Eleanor "Tussy" Marx (
16 January 1855– 31 March 1898) was a Marxist author, political activist, and literary translator. She was the youngest daughter of the founder of Marxism, Karl Marx.
London, she was the sixth daughterBrodie, Fran: [http://www.workersliberty.org/node/7356 Eleanor Marx] in "Workers' Liberty". Retrieved April 23, 2007.] of Marx and his wife Jenny von Westphalen. She was called "Tussy" from a young age. She showed an early interest in politics, even writing to political figures during her childhood. [http://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/m/a.htm#marx-eleanor Marx Family] in " Encyclopedia of Marxism. Retrieved April 23, 2007."] The hanging of the " Manchester Martyrs" when she was twelve, for example, horrified her and shaped her life-long sympathy for the Fenians. Her father's story-telling also inspired an interest in literature in her, she could recite passages by William Shakespeareat the age of three. [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wmarx.htm Eleanor Marx] in " Spartacus Educational". Retrieved April 23, 2007.]
At the age of sixteen, Eleanor became her father's
secretaryand accompanied him around the world to socialist conferences. A year later, she fell in love with Hippolyte Lissagaray, a journalist and member of the Paris Commune, who had had to flee to London after the Commune's suppression. Although he agreed with the man politically, Karl Marx disapproved of the relationship because of the large age gap between the two, Lissagaray being 34 years old. Eleanor then moved away from home to Brightonworking as a schoolteacher. A year later she helped Lissagaray write "History of the Commune of 1871". Her father liked the book enough to translate it into English, while still disapproving of his daughter's relationship with its author. By 1880, Karl changed his view, however, allowing her to marry him, but her second thoughts led her to terminate the relationship in 1882.
In the early 1880s, she had to nurse her aging parents, but her mother died in December 1881 and her father in March 1883. He gave her the task of taking care of the publication of his unfinished manuscripts and the
English languageversion of his main work, "Capital".
In 1884, she joined the
Social Democratic Federation(SDF) led by Henry Hyndmanand was elected to its executive. During her work in the SDF, she met Edward Aveling, with whom she would spend the rest of her life. In the same year, a split of the organisation led her to leave it and found the rival Socialist League. The split had two root causes: personality problems, as Hyndman was accused of leading the SDF in a dictatorial fashion, and disagreements on the issue of internationalism. In this point Hyndman was accused by Marx among others of nationalist tendencies. He was, for example, opposed to Marx's idea of sending delegates to the French Workers' Partycalling the proposal a "family manoeuvre", since Eleanor Marx' sister Laura and her husband Paul Lafarguewere members of that party. Therefore, both Marx and Aveling became founding members of the Socialist League, whose most prominent member was William Morris.
Marx regularly wrote in the League's monthly newspaper, "Commonweal", on women's issues. In 1885, she helped organize the International Socialist Congress in
Paris. The following year, she toured the United States along with Aveling and the German socialist Wilhelm Liebknecht, raising money for the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The Socialist League would only exist until 1889. Anarchists, to whose influence Marx was bitterly opposed, entered it in large numbers, which led to a split and eventually the end of the organisation.
In 1884, Marx also met
Clementina Black, a painter and trade unionist, and became involved in the Women's Trade Union League. She would go on to support numerous strikes including the Bryant & May strikeof 1888 and the London Dock Strike of 1889. She helped organise the Gasworkers' Union and wrote numerous books and articles.
In the 1880s, Marx became more interested in theatre and took up acting. She believed in the art as a socialist and feminist tool. She also translated various literary works, including the first English translation of
Gustave Flaubert's " Madame Bovary". She also translated Henrik Ibsen's " The Lady from the Sea" and " An Enemy of the People". [ [http://gfdl.marxists.org.uk/archive/eleanor-marx/index.htm Eleanor Marx bibliography] on marxists.org. Retrieved April 23, 2007.] In 1886, she performed a groundbreaking if critically unsuccessful reading of Ibsen's A Doll's Housein London, with herself as Nora Helmer, Aveling as Torvald Helmer, and George Bernard Shawas Krogstad.Ronald Florence, "Marx's Daughters", New York: Dial Press, 1975]
Keir Hardiefounded the Independent Labour Party(ILP), Marx attended the founding conference as an observer, while Aveling was a delegate. Their goal of shifting the ILP's positions towards Marxism failed, however, as the party remained under a strong Christian socialist influence. In 1897, Marx and Aveling re-joined the Social Democratic Federation, like most former members of the Socialist League.
Unlike her father, she considered herself
Jewish, took an interest in her Jewish ancestors, and had a warm appreciation for the Jewish workers in the East End of London. [ Encyclopaedia Judaica, art. Marx, Karl Heinrich]
In 1898, she discovered Aveling had secretly married a young actress. He proposed a
suicide pact, which he never intended to follow through. Instead, he supplied her with prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide), which she then used to kill herself, and left the house. He was widely reviled for his actions, but an inquest cleared him of criminal liability. Aveling died four months later.
* [http://www.marxists.org/archive/eleanor-marx/index.htm Eleanor Marx Internet Archive] , at
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Wmarx.htm Spartacus on Eleanor Marx]
* [http://www.womenofbrighton.co.uk/eleanormarx.htm Eleanor Marx on Women of Brighton site]
* [http://www.geocities.com/socialistparty/LabHist/EMarx.htm Socialist Party archives: Eleanor Marx]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Eleanor Marx — Jenny Julia Eleanor Marx (genannt Tussy) (* 16. Januar 1855 in London; † 31. März 1898 in London) war eine deutsch englische Sozialistin und jüngste Tochter von Jenny und Karl Marx … Deutsch Wikipedia
Eleanor Marx — Éléanor Marx Pour les articles homonymes, voir Aliénor. Eleanor Marx Éléanor Marx, né le 16 janvier 1855 … Wikipédia en Français
Éléanor Marx — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Aliénor. Eleanor Marx Eleanor Marx, née le 16 janvier 1855 à Londres en An … Wikipédia en Français
MARX, KARL — (1897–1966), German editor and publisher. Born in Saarlouis, Marx served in the German army in World War I and then worked as a freelance writer for the Havas news agency. He was prominent in politics during the Weimar period, particularly… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Marx (Familienname) — Marx ist ein Familienname. Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z … Deutsch Wikipedia
Marx (surname) — Marx is a surname, and may refer to: In politics: Karl Marx, German philosopher Eleanor Marx, politically active daughter of Karl Marx Laura Marx, daughter of Karl Marx and wife of Paul Lafargue Wilhelm Marx, German politician and Chancellor Marx … Wikipedia
Marx — Karl Marx Unterschrift Karl Heinrich Marx (* 5. Mai 1818 in Trier; † 14. März 1883 in London) war … Deutsch Wikipedia
Marx, Karl — ▪ German philosopher Introduction in full Karl Heinrich Marx born May 5, 1818, Trier, Rhine province, Prussia [Germany] died March 14, 1883, London revolutionary, sociologist, historian, and economist. He published (with Friedrich Engels)… … Universalium
Eleanor — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Eleanor imagesize= caption= pronunciation= gender = Female meaning = the other (Aenor) region = origin = Provençal/French related names = footnotes = Eleanor (also Elinor, Eleanore, or Elynor) is a female given… … Wikipedia
MARX AND ENGELS: THE FOUNDERS OF MARXISM — ■ The following lists of writings are not comprehensive but do include all the major works. In particular they do not include the numerous articles written for such publications as the Neue Rheinische Zeitung and the New York Daily Tribune.… … Historical dictionary of Marxism