- Humid Pampa
The Humid Pampa ( _es. Pampa Húmeda) is an extensive region of flat, fertile
grasslandof loessic origin in Argentina. It has a precipitation average of 900 mm per year, in contrast with the Dry Pampas to the west, which average less than 700 mm. [ [http://www.worldwildlifefund.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0806_full.html WWF] ]
Pampasin general, the region's terrain is predominantly flatland and of a temperate climate, though rich mollisolsare more abundant here than to the west, where soils of loessic origin are more common. Except for a few bluffs near the Paraná and Río de la Platarivers, as well as the Ventana Sierras to the south, the region's slope rarely exceeds 6 degrees. It covers Buenos Aires Provincealmost completely, the centre and south of Santa Fe Province, most of Córdoba Province and the eastern third of La Pampa Province, totalling at least 600,000 km².
Uruguayan savanna, which lies east of these rivers in Entre Ríos Provinceof Argentina, Uruguayand the south of Brazil, is sometimes considered part of the Humid Pampa. The Uruguayan savanna is not as flat as the named aforementioned areas.
The flatlands are also interrupted by formations of low hills in a few places in the west, namely near Balcarce,
Olavarría, Tandiland, to the south, the higher system of the Sierra de la Ventananear Bahía Blanca. Finally, there are also some dunes at the Atlantic coast, such as at the city of Banderaló.
The area is characterised by four distinct seasons. The weather is usually temperate, very humid, and snowfalls are rare. The summer can be extremely humid and hot. Its natural vegetation comprises meadows of high grass with isolated forests (locally referred to as "montes") of algarrobos, talas and chanares, which used to be common in areas near the main rivers but have been mostly cut down during the 20th century. The weather of the area is similar to that of
European areas with natural dense forest of deciduoustrees, which is, however, absent from the Humid Pampa because the soil is too compact and not airy enough to favour the growth of large trees.
The Humid Pampa is characterized by medium-height grassland, with both perennial and annual grasses with scattered herbs and shrubs. The grasslands are interspersed with areas of dry
woodlandas well as freshwater and saltwater wetlands and lagoons.
ombú, considered an emblem of the Humid Pampa (and not a proper tree but a herb), grows naturally north of the Río de la Plata and east of the Paraná, seldom south of the Río de la Plata and never south of the Salado. Before the introduction of cattle, horses and sheep by the Spaniards on the 16th century, the region was covered by hard grass, but the animals' grazing facilitated the growth of softer, greener grass.
Due to the important immigration to Argentina in the second half of the 19th century and first decades of the 20th, and because the weather allowed for two annual harvests, the lands started being heavily used for agriculture, which made Argentina a major agricultural producer (the self-styled "Granary of the World"). Being fertile and close to the
Atlantic Ocean, the Humid Pampa was one of the preferred destinations of millions of immigrants, who were mostly Italian and Spanish, and who mixed with the gauchos and criollos.
The lands of the region were taken care of by the gauchos for centuries, and the region was the centre of their culture, including their music and dances.
Areas that were kept for breeding cattle and sheep extensively stayed under the control of large estates' owners, and in lesser number to medium-size estates, and in some cases also smaller farms, known as "chacras" (their owners being "chacareros" or "chacreros").
The urban population of Argentina (89% of its 38.6 million inhabitants, as estimated for 2005) is concentrated today in cities within the Humid Pampa (
Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosarioare the largest). In all, over 23 million Argentines live in this area, [ [http://www.indec.mecon.ar/ INDEC] ] home to over two-thirds of the Argentine economy. [ [http://www.iader.org.ar/ IADER] ]
Given the commercial and agricultural desirability of most of this area for the last 130 years [ [http://www.infobaeprofesional.com/notas/33634-El-biocombustible-dispara-el-valor-de-campos-argentinos.html?cookie Infobaires] ] , not much pristine land remains; but one of the best corners of unspoiled pampa is the
Otamendi Natural Preservenear Campana, Buenos Aires Province.
Established in 1990 on 2,600 hectares (10 mi2) of former grazing land, the parcel has become one of Argentina's chief points of interest in its
agrotourismcircuit. [ [http://www.welcomeargentina.com/parques/otamendi.html Otamendi] ]
* [http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0803_full.html Humid Pampa (World Wildlife Fund)]
* [http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0803.html Humid Pampas (National Geographic)]
* [http://www.welcomeargentina.com/parques/otamendi.html Otamendi Natural Preserve]
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