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
volume = 9
issue = 10
pages = 357–367
year = 1953
doi = 10.1007/BF02167631] , which was the peak of his scientific career. Ružička retired in 1957, turning over the running of the laboratory to his assistant and future Nobel laureate
Ružička dedicated significant efforts to the problems of
education. He insisted on a better organization of academic education and scientific work in the new Yugoslavia, and established the Swiss-Yugoslav Society. Ružička became a honorary academicianat the then Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Artsin Zagreb. In Switzerland, the Ružička Award was established, for young chemists working in Switzerland. In his native Vukovar, a museumwas opened in his honour in 1977.
* [http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1939/ruzicka-bio.html Lavoslav Ružička ]
* [http://www.ethistory.ethz.ch/besichtigungen/touren/vitrinen/konjunkturkurven/vitrine61 Lavoslav Ružička at the ETH]
* cite journal
title = Leopold Ruzicka. 13 September 1887-26 September 1976
Vladimir Prelog; Oskar Jeger
journal = Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
year = 1980
volume = 26
pages = 411–501
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0080-4606%28198011%2926%3C411%3ALR1S1S%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W
doi = 10.1098/rsbm.1980.0013
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Laureates 1926-1950
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Lavoslav Ruzicka — Lavoslav Ružička Lavoslav (Leopold) Ružička, né le 13 septembre 1887 et mort le 26 septembre 1976, est un chimiste, premier lauréat croate du prix Nobel de chimie. Sommaire 1 Biographie 1.1 Jeunesse et formation … Wikipédia en Français
Lavoslav Ruzicka — Geburtshaus von Leopold Ružička Leopold Ružička (Lavoslav Stjepan Ružička; * 13. September 1887 in Vukovar; † 26. September 1976 in Mammern, Kanton Thurgau) war ein Schweizer Chemiker kroatischer Abstamm … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lavoslav Ružička — Leopold Ružička Lavoslav (Leopold) Ružička, né le 13 septembre 1887 à Vukovar et décédé le 26 septembre 1976, est un chimiste de nationalité austro hongroise et suisse. Il est lauréat de la moitié du pri … Wikipédia en Français
Ruzicka — Růžička (tschech.) oder Ružička (slowak./kroat.) ˈruːʒiʧka, eingedeutscht Ruzicka, ist ein in Tschechien, der Slowakei und Kroatien weit verbreiteter Familienname. Es ist dies die Verkleinerungsform zu tschech. růže, slowak./kroat. ruže, dt.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Růžička — (tschech.) oder Ružička (slowak./kroat.) ˈruːʒiʧka, eingedeutscht Ruzicka, ist ein in Tschechien, der Slowakei und Kroatien weit verbreiteter Familienname. Es ist dies die Verkleinerungsform zu tschech. růže, slowak./kroat. ruže, dt. Rosen (im… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ružička — or Ruzicka may refer to: *Lavoslav Ružička (1887 – 1976), Croatian chemist (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939) *Marla Ruzicka (1976 – 2005), American activist turned aid worker *Peter Ruzicka (born 1948), German composer *Rudolph Ruzicka (1883 –… … Wikipedia
Ruzicka large ring synthesis — The Ruzicka large ring synthesis or Ruzicka reaction or Ruzicka cyclization is an organic reaction in which a dicarboxylic acid is converted to a cyclic ketone at high temperature and a suitable catalyst such as thorium oxide. The reaction is… … Wikipedia
Ružička — Rùžička DEFINICIJA 1. Kamilo (1899 1972), hrv. slikar zagorskih motiva; predstavnik konstruktivizma u varijanti dekorativnog kubizma 2. Lavoslav (Leopold) (1887 1976), švicarski organski kemičar podrijetlom iz Hrvatske, istraživao mirisave… … Hrvatski jezični portal
Leopold Ruzicka — Lavoslav Ružička Lavoslav (Leopold) Ružička, né le 13 septembre 1887 et mort le 26 septembre 1976, est un chimiste, premier lauréat croate du prix Nobel de chimie. Sommaire 1 Biographie 1.1 Jeunesse et formation … Wikipédia en Français
Cyclisation de Ruzicka — La cyclisation de Ruzicka est une réaction de cyclisation d un diacide carboxylique en cétone cyclique. C est une réaction effectuée à haute température, en présence d un catalyseur tel que le dioxyde de thorium. Cette réaction tien son nom de… … Wikipédia en Français