8th century BC

The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC.


The 8th century BC was a period of great changes in civilizations. In Egypt, the 23rd and 24th dynasties led to rule from Nubia in the 25 Dynasty. The Neo-Assyrian Empire reaches the peak of its power, conquering the Kingdom of Israel as well as nearby countries.

Greece colonizes other regions of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Rome is founded in 753 BC, and the Etruscan civilization expands in Italy. The 8th century BC is conventionally taken as the beginning of Classical Antiquity, with the first Olympiad set at 776 BC, and the epics of Homer dated to the period.A historic solar eclipse is recorded in China, 780 BC.Fact|date=August 2007

Iron Age India enters the later Vedic period. Vedic ritual is annotated in many priestly schools in Brahmana commentaries, and the earliest Upanishads mark the beginning of Vedanta philosophy.

Events and trends

*Late 8th century BC — Earrings, crown and rosettes, from the tomb of Queen Yabay in Kalhu (modern Nimrud, Iraq) are made. They are now at Iraq Museum, Baghdad. Discovered in 1988.
*c. 8th century BC — 7th century BC; Woman spinning, from Susa (modern Shush, Iran) is made. It is now at Musee du Louvre, Paris.
*797 BCArdysus I becomes king of Lydia.
*797 BC — Thespieus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 27 years and is succeeded by his son Agamestor.
*783 BCShalmaneser IV succeeds his father Adad-nirari III as king of Assyria.
*782 BC — Founding of Erebuni (Էրեբունի) by the orders of King Argishtis I at the site of current-day Yerevan.
*782 BC — Death of King Xuan of Zhou, King of the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC — 256 BC) of China.
*781 BCKing You of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC — 256 BC) of China.
*780 BC — The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China.
*778 BCAgamestor, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 17 years and is succeeded by his son Aeschylus.
*776 BC — retrospectively set as the first Olympiad. The history Olympic Games is believed to reach as far back as the 13th century BC.
*774 BC — End of the reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre.
*773 BC — Death of Shoshenq III, king of Egypt.
*773 BC — Ashur-Dan III succeeds his brother Shalmaneser IV as king of Assyria.
*771 BC — End of the Western Zhou Dynasty in China as "western" barbarian tribes sack the capital Hao. King You of Zhou is killed. Crown Prince Ji Yijiu escapes and will reign as King Ping of Zhou.
*770 BC — Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in China as King Ping of Zhou becomes the first King of the Zhou to rule from the new capital of Chengzhou (today Luoyang).
*Assyria conquers Damascus and Samaria.
*June 15, 763 BC — A solar eclipse at this date is used to fix the chronology of the Ancient Near East.
*756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus.
*755 BCAshur-nirari V succeeds Ashur-Dan III as king of Assyria.
*755 BC — Aeschylus, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 23 years and is succeeded by Alcmaeon.
*753 BCAlcmaeon, King of Athens, dies after a reign of 2 years. He is replaced by Harops, elected Archon for a ten-year term.
*April 21, 753 BC- Rome founded by Romulus (according to tradition). Beginning of the Roman 'Ab urbe condita' calendar.
*February 26, 747 BCNabonassar becomes king of Assyria.
*747 BCMeles becomes king of Lydia.
*745 BCThe Crown of Assyria seized by Pul, who takes the name Tiglath-Pileser III.
*743 BCDuke Zhuang of the Chinese state of Zheng comes to power.
*740 BCTiglath-Pileser III conquers the city of Arpad in Syria after two years of siege.
*740 BC — Start of Ahaz's reign of Judah.
*739 BCHiram II becomes king of Tyre.
*738 BC — King Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria invades Israel, forcing it to pay tribute.
*734 BCNaxus in Sicily founded as a colony of Chalcis in Euboea. (traditional date)
*732 BCHoshea becomes the last king of Israel.
*730 BCOsorkon IV succeeds Sheshonq IV as king of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt.
*730 BC — Piye succeeds his father Kashta as king of the Nubian kingdom of Napata.
*730 BC — Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king of Tyre.
*728 BCPiye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis, and receives the submission of the rulers of the Nile Delta. He founds the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.
*727 BCBabylonia makes itself independent of Assyria.
*724 BC — The Assyrians start a four-year siege of Tyre.
*724 BC — The "diaulos" footrace introduced at the Olympics.
*722 BCSpring and Autumn Period of China's history begins as King King Ping of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty reigns in name only.
*722 BCIsrael is conquered by Assyrian king Sargon II.
*720 BC — End of the Assyrian siege of Tyre.
*710s BCJudah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria.
*719 BCKing Huan of Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty becomes ruler of China.
*718 BCGyges becomes the ruler of Lydia.
*717 BCAssyrian king Sargon conquers the Hittites stronghold of Carchemish.
*717 BC — Sargon II founds a new capital for Assyria at Dur-Sharrukin.
*716 BCRoman legend marks this as the date that Romulus ended his rule.
*715 BC — Start of the reign of Roman King Numa Pompilius.
*713 BCNuma Pompilius reforms the Roman calendar.
*712 BCNuma Pompilius creates the office of Pontifex Maximus.
*706 BCSpartan immigrants found Taras ("Tarentum", the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy.
*705 BCSennacherib succeeds his brother Shalmaneser V as king of Assyria.
*704 BCSennacherib moves the capital of Assyria to Nineveh.
*701 BC — King Hezekiah of Judah, backed by Egypt, revolts against king Sennacherib of Assyria. Sennacherib sacks many Palestinian cities, but fails in his attempt to take Jerusalem.
*700 BC — The Scythians start settling in Cimmerian areas, slowly replacing the previous inhabitants.
*700 BC — End of the Villanovan culture in northern Italy and rise of the Etruscan civilization.
*700 BC — The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written around this time.
*Mid-8th century BC — Model of temple, found in the Sanctuary of Hera, Argos, is made. It is now at National Archeological Museum, Athens.
*Greeks colonize Mediterranean and Black Seas.
*Thraco-Cimmerian influence in Central Europe.

ignificant persons

Although many human societies were literate at this time, some of the individuals mentioned below must be considered legendary rather than historical.

* 760s BCArgishtis I of Urartu dies.
* 760s BC — Amaziah of Judah dies.
* 760s BC — Archilaus, king of Sparta, dies.
* 760s BC — Marduk-apla-usur and Eriba-Marduk, kings of Babylon, dies.
* 760s BC — Rivallo, legendary king of the Britons, dies.
* Shoshonq V, Pharaoh of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt (767 BC730 BC)
* Osorkon III, Pharaoh of the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt (787 BC759 BC)
* Takelot III, Pharaoh of the Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt (764 BC757 BC)
* Rudamun, Pharaoh of the Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt (757 BC754 BC)
* Iuput, Pharaoh of the Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt (754 BC715 BC)
* Niumateped, king of the Libyans (775 BC750 BC)
* Titaru, king of the Libyans (758 BC750 BC)
* Ker, king of the Libyans (750 BC745 BC)
* Midas (king of Phrygia)
*Hezekiah of the Kingdom of Judah (reigned 715 BC687 BC)
*Sennacherib, king of Assyria and conqueror of Babylon (705681 BC)
* Homer (exact dates unknown, usually dated to the mid to late 8th century BC)
*740s BCRomulus and Remus
*725 BCBakenranef (also known as Bocchoris) succeeds his father Tefnakhte as king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt
*Ahaz, king of Judah (735 BC715 BC)
*723 BCShalmaneser V, king of Assyria, dies.
*723 BC — Sargon succeeds Shalmaneser V as king of Assyria.
*721 BCShabaka succeeds his father Piye as king of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.
*720 BCShabaka kills Bakenranef (Bocchoris), ending the Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt
*720 BC — Death of Zhou ping wang, king of the Zhou Dynasty of China
* 715 BCOsorkon IV dies, ending the Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt.
* 713 BC — Birth of semi-legendary Zamolxis in Dacia

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

* Chinese record solar eclipseFact|date=February 2007.
* Demotic writing appeared in Ancient Egypt.

Decades and years

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