Motivation in second language learning
Motivation is often defined as a psychological trait which leads people to achieve a goal. For language learners, mastery of a language may be a goal. For others,
communicative competenceor even basic communication skills could be a goal. In linguistics, sociolinguisticsand second language acquisition, a number of language learner motivation models have been postulated. Work by Gardner, Clément, Dörnyei, Usioda and McIntyre are perhaps most known if not all accepted.
Gardner's socio-educational model
While Gardner (1982) identified a number of factors which are involved when learning a
second language(L2), it was earlier work by Gardner and Lambert (1959) which laid the foundations for the model. Gardner (1982) attempts to interrelate four features of second language acquisition: the social and cultural milieu, individual learner differences, the setting and context. In Gardner's model, one of the most influential in second language acquisition are the four individual differences: intelligence, language aptitude, motivation, and situational anxiety.
Revised socio-education model
Gardner (2001) presents a schematic representation of this model. There are four sections, external influences, individual differences, language acquisition contexts, and outcomes. In the socio-educational model, motivation to learn the second language includes three elements. First, the motivated individual expends effort to learn the language. Second, the motivated individual wants to achieve a goal. Third, the motivated individual will enjoy the task of
Role of motivation in language learning
"Integrative Motivation": Cookes & Schmidt (1991) identified as the learner's orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. It means that learner's positive attitudes towards the
target languagegroup and the desire to integrate into the target language community. "Instrumental Motivation": Hudson (2000) characterised the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language. Instrumental motivation underlies the goal to gain some social or economic reward through L2 achievement.
Integrative Motivation from the Socio-Educational Model
The one who is integratively motivated to learn the second language has a desire to identify with another language community, and tends to evaluate learning situation positively and accurately.
ocial psychological model
Willingness to communicate
Second language acquisition
*Clément, R. (1980). Ethnicity, Contact and Communicative Competence in a Second Language in H. Giles, W.p. Robinson & P.M. Smith (Eds.) "Language: Social psychological perspective". Toronto: Pergamon Press.
*Cookes, G., & Schmidt R. W. (1991). Motivation:Reopening the research agenda. "Language Learning", 41(4), 469-512.
* Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Understanding L2 Motivation: On with the Challenge! The "Modern Language Journal, 78", 515-523.
* Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. London: Longman. (pages 85-100, the 'Process Model').
*Gardner, R.C. (1982). Language attitudes and language learning. In E. Boudhard Ryan & H. Giles, Attitudes towards language bariation (pp. 132-147). Edward Arnold.
*Gardner, R.C. (2001). [http://studentorgs.utexas.edu/flesa/tpfle/contents1.doc Language Learning Motivation: the Student, the Teacher, and the Researcher.] "Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education", 6, 1-18.
*Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W.E. (1959). Motivational Variables in Second-Language Acquisition. "Canadian Journal of Psychology 13": 266-272.
*Hudson, G. (2000). "Essential introductory linguistics". Blackwell Publishers.
*MacIntyre, P.D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K.A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in an L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82 (4), 545-562.
*Usioda, E. (2003). Motivation as a socially mediated process. In Little, D., Ridley, J. & Ushioda, E. (Eds), "Learner autonomy in the foreign language classroom": Teacher, learner, curriculum and assessment (pp. 90-102). Dublin: Authentik.
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