Anti-psychiatry refers to a post-1960s configuration of groups and theoretical constructs hostile to most of the fundamental assumptions and practices of
psychiatry. Its igniting influences were Michel Foucault, R.D.Laing and Thomas Szasz.
The word "psychiatry" was invented by
Johann Christian Reilin 1808. Two central contentions of the anti-psychiatry movement are that:
#The specific definitions of, or criteria for, hundreds of current psychiatric diagnoses or disorders are vague and arbitrary, leaving too much room for opinions and interpretations to meet basic scientific standards. ["Mind games: are we obsessed with therapy?", authored by
CSICOPer Robert Baker ( Prometheus Books, 1996) contains a chapter critical of the DSM-IV diagnoses.]
#Current psychiatric treatments are ultimately far more damaging than helpful to patients.
Other common criticisms include: that psychiatry applies medical concepts and tools inappropriately to the mind and society; that it too often treats patients against their will; that it inappropriately excludes other approaches to mental distress/disorder; that its medical and ethical integrity is compromised by financial and professional links with
pharmaceutical companiesand insurance companies; that psychiatry uses a system of categorical diagnoses (e.g., " Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" or DSM) which is scientifically or clinically ill-founded, and which stigmatizes patients; further: that its attitude to patients is too often experienced as simply demeaning and controlling.
mental healthprofessionals as well as academics profess anti-psychiatry views [ [http://www.icspp.org ICSPP page] ] , as do a certain proportion of current or former users of psychiatric services. [See [http://www.mindfreedom.org/ MindFreedom International] and the Northampton-based [http://www.freedom-center.org/ Freedom Center] .] Some critics focus on the now prevalent form of biological psychiatry. [cite book
last = Pam
first = Alvin
title = "Biological psychiatry: science or pseudoscience?" in Colin Ross and Alvin Pam "Pseudoscience in Biological Psychiatry: Blaming the Body", NY: Wiley & Sons, pp. 7-84
year = 1995] [cite book
last = Valenstein
first = Elliot
title = Blaming the Brain: The Truth about Drugs and Mental Health
publisher = The Free Press
year = 1998] [cite book
last = Joseph
first = Jay
title = The Gene Illusion: Genetic Research in Psychiatry and Psychology Under the Microscope
publisher = Algora
location =New York, NY
url = http://www.algora.com/2004/Gene%20Illusion.htm
id = ISBN 0-87586-344-2 ] Despite the movement's name, however, some tendencies in reality, it's alleged, merely promote a form of psychiatry that happens to be contrary to the dominant theories and methods of the day. Some "anti-psychiatrists," indeed, are concerned to dissociate themselves from the term and its sometimes
pejorativeassociations. [ [http://www.uea.ac.uk/~wp276/define.htm What was anti-psychiatry?] from UEA Critical Psychiatry website]
Origins of anti-psychiatry
What much later became known as the anti-psychiatry movement had its earliest origins in concerns that arose from the alleged application of psychiatric techniques for purposes of social control.
Daniel Defoe, best known as the author of " Robinson Crusoe", reported as far back as the eighteenth century that some husbands were using madhouses to incarcerate their disobedient though sane wives. [Daniel Defoe, quoted in Thomas Szasz: "Schizophrenia: the sacred symbol of psychiatry" (NY: Syracuse Univ. Press). Defoe's text was titled "Demand for public control of madhouses".] [cite book | last = Szasz | first = Thomas | authorlink = Szasz
title = Esquizofrenia | publisher = Fontamara/Coyoacán | date = 2002 | location = Mexico | pages = 133]
Psychiatry became more professionally established as the nineteenth century progressed. As more invasive forms of treatment evolved so too, in some quarters, did opposition rise. Some disputes concerned custodial rights over those seen as "mad," particularly if unfortunate enough to end up in one of the multiplying lunatic asylums. [cite book | last =Kleinman | first =Arthur | title = Rethinking Psychiatry: From Cultural Category to Personal Experience | publisher = Collier Macmillan| date = 1988 | location = | pages = | ISBN = 0029174422]
In the 1800s the American physician
Samuel A. Cartwrighthad stumbled upon drapetomania, the explanation for why slaves would on occasion display an alarming tendency to run away from their masters. A further disorder afflicting slaves and, by extension, their owners was dysaethesia aethiopica, a disease "affecting both mind and body." This explained the apparent lack of a proper work ethic among slaves. Found exclusively among blacks, dysaethesia aethiopica — "called by overseers 'rascality'" — was characterized by partial insensitivity of the skin and "so great a of the intellectual faculties, as to be like a person half asleep." cite journal |author=Cartwright, Samuel A. |year=1851 |title=Report on the Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race |journal= DeBow's Review|volume=XI |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h3106t.html |accessdate=2007-10-04 ]
In the latter part of the nineteenth century
Emil Kraepelinbecame an eminent deviser of novel categories of mental illness, which duly entered psychiatric usage despite their origin in extrapolation from observed behavior, rather than in clinical pathologyor etiologyin any strict sense. [ [http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/question/nov05.htm Question of the Month - Jim Crow Museum at Ferris State University] ] The Sovietstate in the twentieth century devised suitable psychiatric diagnoses for any who opposed its will with sufficiently persistent vigor but who, whether by dint of ingenuity or mere social eminence, proved difficult to criminalize. They were duly hospitalized instead.
In the 1920s surrealist opposition to psychiatry was expressed by
Antonin Artaudin his book on van Gogh.
In the 1930s several controversial medical practices were introduced including inducing seizures (by
electroshock, insulinor other drugs) or cutting parts of the brain apart ( leucotomyor lobotomy).cite book | last = Whitaker| first = Robert| title = Mad in America: Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill | publisher =Basic Books | date= 2004 | id = ISBN 0-7382-0799-3 ] Both came into widespread use by psychiatry, but there were grave concerns and much opposition on grounds of morality, harmful effects, or misuse. In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, were designed in laboratories and slowly came into preferred use.
Although often accepted as an advance in some ways, there was some opposition, partly due to serious adverse effects such as
tardive dyskinesia. Patients often opposed psychiatry and refused or stopped taking the drugs when not subject to psychiatric control. There was also increasing opposition to the large-scale use of psychiatric hospitals and institutions, and attempts were made to base services in the community.
Coming to the fore in the 1960s, "anti-psychiatry" (a term first used by David Cooper in 1967) defined a movement that vocally challenged the fundamental claims and practices of mainstream psychiatry. Psychiatrists
R.D. Laing, Theodore Lidz, Silvano Arietiand others argued that schizophrenia could be understood as an injury to the inner self inflicted by psychologically invasive "schizophrenogenic" parents, or as a healthy attempt to cope with a sick society. Psychiatrist Thomas Szaszargues that " mental illness" is an inherently incoherent combination of a medical and a psychological concept, but popular because it legitimizes the use of psychiatric force to control and limit deviance from societal norms.
Adherents of this view referred to "the myth of mental illness" after Szasz's controversial book of that name. (Even though the movement originally described as anti-psychiatry became associated with the general
counter-culturemovement of the 1960s, Szasz, Lidz and Arieti never became involved in that movement.) Michel Foucault, Erving Goffman, Deleuzeand Guatarri, and others criticized the power and role of psychiatry in society, including the use of " total institutions," " labeling" and stigmatizing. [ [http://www.jrsm.org/cgi/reprint/94/3/148.pdf?ijkey=07b5d6fed040a1f4c99d9e0fe381f33314e70145 Does psychiatry stigmatize?] ]
Foucault argued that the concepts of
sanityand insanitywere social constructsthat did not reflect quantifiable patterns of human behavior, and which, rather, were indicative only of the power of the "sane" over the "insane". The novel "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" became a bestseller, resonating with public concern about involuntary medication, lobotomy and electroshock procedures used to control patients.
Holocaustdocumenters argued that the medicalizationof social problems and systematic euthanasiaof people in German mental institutions in the 1930s provided the institutional, procedural, and doctrinal origins of the mass murderof the 1940s. [cite book | last = Lapon| first = Lenny| title = Mass Murderers in White Coats : Psychiatric Genocide in Nazi Germany and the United States | Psychiatric Genocide Research Inst | date= 1986 | id = ISBN 0961496193 ] [ [http://home.iprimus.com.au/burgess1/breggin.html The Psychiatric Holocaust - excerpts] ] The Nuremberg Trialsconvicted a number of psychiatrists who held key positions in Nazi regimes.
Observation of the abuses of psychiatry in the
Soviet Unionin the so-called Psikhushkahospitals also led to questioning the validity of the practice of psychiatry in the West. [ [http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2003/1212reich.shtml AAAS - AAAS News Release] ] In particular, the diagnosis of many political dissidents with schizophrenia led some to question the general diagnosis and punitive usage of the label schizophrenia. This raised questions as to whether the schizophrenia label and resulting involuntary psychiatric treatment could not have been similarly used in the West to subdue rebellious young people during family conflicts. [ [http://www.antipsychiatry.org/kendra-c.htm Why Outpatient Commitment Laws Change (Almost) Nothing] ]
New professional approaches were developed as an alternative or reformist complement to psychiatry. "
The Radical Therapist", a journal begun in 1971 in North Dakota by Michael Glenn, David Bryan, Linda Bryan, Michael Galan and Sara Glenn, challenged the psychotherapy establishment in a number of ways, raising the slogan "Therapy means change, not adjustment." It contained articles that challenged the professional mediator approach, advocating instead revolutionary politics and authentic community making. Social work, humanisticor existentialisttherapies, family therapy, counselingand self-helpand clinical psychologydeveloped and sometimes opposed psychiatry. Psychoanalysiswas increasingly criticized as unscientific or harmful. [ Adolf Grünbaum's "The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique". Berkeley (University of California Press, 1984); "Validation in the Clinical Theory of Psychoanalysis: A Study in the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis". (International Universities Press, 1993).] Contrary to the popular view, critics and biographers of Freud, such as Alice Miller, Jeffrey Massonand Louis Breger, argued that Freud did not grasp the nature of psychological trauma. Non-medical collaborative services were developed, for example therapeutic communitiesor Soteriahouses.
The anti-psychiatry movement was also being driven by individuals with adverse experiences of psychiatric services. This included those who felt they had been harmed by psychiatry or who felt that they could have been helped more by other approaches, including those compulsorily (including via physical force) admitted to psychiatric institutions and subjected to compulsory medication or procedures. During the 1970s, the anti-psychiatry movement was involved in promoting restraint from many practices seen as psychiatric abuses.
gay rightsmovement challenged the classification of homosexuality as a mental illness and, in a climate of controversy and activism, in 1974 the American Psychiatric Associationmembership (following a unanimous vote by the trustees in 1973) voted by a small majority (58%) to remove it as an illness category from the DSM, replacing it with a category of "sexual orientation disturbance" and then "ego-dystonic homosexuality," which was deleted in 1987, although "gender identity disorder" and a wide variety of "paraphilias" remain. Increased legal and professional protections, and merging with human rightsand disability rightsmovements, added to anti-psychiatry theory and action.
Anti-psychiatry came to challenge a "
biomedical" focus of psychiatry (defined to mean genetics, neurochemicals and pharmaceutic drugs). There was also opposition to the increasing links between psychiatry and pharmaceutical companies, which were becoming more powerful and were increasingly claimed to have excessive, unjustified and underhand influence on psychiatric research and practice. There was also opposition to the codification of, and alleged misuse of, psychiatric diagnoses into manuals, in particular the American Psychiatric Association, which publishes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders".
Anti-psychiatry increasingly challenged alleged psychiatric pessimism and institutionalized alienation regarding those categorized as mentally ill. An emerging
Consumer/Survivor Movementoften argues for full recovery, empowerment, self-management and even full liberation. Schemes were developed to challenge stigmaand discrimination, often based on a social model of disability; to assist or encourage people with mental health issues to engage more fully in work and society (for example through social firms), and to involve service users in the delivery and evaluation of mental health services. However, those actively and openly challenging the fundamental ethics and efficacy of mainstream psychiatric practice remained marginalized within psychiatry, and to a lesser extent within the wider mental health community.
Challenges and alternatives to psychiatric practice
Civilization as a cause of distress
George Miller Beardhas pointed to an epidemic of " neurasthenia" at the start of the twentieth century as indicative of the breakdown of a section of society under the increasing stresses of modern life. R. D. Laingemphasized family nexusas a mechanism whereby individuals become victimized by those around them. [Laing, R.D. (1960) "The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness", Penguin Books.] [Laing, R.D. and Esterson, A. (1964) "Sanity, Madness and the Family", London: Penguin]
In recent years, David Smail, a psychotherapist considered part of the anti-psychiatry movement, has written extensively of the "embodied nature" of the individual in society, and the unwillingness of even therapists to acknowledge the obvious part played by power and interest in modern Western society. He argues that feelings and emotions are not, as is commonly supposed, features of the individual, but rather responses of the individual to his situation in society. Even psychotherapy, he suggests, can only change feelings inasmuch as it helps a person to change the "proximal" and "distal" influences on his life, which range from family and friends, to politics and work. [cite book | last = Smail | first = David John | authorlink = David Smail (psychologist) | title = Power Interest and Psychology | publisher = PCCS Books | date = 2005 | location = Ross-on-Wye, UK | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 1898059713 ]
Normality and illness judgments
Critics of psychiatry generally do not dispute the notion that some people have emotional or psychological problems, or that some psychotherapies work for a given problem. They do usually disagree with psychiatry on the source of these problems; the appropriateness of characterizing these problems as "illness"; and on what the proper management options are.
One prominent example of a psychiatric diagnosis being used to reinforce cultural bias and oppress dissidence is the diagnosis of
drapetomania. In the United States of America, prior to the American Civil War, psychiatrists, such as Samuel A. Cartwright, diagnosed some slaves with drapetomania, a mental illness in which the slave possessed an irrational desire for freedom and a tendency to try to escape slavery. [cite book | last = Sharkey | first = Joe | authorlink = Joe Sharkey | title = Bedlam: greed, profiteering and fraud in a mental system gone crazy | publisher = St. Martin’s Press | date = 1994 | location = NY | pages = 182] By classifying such a dissident mental trait as abnormal and a disease, psychiatry promoted cultural bias about normality, abnormality, health, and unhealth. This example indicates the probability for not only cultural biasbut also confirmation biasand bias blind spotin psychiatric diagnosis and psychiatric beliefs.
In addition, many feel that they are being pathologized for simply being different. Some people diagnosed with
Asperger's Syndromeor autismhold this position. While many parents of children diagnosed autistic support the efforts of autistic activists, there are some who say they value the uniqueness of their children and do not desire a "cure" for their autism. The autistic communityhas coined a number of terms that would appear to form the basis for a new branch of identity politics; terms such as " neurodiversity" and " neurotypical". [citation
title =Neurodiversity Forever; The Disability Movement Turns to Brains
newspaper =The New York Times
date= May 9, 2004
url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9C07E0D9143CF93AA35756C0A9629C8B63 ] However, an antipsychiatric viewpoint is not found in nearly all of those advocating acceptance for autists or other "outsiders".
It has been argued by philosophers like Foucault that characterizations of "mental illness" are indeterminate and reflect the hierarchical structures of the societies from which they emerge rather than any precisely-defined qualities which distinguish a "healthy" mind from a "sick" one. Furthermore, if a tendency toward self-harm is taken as an elementary symptom of mental illness, then humans, "as a species", are arguably insane in that they have tended throughout recorded history to destroy their own environments, to make war with one another, etc. [cite book
last = Foucault
first = Michel
title = Madness and Civilization: a History of Insanity in the Age of Reason
publisher = Vintage Books
location = New York]
There are recognized problems regarding the diagnostic reliability and validity of mainstream psychiatric diagnoses, both in ideal and controlled circumstances [ cite journal
last = Williams
first = J..B.
coauthors = et al
title = The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) II: Multi-site test-retest reliability
journal = Archives of General Psychiatry
volume = 49
pages = 630–36
date= 1992] and even more so in routine clinical practice (McGorry "et al". 1995). [cite web
title =Spurious precision: procedural validity of diagnostic assessment in psychotic disorders |accessdate =2006-07-02 | author =PD McGorry | coauthors =C Mihalopoulos, L Henry, J Dakis, HJ Jackson, M Flaum, S Harrigan, D McKenzie, J Kulkarni and R Karoly | year =1995 | work =Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152:220-223| publisher =American Psychiatric Association | url =http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/152/2/220] Criteria in the principal diagnostic manuals, the DSM and
ICD, are inconsistent. [cite journal
last = van Os
first = J.
coauthors = et al
title = A comparison of the utility of dimensional and categorical representations of psychosis
journal = Psychological Medicine
volume = 29 (3)
pages = 595–606
date= 1999] Some psychiatrists who criticize their own profession say that
comorbidity, when an individual meets criteria for two or more disorders, is the rule rather than the exception. There is much overlap and vaguely-defined or changeable boundaries between what psychiatrists claim are distinct illness states. [ [http://www.rossinst.com/trauma.htm The Ross Institute - Trauma] ] . There are also problems with using standard diagnostic criteria in different countries, cultures, genders or ethnic groups. Critics often allege that Westernized, white, male-dominated psychiatric practices and diagnoses disadvantage and misunderstand those from other groups. For example, several studies have shown that African Americansare more often diagnosed with schizophrenia than Caucasians, [ [http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/44303 The influence of racial factors on psychiatric diagnosis] ] and women more than men.Some within the anti-psychiatry movement are critical of the use of diagnosis as it conforms with the biomedical model.
Psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry
Stern concerns about how disease is managed in large populations for financial purposes alone appear constantly in the literature critical of the medical profession and the industry. [cite book
last = Moynihan
first = Ray and Alan Cassels
title = Selling Sickness: How the World's Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies are Turning Us All Into Patients", Nation Books
year = 2006]
Psychiatrists prescribe drugs for adults and children. Administration of the drugs can be undertaken voluntarily or, in certain situations, involuntarily. Psychiatrists claim that a number of medications have a proven
efficacyfor improving or managing a number of mental health disorders. This includes ranges of different drugs referred to as stimulants, antidepressants, hypnotic minor tranquilizers and neuroleptics(antipsychotics).
On the other hand, organizations such as
MindFreedom Internationaland World Network of Users and Survivors of Psychiatrymaintain that psychiatrists exaggerate the evidence of medication and minimize the evidence of adverse drug reaction. They and other activists also complain that individuals are not given sufficient balanced information or truly informed consent, that current psychiatric medications do not appear to be specific to particular disorders in the way mainstream psychiatry asserts; [ [http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?doi=83999 Rethinking Models of Psychotropic Drug Action] ] and psychiatric drugs not only don't correct measurable chemical imbalances in the brain, but also induce undesirable side effects. For example, though children on Ritalinand other psycho-stimulants become more obedient to parents and teachers, cite book
last = Breggin
first = Peter
title = Reclaiming Your Children: A healing Plan for a Nation in Crisis
publisher = Perseus Publishing
date= 2000] critics have noted that they can also develop abnormal movements such as tics, spasms and other involuntary movements [ [http://breggin.com/Newstimulants.pdf Psychostimulants in the treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD: Risks and mechanism of action] Peter R. Breggin] This has not been shown to be directly related to the therapeutic use of stimulants, but to neuroleptics. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/10/health/10psyche.html?_r=2&hp=&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1178770545-7MBrQtesB6MQppWK6ofwBw&oref=slogin] - "New York Times" article] [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-05-01-atypical-drugs_x.htm] - "USA Today" article] The diagnosis of
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderon the basis of inattention to compulsory schooling also raises critics' concerns regarding the use of psychoactive drugs as a means of unjust social controlof children.
The influence of pharmaceutical companies is another major issue for the antipsychiatry movement. The
pharmaceutical industryis one of the most profitable and powerful in existence, and as Joe Sharkeyhas argued, there are many financial and professional links between psychiatry, regulators, and pharmaceutical companies. Drug companies routinely fund much of the research conducted by psychiatrists, advertise medication in psychiatric journals and conferences, fund psychiatric and healthcare organizations and health promotion campaigns, and send representatives to lobby general physicians and politicians. Peter Breggin, Sharkey, and other investigators of the psycho-pharmaceutical industry maintain that many psychiatrists are members, shareholders or special advisors to pharmaceutical or associated regulatory organizations. [ [http://heall.com/holistic_psychology/toxic_psychiatry.html TOXIC PSYCHIATRY: Why therapy, empathy, and love must replace the drugs, electroshock, and biochemical theories of the new psychiatry.”] ] There is evidence that research findings and the prescribing of drugs are influenced as a result. A United Kingdom cross-party parliamentary inquiry into the influence of the pharmaceutical industry in 2005 concludes: "The influence of the pharmaceutical industry is such that it dominates clinical practice" [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmhealth/42/42.pdf House of Commons Health Committee: The Influence of the Pharmaceutical Industry (Fourth Report of Session 2002-2005)] ] and that there are serious regulatory failings resulting in "the unsafe use of drugs; and the increasing medicalization of society". The campaign organization "No Free Lunch" details the prevalent acceptance by medical professionals of free gifts from pharmaceutical companies and the effect on psychiatric practice. [ [http://www.nofreelunch.org No Free Lunch] ] The ghost-writing of articles by pharmaceutical company officials, which are then presented by esteemed psychiatrists, has also been highlighted. [ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,1101680,00.html Revealed: how drug firms 'hoodwink' medical journals | Society | The Observer] ] Systematic reviews have found that trials of psychiatric drugs that are conducted with pharmaceutical funding are several times more likely to report positive findings than studies without such funding. [http://www.nihcm.org/finalweb/spending2001.pdf National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation ] ]
The number of psychiatric drug prescriptions have been increasing at an extremely high rate since the 1950s and show no sign of abating. In the United States antidepressants and tranquilizers are now the top selling class of prescription drugs, and neuroleptics and other psychiatric drugs also rank near the top, all with expanding sales. As a solution of this alleged conflict of interests, critics propose legislation to separate the pharmaceutical industry from the psychiatric profession.
Psychiatrists may advocate psychiatric drugs, psychotherapy or more controversial interventions such as electroshock or
psychosurgeryto treat mental illness. The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is administered worldwide typically for severe mental disorders, sometimes involuntarily. Across the globe it has been estimated that approximately 1 million patients receive ECT per year. [Prudic, Olfson, and Sackeim. " [http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=80606 Electro-convulsive therapy practices in the community] ".] Exact numbers of how many persons per year have ECT in the United States are unknown due to the variability of settings and treatment. Researchers' estimates generally range from 100,000 to 200,000 persons per year. [ [http://www.ect.org/paper-on-ect-statistics-at-mh-stats-conference Paper on ECT statistics at MH Stats Conference » ect.org] ]
Some persons receiving ECT die from the procedure. Frank cites approximately 400 deaths mentioned in psychiatric journals. [The History of Shock Treatment : Author : Leonard Roy Frank]
Psychiatry critics particularly hold this procedure in low repute.John Breeding, a controversial social critic of psychiatric practices, believes that "Electroshock always causes brain damage". [cite journal
last = Breeding
first = John
title = The right to know, the right to remember: informed consent for electroshock is still a sham
journal = Mind Freedom Journal
volume = Winter
pages = 25–26
date= 2002] [cite journal
last = Breeding
first = John
title = Electroshock and informed consent
journal = Journal of Humanistic Psychology
volume = 40
pages = 65–79
doi = 10.1177/0022167800401007] On the other hand, a 2003 systematic review concluded that, despite these risks, ECT "is an effective short-term treatment for depression". [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12642045&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy i... [Lancet. 2003 - PubMed Result] ] It is used most often in situations of life-threatening, i.e., suicidal, depression.
Psychiatry and the law
United States Supreme Courtruled in 1975 that it is a violation of civil rightsto medicate, treat, or hospitalize a person against their will.
While the insanity defense is the subject of controversy as a viable excuse for wrong-doing, Szasz and other critics contend that being committed in a
psychiatric hospitalcan be worse than criminal imprisonment, since it involves the risk of compulsory medication with neuroleptics or the use of electroshock treatment. [cite book | last = Szasz| first = Thomas| title = Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry: An Inquiry into the Social Uses of Mental Health Practices | publisher = Syracuse University Press; Reprint edition | date= 1989 ] [ [http://www.stopshrinks.org/yoder/index.htm Rodney Yoder Page] ] Moreover, while a criminal imprisonment has a predetermined time of end that could be anticipated, patients are typically committed to psychiatric hospitals for indefinite durations. [cite journal
last = Szasz
first = Thomas
title = Patient or Prisoner?
journal = Ideas on Liberty
volume = 52
pages = 31–32
Critics see involuntary committal's use of legally-sanctioned force as counter to one of the pillars of open or free societies:
John Stuart Mill's principles. Mill argues that society should never use coercion to subdue an individual as long as he (or she) does not harm others. In contrast to the Hollywood portrait of schizophrenics, disturbed people are usually no more prone to violence than sane individuals. [cite journal
last = Monahan
first = J.
title = Mental disorder and violent behavior: perceptions and evidence
journal = American Psychologist
volume = 47
pages = 511–21
doi = 10.1037/0003-066X.47.4.511 ] The growing practice, in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, of
care in the communitywas instituted partly in response to such concerns. Alternatives to involuntary hospitalization include the development of non-medical crisis care in the community.
In the case of people suffering from severe psychotic crises, the American
Soteriaproject used to provide, critics of psychiatry contend, a more humane and compassionate alternative to coercive psychiatry. The Soteria houses closed in 1983 in the United States due to lack of financial support. However, Soteria-like houses are presently flourishing in Europe, especially in Swedenand other North European countries. [ [http://ahrp.org/infomail/04/07/13.php Dr. Loren Mosher, 1933 - 2004] ]
The "Therapeutic State"
The "Therapeutic State" is a phrase coined by American psychiatrist Thomas Szasz in 1963.
Civil libertarians warn that the marriage of the State with psychiatry could have catastrophic consequences for
civilization. [ [http://www.fff.org/freedom/fd0411b.asp Bushs Brave New World] ] In the same vein as the separation of church and state, Szasz believes that a solid wall must exist between psychiatry and the State. [ [http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_05_4_szasz.pdf The Therapeutic State: The Tyranny of Pharmacracy] ]
Scientologyhas also challenged psychiatric theory or practice. L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, became increasingly at odds with psychiatry and in 1969 cofounded the Citizens Commission on Human Rights(CCHR), with Thomas Szasz. CCHR was formed as an advocacy group focused on what it calls psychiatry's "human rights crimes". In the keynote address at the 25th anniversary of CCHR, Szasz stated: "We should all honor CCHR because it is really the organization that for the first time in human history has organized a politically, socially, internationally significant voice to combat psychiatry. This has never been done in human history before." Although Szasz appears in some CCHR's keynote addresses, he has never been a Scientologist, instead self-identifying as a secular humanist. [ [http://www.etla.net/~willey/personal/humanism.html Humanism ] ]
However, the delineation between the viewpoints of the critics associated with Scientology, and those within anti-psychiatry is not absolute, especially with regards to mental illness, psychiatry, and psychiatric drugs. For example, the CCHR hosts content about these subjects by noted anti-psychiatry critics like Szasz,
Gary Nulland Fred Baughman. [ [http://www.cchr.org/index.cfm/11112 An interview with Dr. Thomas Szasz - Citizens Commission on Human Rights] ]
Despite sharing notable antipsychiatrists' views on some issues, Scientology doctrine differs in some respects. Scientology has promoted psychiatry-related
conspiracy theories, including that psychiatry was responsible for World War I, [" [http://freedom.lronhubbard.org/page104a.htm Criminals & psychiatry] ". July 29, 1980] the rise of Hitler and Stalin, [Book review of [http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol30I1/page40.htm Psychiatrists: The Men Behind Hitler] ] the decline in education standards in the United States, [ [http://www.cchr.org/index/5276/5329/6478/ Publications and Information] ] the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo, [ [http://www.cchr.org/index.cfm/8130 An Anatomy of Today's Terrorism; PsychAssault.com CCHR's Latest Website] ] the September 11 attacks. [cite journal |last=Thomas |first=Gordon |coauthors= Whittle, Thomas G. |title=The Terror Doctors |journal= Freedom Magazine|volume=36 |issue=2 |pages=5 |url=http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol36i2/page03.htm |accessdate=2007-02-10 "Emerging from research into terrorist kingpins — those engineers of terrorist calamities from 9/11 to the Madrid bombings—one is struck by the dominance of members of the psychiatric profession in their midst..."] cite news
first = Andrew
last = Gumbel
url = http://www.lacitybeat.com/article.php?id=3137&IssueNum=136
title = Scientology vs. Science
Los Angeles CityBeat
publisher = Southland Publishing
accessdate = 2006-06-08] Secular critics of psychiatry do not share these positions.
Scientology doctrine, further, holds that psychiatrists caused the decline in this universe billions of years ago, [ Hubbard Communications Office Bulletin 26 August 1982, "Pain and Sex". Cited in cite book | last = Atack | first = Jon | authorlink = Jon Atack | year = 1990 | url = http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/atack/index.html | title = A Piece of Blue Sky | publisher = Carol Publishing Group | location = New York, NY|id = ISBN 0-8184-0499-X, p. 288. "interp|The psychs are the sole cause of decline in this universe..."] while Scientologists are religiously committed never to take psychiatric drugs and reject
psychologyoutright. ["Creating racism: Psychiatry’s betrayal" (1995) [CCHR magazine] , pp. 4f esp.]
The socio-political roots of the movements also differ. Classic anti-psychiatrists such as David Cooper and Ronald Laing had ties with the
political leftof the 1960s; Szasz, with the civil libertarians of the right. On the other hand, Jon Atackconsidered the sources of Scientology to be a mixture of Freud's abreactiontherapy, science fiction, Buddhistideas, and Aleister Crowley's magick. [cite book | last = Atack | first = Jon | authorlink = Jon Atack | year = 1990 | url = http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/atack/index.html | title = A Piece of Blue Sky | publisher = Carol Publishing Group | location = New York, NY|id = ISBN 0-8184-0499-X]
History of mental disorders
* Indeterminacy in philosophy
Interpretation of Schizophrenia"
The Gene Illusion
* [http://www.theness.com/articles.asp?id=23 The New England Journal of Skepticism - Skepticism and Denial]
* [http://www.antipsychiatry.org/ The Antipsychiatry Coalition]
* [http://www.drdanedmunds.com/ International Center for Humane Psychiatry and Dan L. Edmunds,Ed.D.]
* [http://www.mhselfhelp.org/ National Mental Health Consumers' Self-Help Clearinghouse]
* [http://www.oikos.org/antipsicen.htm Oikos.org] - The Dark Side of Psychiatry
* [http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124 PLoS Medicine] - Why Most Published Research Findings Are False, by John P. A. Ioannidis. Vol. 2, No. 8, DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124.Last accessed 16 June 2006
* [http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0020138 PLoS Medicine] - Medical Journals Are an Extension of the Marketing Arm of Pharmaceutical Companies, by Richard Smith, Vol.2, No.5, e138 DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020138. Last accessed 16 June 2006
* [http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/332/7555/1444 British Medical Journal] - Commercial influence and the content of medical journals, by Joel Lexchin, associate professor, Donald W Light, professor, BMJ 2006;332:1444-1447 (17 June),doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7555.1444; Last accessed 16 June 2006
* [http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0030185 PLoS Medicine] - The Latest Mania: Selling Bipolar Disorder, by David Healy, Vol.3, No.4, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030185; Last accessed 16 June 2006
Organizations critical of psychiatry
* [http://laingsociety.org LaingSociety.org] - The Society for Laingian Studies, R.D. Laing (1927-1989)
* [http://www.moshersoteria.com/ Mosher Soteria] -
Loren Mosher, MD, (1933-2004)
* [http://www.szasz.com Szasz.com] - The Thomas S. Szasz, MD, Cybercenter for Liberty and Responsibility
* [http://www.icspp.org/ ICSPP.org] - International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology
* [http://www.mindfreedom.org MindFreedom.org] - Support Coalition International (a coalition of groups supporting "United Action for Human Rights in Mental Health")
* [http://psychrights.org/index.htm PsychRights.org] - Law Project for Psychiatric Rights
* [http://www.iaapa.ch/ IAAPA] International Association Against Psychiatric Assault
* [http://www.psychiatricsurvivorarchives.com/ PSAT] Psychiatric Survivor Archives of Toronto
* [http://tanadineen.com TanaDineen.com] Homepage of Tana Dineen
* [http://community.livejournal.com/antipsychiatry/ Anti-Psychiatry Livejournal] - Anti-Psychiatry Community on Livejournal, Most Updated Resource.
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