Wine Country (California)
The Wine Country is a region of
Northern Californiain the United Statesknown worldwide as a premium wine-growing region. ["Fodor's Escape to the Wine Country: California's Napa, Sonoma, and Mendocino", Publisher: Fodor's ISBN-10: 067900918307 (2002).] Viticultureand wine-making have been practiced in the region since the mid-19th century. There are over 400 wineries in the area north of San Francisco, mostly located in the area's valleys, including Napa Valley in Napa County, and the Sonoma Valley, Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, Bennett Valley and Russian River Valley in Sonoma County. Wine grapes are also grown at higher elevations, such as Atlas Peak and Mount Veeder AVAs. [ [http://wine.appellationamerica.com Appelation America.com] ] The region is defined not only in terms of viticulture, but also its ecology, geology, architecture, [Mary Whitesides, "Wine Country: Architecture and Interiors, Gibbs Smith Publishers, Layton, Utah (2004).] cuisine, [Michael Chiarello, "Michael Chiarello's Casual Cooking: Wine Country Recipes for Family and Friends", Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California.] and culture. [Molly Chappellet, "Gardens of the Wine Country", Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California.] The majority of the grape harvest, in terms of both area and value, derives from Sonoma County. [ [http://www.sonoma-county.org/edb/pdf/2007/Sonoma_County_indicators_2007.pdf Sonoma County Indicators: 2007] ]
Communities associated with the Wine Country include Kenwood, Healdsburg, Sonoma, Santa Rosa, Napa, Yountville, St. Helena, Calistoga, Geyserville, Petaluma, Sebastopol, Guerneville, historic
Fort Rossand Ukiah.
Wine Country proper is generally regarded as the combined counties of Napa, Sonoma and Mendocino. However, some reference works include part of Lake in the term "Wine Country". These counties contain the following
American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) [Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Part 9: American Viticultural Areas.] :
*in Mendocino County: Anderson Valley, Covelo, Mendocino, and Potter Valley.
*in Napa County: Atlas Peak, Los Carneros, Mount Veeder, Napa Valley, Oakville, Rutherford, Saint Helena, Stags Leap District, and Yountville.
*in Sonoma County: Alexander Valley, Bennett Valley, Chalk Hill, Dry Creek Valley, Green Valley of Russian River Valley, Knight's Valley, Los Carneros, Northern Sonoma, Rockpile, Russian River Valley, Sonoma Coast, Sonoma Mountain, and Sonoma Valley.
*in Lake County: Clear Lake, Guenoc Valley, High Valley, and Red Hills Lake County.
North Coast AVAoverlaps with the Wine Country as defined here. In addition, the names of the counties themselves are legal for use as appellation names [Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Section 4.25(a).] .
prehistoryof the Wine Country involves habitation by several Native American tribes since approximately 8000 BC. [Stewart, Suzanne B., "Time before Time: Prehistory and Archaeology in the Lake Sonoma Area". Sacramento, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1985.] The principal tribes living in this region were the Pomo, Coast Miwok, Wappoand Patwin, whose early peoples practiced certain forms of agriculture, but probably not involving the cultivation of grapes. During the MexicanColonial period and after, European settlers brought in more intensive agriculture to the Wine Country, including growing grapes and wine production. Some of the historical events that led to the establishment of California as a state transpired in the Wine Country. In particular, the town of Sonoma, is known as the birthplace of American California. Agoston Haraszthyis credited with being one of the forefathers of the California wineindustry in Sonoma by his planting of grapes in the lower Arroyo Seco Creekwatershed of Sonoma County. [Charles Sullivan, "Zinfandel: A History of a Grape and It's Wine", Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 2003.]
As home to both Buena Vista winery, California's oldest commercial winery, and Gundlach Bundschu winery, California's oldest family-run winery, the
Sonoma Valleyis known as the birthplace of the California wine industry.
A diversity of aquatic and terrestrial
organisms populate the Wine Country and its riparian zones. Winter-run Chinook salmon("Oncorhynchus tsawytscha"), Delta smelt("Hypomesus transpacificus") and steelhead("Onchorhynchus mykiss") are the most prominent fishes. Anadromousfish movements in Sonoma Creek and the Napa Riveras well as the Laguna de Santa Rosahave been studied extensively not only in the mainstems, but in many of the tributaries. These investigations have demonstrated a historical decline in spawning and habitat value for these species, primarily due to sedimentation"Sonoma Creek Watershed Limiting Factors Analysis", Sonoma Ecology Center, with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, December 2004.] and secondarily to removal of riparian vegetation since the 19th century.
A variety of
salamanders, snakes and frogsare also present in the Wine Country. The federally listed as threatened California red-legged frogis present in the northern reach draining the south slopes of Annadel State Park. [ San Francisco Bay Area Conservancy Program [http://openspacecouncil.org/projects/conservancy/baosc_conservancy_2004.11.09_fifth_year_report.pdf Fifth Year Report] pg 19 ] Several endangered species(mostly associated with the Napa Sonoma Marsh) present include California clapper rail("Rallus longirostris"), California Black Rail("Laterallus jamaicensis"), California brown pelican("Pelicanus occudentalis"), California freshwater shrimp (" Syncaris pacifica"), Salt marsh harvest mouse("Reithrodontomys raviventris" ), Suisun Shrew("Sorex ornatus sinuosus)", Sacramento splittail("Pogonichtys macrolepidotus"). The above are endangered specieswith the exception of the splittail, steelhead and black rail, which species are federally designated as Threatened. [ [http://sfep.abag.ca.gov/pdf/habitat_goals/Habitat_Goals%5BPart3%5D.pdf Baylands Ecosystem Habitat Goals] ]
Upland ecosystems drained include mixed
California oak woodland, chaparraland savannah woodland. [ [http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/ca162.htm California's woodlands] ] In these upland reaches one finds plentiful Black-tailed Deer, coyote, skunk, raccoon, opossum, wild turkey, turkey vulture, red-tailed hawkand occasionally bobcat and mountain lion. Prominent higher elevation trees include: Coast live oak, Garry Oak, Pacific madrone, California Buckeye, Douglas fir, whereas Valley oakis prevalent on the Wine Country valley floors. [ [http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr100/psw_gtr100d.pdf Wildlife:The Importance of Hardwood Habitat for Wildlife in California] , Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1987]
The Wine Country has undergone a boom in tourism. In 1975 there were only 25 Napa Valley wineries; today there are well over 400 wineries in Napa and Sonoma Counties. [http://www.fodors.com/miniguides/mgresults.cfm?destination=california_wine@211 Fodor's California Wine Country Online (2006)] ] Tourists come to the region not only for wine-tasting, but also for
hiking, bicycling, hot air ballooning, and historic sites, as well as the extensive culinary choices. Numerous notable chefs and restaurateurs are present in the Wine Country, including Thomas Keller, John Ash, and Sondra Bernstein. [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0743255216 Sondra Bernstein, "The Girl & the Fig Cookbook: More than 100 Recipes from the Acclaimed California Wine Country Restaurant"] ] Besides the obvious winery attractions, the Wine Country is known for its hot springsbaths, petrified forests and other natural areas.
The Wine Country tourism boom has its downside, exemplified by traffic congestion on State Route 29, particularly on summer weekends, when the number of tourists often exceeds the
carrying capacityof the road. The Napa Valley is also experiencing pressures for increased urbanization and roadway upgrading. [ [http://www.napatraffic.info/Trancas%2029.htm Trancas Road/Calfiornia State Route 29 Intersection Improvements] ]
* Photo gallery including the [http://sonomapicnic.com/color.htm geography and seasons of the Wine Country]
Mendocino County wine
Napa County wine
Sonoma County wine
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