Venda language


Venda language
Venda
Tshivenḓa
Spoken in  South Africa
 Zimbabwe
Region Limpopo Province
Native speakers 1.1 million  (2006)
Language family
Niger–Congo
  • Atlantic–Congo
Writing system Latin
Official status
Regulated by No official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ve
ISO 639-2 ven
ISO 639-3 ven

Venda, also known as Tshivenḓa, or Luvenḓa, is a Bantu language and an official language of South Africa. The majority of Venda speakers live in South Africa, but there are also speakers in Zimbabwe. The Venda language is related to Kalanga (Western Shona, different from Shona, official language of Zimambwe) which is spoken in Botswana and Zimbabwe. During the Apartheid era of South Africa, the bantustan of Venda was set up to cover the Venda speakers of South Africa.

Contents

Classification

Venda belongs to the Bantu branch of the Niger–Congo languages.

Geographic distribution

Geographical distribution of Tshivenda in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Tshivenda at home.
  0–20%
  20–40%
  40–60%
  60–80%
  80–100%
Geographical distribution of Tshivenda in South Africa: density of Tshivenda home-language speakers.
  <1 /km²
  1–3 /km²
  3–10 /km²
  10–30 /km²
  30–100 /km²
  100–300 /km²
  300–1000 /km²
  1000–3000 /km²
  >3000 /km²

Venda is spoken by about 666,000 people in the northern part of South Africa's Limpopo Province, as well as 84,000 people in Zimbabwe.


Writing system

The Venda language uses the Latin alphabet with 5 additional accented letters—there are 4 consonants with circumflex below the letter (, , , ) and an overdot (). The letters C, J and Q are used only in quoting foreign words and names.

The Venda alphabet
A a B b (C c) D d Ḓ ḓ E e F f
G g H h I i (J j) K k L l Ḽ ḽ
M m N n Ṋ ṋ Ṅ ṅ O o P p (Q q)
R r S s T t Ṱ ṱ U u V v W w
X x Y y Z z
letter(s) value(s) in IPA notes
a [a]
b [b]
bv [b̪v]
bw [bɣw] or [bj] Varies by dialect
d [d]
dz [d͡z]
dzh [d͡ʒ] Similar to English "j"
dzw [d͡zw]
[d̪]
e [ɛ], [e]
f [f]
fh [ɸ]
g [ɡ]
h [ɦ], [h] Pronounced h] before e.
hw [ɣw]
i [i]
k [kˀ]
kh [kʰ]
khw [kʰw]
l [ɭ]
[l̪]
m [m], [m̩] M is syllabic, [m̩], when the following syllable begins with m.
n [n], [n̩] N is syllabic, when the following syllable begins with n.
ng [ŋɡ]
ny [ɲ]
nz [nd͡z]
[n̪]
[ŋ]
ṅw [ŋw]
o [ɔ], [o]
p [pˀ]
ph [pʰ]
pf [p̪f]
pfh [p̪fʰ]
r [ɾ]
s [s]
sh [ʃ]
sw [ʂ]
t [tˀ]
th [tʰ]
ts [t͡s]
tsh [t͡ʃʰ]
tsw [t͡sw]
ty [c]
[t̪]
ṱh [t̪h]
u [u]
v [v]
vh [β]
w [w]
x [x] Similar to the ch in Scottish 'loch.'
y [j]
z [z]
zh [ʒ]
zw [ʐ]

Unicode

The extra letters have the following Unicode names

  • U+1E12 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER D WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E13 LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E3C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E3D LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E44 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE
  • U+1E45 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH DOT ABOVE
  • U+1E4A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E4B LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E70 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW
  • U+1E71 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH CIRCUMFLEX BELOW


References


External links

Software


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Venda (disambiguation) — Venda may refer to: * Venda people a tribe in Northern South Africa * Venda language the language they speak * Venda the former bantustan for the Venda people …   Wikipedia

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  • Venda — Infobox Former Country native name = Venda conventional long name = Republic of Venda common name = Venda continent = Africa region = Southern Africa country = South Africa status = Bantustan empire = event start = Self government year start =… …   Wikipedia

  • Venda people — For other uses of the term Venda, please see Venda (disambiguation). Venda Total population 600 000[1] 1 000 000[2] Regions with significant populations …   Wikipedia

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  • Venda — [ vɛndə] noun (plural same or Vendas) 1》 a member of a people living in Limpopo province in South Africa and southern Zimbabwe. 2》 the Bantu language of the Venda. Origin from the stem of Venda Muvenda (in sense 1), Tshivenda (in sense 2) …   English new terms dictionary

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  • language — I (New American Roget s College Thesaurus) System of communication Nouns 1. language, tongue, lingo, vernacular, mother tongue, protolanguage; living or dead language; idiom, parlance, phraseology; wording; dialect, patois, cant, jargon, lingo,… …   English dictionary for students

  • Venda do Pinheiro — Original name in latin Venda do Pinheiro Name in other language State code PT Continent/City Europe/Lisbon longitude 38.92365 latitude 9.23178 altitude 263 Population 4950 Date 2011 08 28 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Venda — I. noun Date: 1908 a Bantu language spoken by a people of Northern province, Republic of South Africa; also a member of this people II. geographical name former black enclave in the Republic of South Africa capital Thohoyandou; granted… …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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