List of Silat styles

Silat (also called Pencak Silat) refers to a family of martial arts native to Southeast Asia. Silat is the combative art of fighting and survival believed to have originated from ancient Malaysian and Indonesian civilizations.Fact|date=January 2008 The definition of the word silat varies from one guru or cikgu (teacher) to another. The Malay dictionary defines silat as a seni (art) with the intelligence to attack and defend gracefully.Fact|date=January 2008 Another definition defines silat as the Malay art and science of armed and unarmed combat. Yet another meaning of silat is simply “to ward off”. There are various styles of silat.

In Indonesia, the art is commonly referred to as pentjak silat. Pentjak silat, also spelled pencak silat, means to defend oneself. In Malaysia, the words silat or seni silat are frequently used rather than pencak silat.

Some silat are performed with Malay drums or other musical instruments while more vigorous and less rhythmic silat are not. Whichever silat style, each is unique and stands on its very own. To assume that they are all similar is oversimplification. Training in silat includes cultural, spiritual, and mental aspects as well as tumbling, striking, kicking, blocking and agility movements. Many movements are described by names. Some are poetic, some are named after an animal’s movement, and some are metaphors.

It is not easy to trace back the history of pencak silat because written documentation is limited and oral information handed down from the guru or masters cannot fully answer all the riddles. In particular, it is very complicated to determine when and from where pencak silat begun, and who pioneered its spreading. Still, all the experts believe that our Malay ancestors created and used pencak silat as self-defense technique already in prehistoric times.

There are many myths and legends about the origin of pencak silat that stress the role of nature on the development of self-defense techniques in the archipelago. Although the historical value of such myths can be questioned, from an anthropological point of view they are worth attention since they express people's explanations of a certain cultural phenomena. In this case, pencak silat is considered an integral part and at the same time product of the surrounding environments. All these myths concur that pencak silat was inspired by nature. Our ancestors spontaneously developed their self-defense techniques by observing natural phenomena that occurred in their daily life.

In Indonesia

Harimurti

A traditional Javanese Martial Art from Kraton Yogyakarta. This form of martial arts was taught outside Royal Palace by RM Harimurti (Raden Rio Tedjonegoro). The school was formally organized in October 1932 by one of his students, Suko Winadi. The school consists unarmed art of defence, traditional weaponry, etc.

Silat Tuo Minangkabau

Traditional Dance, Healing & Martial Arts of Sumatra, Indonesia. Silat Tuo includes the silat styles of Seni Silat Haqq, Kumango Silat, Pauh Silat, Lintao Silat, Sterlak Silat, Harimau Silat, and Minangkabau Silat among others.

WaliSongo Silat

A traditional Indonesian Silat combining comprehensive groundwork, strikes, grappling & weapons. The kembangan (flower dance) plays a central role in this system.

PSTD

Pencak Silat Tenaga Dasar was founded in 1987 and headed by Kak Jimmy Thaibsyah. Sponsor by Bambang Trihatmodjo and Rosano Barack within the Bimantara Group in Indonesia.

Tapak Suci - Putera Muhammadiyah

This is a well-known silat aliran. It's spreading over the world especially through Indonesian immigrants in Netherland or through Muhammadiyah branches all over the world. The typical styles of Tapak Suci are red uniforms and Islamic way of philosophy. Nowadays, The Perguruan Tapak Suci is one of the biggest perguruan in Indonesia.

Persatuan Pencak Silat Inti Ombak

Indonesian Pencak Silat base on mataram and madura style teach internal and external aspect of human body by Daniel Prasetya

Persatuan Gerak Badan

(also known as PGB or Bangau Putih) was founded in 1952 in Bogor and has branches in Europe, North America and the Middle East

Silek Tuo and Silek Harimau

traditional old styles from the Minangkabau people in West Sumatra meaning "Old Silek" and "Tiger Silek"

Pencak Silat Pertempuran

A silat style compose of Pencak Silat Pamur and Sterlak Silat primarily. Other Indo-Malay silat influences include: Seni Bela Diri Silat Jati Wisesa, and Raja Monyet Silat. It translates to Combat Silat.

Bunga Cantik Pencak Silat

Pencak Silat style from Sacramento, California.Group performs 4 Annual demonstrations State wide and has a private school located in Sacramento.Bunga Cantik Pencak Silat belongs to the Suwanda Academy, A.O.P.S.A ( Association of Pencak Silat America), Liahona Warrior Arts, The Napal Pencak Silat Organization and The Indonesian Pencak Silat Society, located in Bali.

Perguruan Pencak Silat Padjadjaran Nasional

Traditional west-java styles are combined in this aliran.

Pencak Silat Qutuz

Muslim Silat, the core Silat of Tactical Combat Management Systems.

Pukulan Bongkot

Pencak Silat Pukulan Bongkot based mainly on Serak, Cimande and Derosemo, with the adding of some elements of Panca Bela.

Pukulan Pentjak Silat Serak (or Pukulan Pentjak Silat Sera)

A system founded by Pak Sera and expanded by Mas Djoet. Several regional variations exist.

Merpati Putih

A silat styles that origin in 1550. The branches are widespread throughout the world, USA, Netherlands and other nations besides Indonesia. [ [http://mpusa.50megs.com/ Merpati Putih Usa Group ] ] [ [http://www.mp-usa.org/ MP USA Landing Page ] ]

Paguron Penca Silat Nampon

Martial art with double functions self defense and the usage possessing the characteristics of Inner Energy. Nampon - Syahbandar - Kari - Madi movements basically returns each opponent’s attack, pull, push and return with a counter attack. Founded by Nampon 1932, The major study consists of 10 steps , mixing the combination of various body movements and the waves bursts of the senses, thus developing into an art of defence. The uniqueness of Nampon-Trirasa , it possesses 2 characteristics; the reflexive movement of self-defense with the movement of art performance, commonly known as Ibing Penca Silat.

Bakti Negara

This is one of the most important styles of Pencak Silat from Bali.

Bukti Negara

This is a modern, modified style of Sera designed by Serak lineage holder Pendekar Paul de Thouars.

Perisai Diri

The official National Silat of Java, Indonesia, Perisai Diri (PD) is, according to its founder, Pak Dirdjo, silat asli Melayu, that is, native or original silat in the sense of being a Malay-Muslim art of self-defense. Pak Dirdjo admits that PD is an eclectic system that combines different methods of combat selected from various ethno-cultural sources which have influenced the development of Indonesian culture since at least as early as the seventh century AD, and Pak Dirdjo himself spent fourteen years studying a Chinese martial art with a Chinese Sifu called Yap Kie San, in Parakan, Banyumas Regency.

Cimande

Along with Sera (monkey style) Pamacan (tiger style) and Trumbu (stick fighting) are styles of Pencak Silat founded by Embah Kahir in the late 1700's in West Java. These arts still exist in some villages located on the Cimande River, including the village of Tarik Kolot. Today there are over 300 variations of Cimande.

Pukulan Cimande Pusaka

Pukulan Cimande Pusaka is a style of Pencak Silat developed and taught by Pendekar William Sanders.

"Pukulan" denotes "hitting" or "striking". "Cimande" is a well known style of Pencak Silat in Western Java. "Pusaka" can be translated as "sacred heirloom".

Pukulan Cimande Pusaka is a full-range martial art. It includes the use of several weapons, fighting while in a grounded position, grappling and multiple opponents training. The style of fighting is distinguished by free flowing, writhing movements, off-timing, integrated footwork and draw stance strategies, a close fighting position and fast continuous hitting. The strategy is to close with the opponent such that it is possible to sweep them to the ground in a violent way, then follow this attack with some kind of finishing technique. There is heavy emphasis on attacking the limbs of the opponent, and delivering fast disorienting strikes to the face, followed by more substantial strikes to the head and body.

The style is organized around the use of five primary animal techniques- monkey, tiger, snake, crane and dragon. The monkey portion of the style uses slaps, grabs, punches and elbows, changing position from high to low. The tiger utilizes a very low stance, and seeks to smash the opponents limbs and drag him down to continue the fight on the ground. The tiger also fights in a full supine position. The snake style comes in two varieties, cobra and python. The cobra style uses half-fists to deliver fast strikes to the eyes and soft body tissues, and the python attempts to strike then wrap the opponent's limbs, preparing to throw them. the crane style uses high stances and leaps, together with open hand strikes. The dragon is a synthesis of the other four animals, together with a strategy of deployment which emphasizes internal techniques and highly deceptive movements.

The movements of the art are also taught according to a method which supposedly leads to an increase in 'tenaga dalam'(energy)in the body.

Pukulan Cimande Pusaka also has a system of meditation and metaphysical development which includes meditations designed to draw the four elements (water, earth, fire, air) into the body for various combative and spiritual purposes, and the practice of animal spirit possession, in order to aid fighting skill. Mantras and magic circles are used, along with a highly developed system of visualization and breathing.

The style is based on the four primary sources, representing Pendekar Sander's primary teachers-

Poekelan Tjimande- This is the style of Pencak Silat propagated by Willy Wetzel, a Dutch-Indonesian immigrant to the United States. A handful of schools in the United States teach variations of 'Poekelan' as it is also known. Pendekar William Sanders initially studied this style under the direction of Guru John Malter, a direct student of Master Wetzel.

Cimande Tarik Kolot- The style Pukulan Cimande Pusaka is inclusive of the art of Cimande as taught in the village of Tarik Kolot by Pendekar Mama Sukarmo, who traces a direct lineage to Embah Kahir.

Cimande Combinasi- This is a style created by Mas Jud in the twentieth century, based upon traditional Cimande, Cikalong, the five animal silat styles, and other sources. It is currently taught by Mas Jud's descendants living on Java in the town of Cilisuk.

Ilmu Surapati- Pendekar Sartono claims inheritance of a lineage of Ilmu (mystical science) which traces its origin to Untung Surapati.

The name "Pusaka" was given to the art by the late Pendekar Suryadi Jafri, who together with Pendekar Sirait were also influential in creating the style.

Pendekar Sanders currently live in the United States. Pukulan Cimande Pusaka is practiced in several countries around the world. Active clubs can be found in the US, England, Ireland, Spain, Holland and Russia.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pukulan_Cimande_Pusaka"

Pencak Silat Mande Muda

This is a West Javanese Silat style.

In Malaysia

Silat Kalimah

It is believed to have been founded in 512 AH (Hijrah Year), which is 1118 AD. It is believed to have been taught to the Sultan of Kedah's family in the year 1556 AD, during the era of the 'Old Kedah Dynasty' (before Malacca). It was a secret art of the Sultan's family for centuries before it was finally open to the public by the late Pak Yahya Said in 1963.

Silat Angin

Silat Angin literally translates to "Silat of the Wind" is a martial art that originated in the Kedah region north of Malaysia. The style viciously combines the weaponry of Seni Gayong, the Knees and Elbows of Muay Thai (It's close neighbors), the deceptive hands of Wing Chun, and the energy drills of YiQuan(from the Chinese ancestry of the Founder). It was labeled as "Angin" or wind because of the styles dramatic flexibility. This style was founded by Yap Mat in 1977.


=Seni Gayung Fatani Malaysia=

A Malaysian silat originate from the Fatani Province in Southern Thailand and one of the four reputedly largest silat school of Malaysia.

Gayung Malaysia

Among the earliest silat style registered as an organization with diverse philosophy and one of the four reputedly largest silat school of Malaysia.

Gayung Combat

A type of silat practiced in Malaysian Armed Forces which derive from Gayung Malaysia.


=Silat Cekak Malaysia=

Seni Silat Cekak is a self defense (Silat) which is can be counted upon to preserve life. It is not a style of silat which is ceremonious in nature used for performances such as Silat Pulut or Silat Pengantin. As such, Silat Cekak does not have any musical accompaniment such as the traditional Malay drum or Gendang and does not perform graceful dance-like movements. It does not utilize any evading nor side stepping techniques, whether to the left or right, in mortal combat. It deals with hostile aggression head on and is a combat oriented art. It is more to defensive-type of silat. The movements or counter-attacks of this silat is quite unpredictable. Silat Cekak was originated from Kedah and widely spread by Ustaz Hanafi bin Hj. Ahmad

Silat Lincah

Originate from another Malaysian system called Silat Tarah. The name Tarah could not be use because it was considered too aggressive for widespread use, so it was changed to Lincah. Tarah means to sever as in cut off. Lincah means fast and aggressive which is the principle of the style.

Silat Teralak Asli

Become one of the largest silat in Kelantan and a different kind of silat because it is more specific in 'tapak' to defent the skill and very fast movement to step forward when attacking and defending. Among it unique name are Starlak and Sterlak. It is more to 'terlatah' in counter-attack. This style is said originated from Kamang, Agam Regency of West Sumatra by Ulud Bagindo Chatib (1865). From there it spread to the Indonesian archipelago and to Semenanjung (Malaysia). The founder or "Grand Master" of the Starlak style was Tuanku Syech Habibullah (master of tarekat/sufism). It is not to be used for competition, but rather for self defense and spiritual growth. One important difference the Starlak didn't use any "bungo" or flower movements, it is straight forward.

Silat Ikhtiar

Self defense system from Malaysia with influences from Indo/Malay Silat styles and other Asian styles. It is being practiced in several states of Malaysia. It deals with the most common attacks and works around 3 basic responses that include the use of target strikes, identification of risk situations and avoidance, identifying target areas on an attacker’s body. The system is focused on modern day situations. Also teaches the official Silat Ikhtiar self-defence weapon Duri and Badek.

Seni Silat Bongsu

It is said, from the oral traditions of the elders, the progenitor of this style was Tuan Sheikh Ali, an Islamic scholar and master of Islamic studies who visited the Sumatran Islands long before its foreign occupation. Aside from spreading and teaching Islam to the locals, he also taught them a martial art form which he developed based on inspirations and experience. The final development in this style is the level named Silat Bongsu, which is the most simplified and versatile form. Silat Bongsu is the core of the total understanding of all Silat styles founded by Tuan Sheikh Ali and also known as the ‘Ibu Silat’. Seni Silat Bongsu has now become the first level of instruction in [http://www.senisilat.net/english Pertubuhan Seni Silat Telapak Nusantara Malaysia] .

Other silat systems

Maphilindo Silat

This is a Silat style founded by Dan Inosanto to honors his Silat teachers. It is composed of styles from Malaysia (Ma), the Philippines (Phil) and Indonesia (Indo). There are only 18 instructors in the world who are certified in this style.

Filipino SilatSilat is also prominent in Mindanao, south of the Philippine Islands. Various forms of silat that specialize in weapons handling and blade fighting are present. Such forms are known as Moro Intuitive Silat, Kuntao Silat, Silat Angin, Silat Asli, Silat Mongoose

AMOK!

It is the name given to a system of martial arts, grounded in eskrima, silat and Filipino Martial Arts. The AMOK! system was created, refined and developed by Tom Sotis, the head of the International Blade Fighters' Guild.

Piper System or Cape Knife Fighting

A blend of Malay Silat brought by slaves (Malay, Indonesian and Javanese) in the 17th century South Africa and the fighting system (stick, club, shield, spear and dagger) of the Zulu warriors.

Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen

Poekoelan Tjimindie Tulen is a martial art which fuses Indonesian Silat and Chinese Kung Fu. It was brought from Indonesia to America in 1956 by the Dutch-Indonesian Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy John Christopher Wetzel. It was also taught by his son Roy Wetzel, and continues to flourish through the leadership of Mas Goeroe Barbara Niggel, who studied with Mas Goeroe Agoeng Willy Wetzel from her childhood, and under whose guidance fourteen schools actively teach this art around the world.

References

External links

* [http://www.pukulan.com Pukulan, Pencak Silat and Kuntao Schools]
* [http://www.silatmelayu.com The Malaysian Martial Heritage]
* [http://www.kpsnusantara.com/rapid/rapid2.htm Bapak O’ong Maryono of KPS Nusantara]
* [http://www.martialartsgathering.com/silat.html Martial Arts Gathering]
* [http://www.silat-kalimah.com Persatuan Silat Kalimah Malaysia]
* [http://www.nampon.com/ Paguron Penca Silat Nampon]
* [http://www.silatsenigayong.com Silat Seni Gayong]
* [http://www.combat-silat.net/silatnow/articles.asp?menu=article&record=3 Gayong Combat]
* [http://sendiharimauperak.tripod.com/PSSPGM.html Pusaka Gayong]
* [http://www.silatcekak.org/ Persatuan Seni Silat Cekak Malaysia]
* [http://www.silatlincah.com.my Pertubuhan Seni Silat Lincah Malaysia]
* [http://rajasterlak.silat.4mg.com Pencak Silat Raja Sterlak]
* [http://www.ikhtiar.org Silat Ikhtiar]
* [http://www.senisilat.net/english Pertubuhan Seni Silat Telapak Nusantara Malaysia]
* [http://martialarts.com.my/community/modules/news/article.php?storyid=146 Silat Melayu, Malaysia Martial Arts]
* [http://www.aiaa.org.au/news/news3/silat.html Silat Pencak Diri in Australia]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Colosseum/Park/2941/ A Silat Fighter's Handbook]
* [http://www.dharmanusantara.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=27 Dharma Nusantara Pencak Silat Australia]


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