England, township (latin - "vill") usually means a village or hamlet. A township may (or may not) be co-terminous with a chapelry, manor, or other minor area of local administration.
In many areas of England, the basic unit of civil administration was the
parish, generally identical with the ecclesiastical parish. However in some cases, particularly in northern England, there was a lesser unit called a township, being a subdivision of a parish. This could happen for several reasons:
*In some parts of northern England, the parishes were too large to be managed conveniently. For example,
Sheffieldconstituted a single parish, which had six townships in it - Ecclesall Bierlow, Brightside Bierlow, Attercliffe cum Darnall, Nether Hallam, Upper Hallam, and Sheffield itself. Walley parish, in Lancashire, contained 47 townships and extended over 430 square kilometres (105,000 acres). cite book
title=The Rural Landscape of the Welsh Borderland
*There or elsewhere, occasionally, different parts of a parish were in different hundreds or counties.
The local historian, Dorothy Silvester, has identified a "parish line", which divided northern from southern counties of England and Wales (from Denbighshire,
Shropshire, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire, north.) North of this line, parishes tended on the whole to be large, containing several townships. However, south of this line, parishes tended to contain single townships. [cite book
title= Discovering Parish Boundaries
pages=pp. 8-10 ]
A township appointed overseers of the poor and surveyors of
highways in the same way as a parish and they financed their obligations by levying a rate, in the same way as parish officials.
The original definition of a
Civil Parishwas any place in respect of which a rate could lawfully be levied. This meant that townships became civil parishes.
Township is to be distinguished from:
Vill- traditionally, amongst legal historians, a vill referred to the tract of land of a rural community, whereas 'township' was referred to when the tax and legal administration of a rural community was meant.cite book
title= Discovering Parish Boundaries
pages=pp. 21-29 ]
Parish- originally the area served by a particular church.
Chapelry- the 'parish' of a chapel, that is a church without full parochial functions.
Tithing- the basic unit of the medieval Frankpledgesystem.
*'Township' is however sometimes used loosely where one of these is meant.
The use of the term township persisted, and townships have recently been revived as a name for subdivisions of boroughs in northern England. For example, the
Metropolitan Borough of Rochdalehas township committees, [ [http://www.rochdale.gov.uk/PublicServices/Council.asp?URL=towns Rochdale Townships] ] and the Metropolitan Borough of Wigandivides the borough into ten townships, which each have a township forum. [ [http://www.wiganmbc.gov.uk/pub/partnership/township/ Wigan Townships] ] Wirral is divided into forty-four, for planning purposes. [ [http://www.wirral.gov.uk/planning/tshipsinfo.htm Wirral] ]
In Sheffield, Mosborough ward—which includes the districts of Halfway, Mosborough village, Waterthorpe, and Westfield—is one of the 28 electoral wards in City of Sheffield,located in the eastern part of the city and is one of the wards that make up the Sheffield Attercliffe parliamentary constituency. The area is often referred to as Mosborough Townships, although this usage does not have any administrative purpose.
*P. Riden, "Record Sources for Local History" (Batsford, London 1987), 92-99.
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