1191


1191

Events

* April 14Pope Celestine III succeeds Pope Clement III as the 175th pope.
* April 17Tusculum is destroyed by the Commune of Rome's army.
* May 12Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre.
* July 12Saladin's garrison surrenders, ending the two-year siege of Acre. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and of the Third Crusade leaders Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Leopold V of Austria on the city's walls and towers.
* September 7Third Crusade: Battle of ArsufRichard I of England defeats Saladin.
* November 27Reginald fitz Jocelin is elected Archbishop of Canterbury.
* Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor is crowned by Pope Celestine III.
* The monks of Glastonbury Abbey announce that they have found the burial sites of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere.
* Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founds the city of Berne (present-day Switzerland).
* Khmer King Jayavarman VII sacks the capital of Champa.
* Eisai founds the Rinzai Zen sect in Japan.
* The first reference to the windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills supposedly were in competition with the abbey of Bury St Edmunds; although hinted as being created as early as the 7th century, the first windmills were most likely innovated from the Bana Musa brothers in the Islamic Middle East during the middle 9th century; the windmill was introduced to China by as early as 1219.

Births

* February 8Yaroslav II of Russia (d. 1246)

Deaths

* March 20Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia (b. 1167)
* March 27Pope Clement III
* December 26Reginald fitz Jocelin, Archbishop-elect of Canterbury
* William V, Marquess of Montferrat, Burgundian crusader (b. c. 1115)

In Popular Culture

* The video game Assassin's Creed is set in this year.


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