- Scottish pork taboo
The Scottish pork taboo was
Donald Alexander Mackenzie's phrase for discussing an aversion to pork amongst Scots, particularly Highlanders, which he believed to stem from an ancient taboo. Several writers who confirm that there was a prejudice against pork, or a superstitious attitude to pigs, do not see it in terms of a taboo related to an ancient cult. Any prejudice is generally agreed to have been fading by 1800. Some writers attribute a scarcity or dislike of pork in certain periods to a shortage of pig fodder.
Donald Mackenzie's ideas
He gave a lecture on the "Scottish pork taboo" in 1920 [ Lecture at the Celtic Congress in Edinburgh 26 May 1920] when he explained his idea that prejudices against pork-eating could be traced back to a centuries-old religious cult. When he published these theories in the 1930s he suggested the taboo was imported to Scotland in pre-Roman times by
Celtic mercenaries, influenced by the cultof Attisin Anatolia. (The cult of Attis did not abstain permanently from pork; it was a purification for their ceremonies. [Emperor Julian; "Hymn to the Mother of the Gods" 177B, LCL, 1913, vol I.] )
He dismissed any possibility that the pork taboo originated from a literal reading of the Bible, and disputed this with various arguments, noting that early Christian missionaries did not snub pork. He conceded that there was archaeological evidence of pigs being eaten in prehistoric Scotland, but suggested this may have come from pork-eating peoples living near others who did observe the taboo, or be related to ceremonial use of pigs. Later pork production was for export, not for local use, just as eels were caught to send to the English market, while they were unacceptable as food in Scotland. The taboo died out in the Lowlands earlier than in the Highlands.
Other folklorists, such as
Isabel Grant, have accepted this theory of a taboo. [Ross, p. 99]
Writers cited by Mackenzie
In addition to proposing ideas developed from studying the mythology and folk-lore of Scotland and other cultures, Mackenzie quoted writers of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Walter Scottreferred to Scottish Highlanders' dislike of pork in more than one book, [ "Fortunes of Nigel", "Rob Roy", "Waverley"] and around 1814 explained that
Pork or swine’s flesh, in any shape, was, till of late years, much abominated by the Scotch, nor is it yet a favourite food amongst them. King Jamie carried this prejudice to England, and is known to have abhorred pork almost as much as he did tobacco. [ [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/s/scott/walter/waverley/chapter20.html Waverley, footnote to Chapter 20] ]
Scott's remark that
Ben Jonson"recorded" the king's aversion to pork in his masque"The Gipsies Metamorphosed", when the king has his hand read, is based on these words:
You should, by this line,
Love a horse and a hound, but no part of a swine.
Dr Johnson found an "abhorrence" of pork and bacon on
Skyein the 1770s.
It is not very easy to fix the principles upon which mankind have agreed to eat some animals, and reject others; and as the principle is not evident, it is not uniform. […] The vulgar inhabitants of Sky, I know not whether of the other islands, have not only eels, but pork and bacon in abhorrence, and accordingly I never saw a hog in the Hebrides, except one at Dunvegan. [ [http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/2/0/6/2064/2064.txt "A Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland" (1775)] ]
Mackenzie suggested that a verse in the English satirical song "The Brewer" from "A Collection of Loyal Songs" referred to the taboo:
The Jewish Scots that scorn to eat
The flesh of swine and Brewer's beat
'Twas the sight of this hogshead made 'em retreat
Which nobody can deny!
He believed that this, and other comments associating Scots with Jews, confirm the existence of the taboo, but have nothing to do with its origin.
He described a superstition about touching or saying "cauld airn" (cold iron) when pigs are mentioned. This was discussed by Dean Ramsay, and is also included in Walter McGregor's "Notes on the folk-lore of the north-east of Scotland" (Folklore Society 1881). [ Cited by PWF Brown]
Among the many superstitious notions and customs prevalent among the lower orders of the fishing towns on the east coast of Fife, till very recently, that class entertained a great horror of swine . . . . [ [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12483/12483-h/12483-h.htm Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character (1874)] ]
Mackenzie disagreed with Edward Burt, whose "Letters from a Gentleman in the North of Scotland" (1754) [pp117 -118 in the [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC13706916&id=xzByhn38XREC 1822 edition] ] discusses an “aversion” to pork in the Highlands, but says it is not “superstitious”.
Other writers referring to a prejudice against pork
John Lesley's "History of Scotland" talks of "our cuntrie peple" having "lytle plesure" in pork in the 1570s. [Translated from Latin into Scots by James Dalrymple in 1596, published in Edinburgh in 1895, quoted by WM Mackenzie]
At least four ministers writing about their parishes for the
Statistical Accounts of Scotlandin the 1790s speak of a prejudice which is starting to fade: for instance, "The deep rooted prejudice against swine's flesh is now removed: most of the farmers rear some of that species, which not 30 years ago, they held in the utmost detestation." (Ardchattan, County of Argyle) Account of 1791-99, volume 6, page 177) [Also Lesmahagowin Lanarkshire, Kiltearn in Ross and Cromartyand Longforgan in Perthshire]
20th century historian
Christopher Smoutspeaks of a "a universal superstitious prejudice". [Ross cites Smout's "A History of the Scottish People 1560-1830", p 132]
Two writers disputing Donald Mackenzie's theories
William Mackay Mackenziepublished his thoughts in the "Scotsman" letters pages (8 October 1921) as part of a long-running debate arising from D. A. Mackenzie's lecture in 1920. While agreeing there had been a "sporadic prejudice" against pork in parts of Scotland, and offering illustrations of this, he was against the idea of a link to a "religious cult". He saw economic factors at work between 1500 and 1800 which would discourage pig-keeping. He cited several examples of pork consumption in the Middle Ages, and described a "temporary lapse" when "the great forests disappeared from Scotland".
In 1983 the American anthropologist
Eric B. Rossput forward arguments based on a detailed study of Scottish agricultural history , and asserted the value of cultural materialismrooted in evolutionary anthropologyfor studying dietary customs, thus avoiding explanations based on "relatively esoteric" beliefs. Because of deforestation there was a loss of beech mast and acorns for feeding pigs, and it was not until the late 18th century that potatoes were produced in sufficient quantity to offer a useful alternative. Throughout this gap in pork consumption by the general population, many of the Scottish upper classes continued to eat the meat.Fact|date=April 2007
"In the years of the eighteenth century and probably earlier, swine were rarely raised in Scotland, particularly in the Scottish Highlands, and subsequent writers have gone so far as to postulate the operation of a taboo on the eating of pork. Unfortunately there is almost nothing known today about local sentiments of that era, and we have only the intellectual rationalizations of educated writers who all too easily found an explanation for the scarcity of pigs in the assumption that a 'foolish prejudice' was at work."Eric B. Ross "The Riddle of the Scottish Pig" "op cit".]
*P. W. F. Brown, " [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0015-587X%28196524%2976%3A4%3C288%3ATLP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N The Luxuriant Pig] " in "Folklore", volume 76, no. 4 (Winter 1965), pp 288-300;
*Donald A. Mackenzie, "Scottish folk-lore and folk life: studies in race, culture and tradition" (Blackie 1935)
*Eric B. Ross " [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0006-3568%28198302%2933%3A2%3C99%3ATROTSP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z The Riddle of the Scottish Pig] " in "BioScience", volume 33, no. 2 (Feb 1983), pp 99-106;
* [http://archive.scotsman.com/ Scotsman archives]
* [http://edina.ac.uk/stat-acc-scot/ Statistical Accounts of Scotland]
*Donald A. Mackenzie, [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/tsm/tsm03.htm Wonder Tales from Scottish Myth and Legend - Introduction] : "...pigs were, it seems, sacred animals..."
*Donald A. Mackenzie, [http://www.earth-history.com/Egypt/Myth/eml05.htm Egyptian Myth and Legend, chapter 5] : "The Devil Pig in Egypt and Scotland"
*"A Collection of Loyal Songs"
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