Tabriz


Tabriz

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Tabriz
other_name =
native_name = تبریز
nickname = The City of Firsts
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image_caption = Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by "Arfa'ol molk", with the aid of German engineers.


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subdivision_type = Country
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subdivision_name1 = East Azarbaijan
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Tabriz ( _fa. تبریز, _az. تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. It is situated north of the volcanic cone of Sahand, south of the Eynali mountain. It is the capital of East Azarbaijan Province. Tabriz lies at the junction of the Komur River (Mehran River) and the Aji River.

With a population of 1,600,000, [2007 census] Tabriz is Iran's Fourth largest city, after Tehran, Mashhad and Esfahan. [ [http://amar.sci.org.ir/Detail.aspx?Ln=F&no=258263&S=GW Statistical Center of Iran: Results of national 2007 census] ]

History

Etymology

The founding of Tabriz is shrouded in mystery and myth. Various sources [David Rohl. "
] [Jeffery Donley. "The Everything History of the Bible Book", Adams Media, 2006, ISBN 1593375565, p. 59] [Etta B. Donaldson. "A Journey to the Garden of Eden", "The American Magazine", Crowell-Collier Publishing Co., 1893, p. 439] Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott. "Iran", Lonely Planet, 2004, ISBN 1740594258, p. 133] name the city as the possible site of the Biblical Garden of Eden.

According to some sources, [Gholam-Reza Sabri-Tabrizi. "Iran: A Child's Story, a Man's Experience", International Publishers Co., 1989, p. 72, ISBN 0717806820] including Encyclopedia Britannica, [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9070851/Tabriz Encyclopedia Britannica. "Tabriz", Online Edition, 2007] ] the name "Tabriz" derives from "tap-riz" ("causing heat to flow" in Iranian languages), from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources ["Tabrīz." Microsoft Encarta 2007 [DVD] . Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2006.] [Samuel Graham Wilson. "Persian Life and Customs", Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 1896, p.323] claim that in A.D. 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosraw I of Armenia defeated Ardashir I of the Sassanid Empire and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh" ("this revenge" in Grabar). In A.D. 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III, king of Armenia.Edward Backhouse Eastwick. "Journal of a Diplomate's Three Years' Residence in Persia", Smith, Elder and Co., 1864, p. 327]

Medieval and renaissance history

In A.D. 791, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz Fact|or Gazaca?|date=April 2008 after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.

After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh as the later Ilkhanid capital of Azarbaijan until sacked by Tamerlane in 1392. Chosen as a capital by Arghun Khan, fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands,David Morgan, "The Mongols" p. 142] in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Egypt to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansaries were erected. The Byzantine Gregory Choniades is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time.Fact|date=March 2008

From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Kara Koyunlu state in Azarbaijan [V. Minorsky. "Jihān-Shāh Qara-Qoyunlu and His Poetry (Turkmenica, 9)", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 2 (1954), p. 277] , and from 1469 to 1501 the capital of Ak Koyunlu state.

In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid dynasty. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz fell for a few months to the Ottomans, yet was returned and remained a capital of Safavid Iranian empire until 1548, when Shah Tahmasp I moved Safavid capital to Qazvin.

The Ottomans occupied Tabriz on a number of occasions during and after the Safavid reign, including the period from 1585 to 1603. Nevertheless, by the 17th century it was a major commercial center, carrying out trade with the Ottoman Empire, Russia, central Asia, and India. Later, the city was again occupied (1724) by the Ottomans, and it was held by Russia in 1828.

Contemporary history

Tabriz was the city where the Constitutional Revolution of Iran started [Edward Shirley. "Know Thine Enemy: A Spy's Journey Into Revolutionary Iran", Westview Press, 1999, ISBN 0813335884, p. 170: "The 1906-11 Constitutional Revolution, Iran's first attempt to limit the power of its shahs, started in Tabriz, then the most Westernized Iranian city."] in 1906 and where its leaders, Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan came from. An American who died defending the Constitutional Revolution, Howard Baskerville, is buried in Tabriz.

Because of the location of Tabriz (as a gate to the west for Iran), many signs of modern life in Iran have first appeared in this city. Because of this, Iranians have described Tabriz as a "City of firsts". [ For a complete list of Firsts in Tabriz see:سرداري‌نيا، صمد. "تبريز شهر اولين‌ها"، تبريز: كانون فرهنگ و هنر آذربايجان، 1381] These include:
* The first printing house of Iran was founded in Tabriz (1811).
* The first modern school of Iran was founded in Tabriz by Hassan Roshdieh (1888). The language of instruction was Persian and Azari Turkish.
* The first Iranian special school for deaf children was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1924).
* The first Iranian special school for blind students was founded in Tabriz by a German mission (1926).
* The first Iranian kindergarten was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1923).
* The first modern-style municipality and city hall in Iran were founded in Tabriz.
* Tabriz Chamber of Commerce was the first of its kind founded in Iran (1906).
* The first public libraries in modern Iran were founded in Tabriz.
* The first movie theater in Iran was founded in Tabriz (1900). Also the first movie theater in Tehran was founded by a Tabrizi (1921).
* Tabriz was the first city in Iran that got a Telephone system (about 1900).

The famous Iranian historian, Ahmad Kasravi, was born in a nearby village called Hokmavar. Samad Behrangi, a famous writer and musicians, as well as Ali Salimi, Vahid Houseini, and Bigjeh-Khani were Tar (lute) specialists from this city.

After World War II, the Soviets set up the communist Azerbaijan People's Government in North Western Iran with its capital at Tabriz. The new communist government, under the leadership of Jafar Pishevari, held power for a year from 1946, then Tabriz was taken back by Iran (on 1947) after the forced Soviet withdrawal.

Historical timeline

* 4 BCE: It is the capital of "Media Atropatene" ,named after Atropates, an Iranian governor of the province (appointed by Alexander the Great).
* 297: It becomes the capital of Tiridates III, the king of Armenia.
* 791: Tabriz is rebuilt by Zubaidah, wife of Harun al-Rashid, after being destroyed by an earthquake.
* 858: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
* 1041: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
* late 1200s: The Mongol Il-Khan Arghun makes Tabriz his capital.
* 1501: Ismail Safavi crowned as Shah in Tabriz, founding the Safavid dynasty
* 1548: Tabriz is replaced by Qazvin as the capital of the Safavid kingdom. Tabriz was considered too exposed to a potential Ottoman invasion.
* 1721: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
* 1780: Another earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
* 1826: Tabriz is occupied by the Russians.
* 1828: Qajar army enters back in Tabriz.
* 1850: Báb, the founder of the Bábí Faith and Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh is executed in Tabriz.
* 1906 - 1908: Tabriz becomes the centre of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
* 1927: An earthquake destroyed large parts of Tabriz.
* 1941: Tabriz occupied by the Soviet troops.
* 1945: December: Becomes the capital of a short-lived Soviet-backed autonomous Azerbaijan People's Government.
* 1946: Tabriz University is opened.
* 1947: Iranian troops take back Tabriz.

Excavation sites

In 2002, during a construction project behind the Blue Mosque (Part of Silk Road Project), historical graves buried in a special way have been found. The construction company had hidden the finding for several months. Finally, the site was revealed by one of the workers who was involved at the construction site. Analysis has shown that the background of the graves to be more than 2000 years old.

There is another excavation site in Abbasi alley where the Robe Rashidi was.

Governing system

City authority lies with the mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents.

Tabriz City Hall (Saat Tower building) is used as the Municipal central office.

Climate

climate chart|Tabriz
-7|1|26
-4|4|25
0|10|47
6|16|54
11|22|42
15|29|18
20|33|3
19|32|4
14|28|9
8|20|28
2|12|29
-3|5|26

Tabriz has a dry continental climate (Köppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around convert|310|mm|in|0, a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months. In the summer, the weather is typically hot, dry and clear.

Culture

Language

The predominant language in the city is Azerbaijani. Almost all inhabitants of the city also can speak and understand Persian as well.

Literature

The music and folksongs of Tabriz are popular and traditions have a long history among its people. Prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The handicrafts in the Bazaar of Tabriz, and in particular the Tabriz rug is famous worldwide. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iran as well as the.

Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors illustrates:

ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران
شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران

Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,
For Tabriz is neighborhood of the beloved.
―"Molana"

عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود
که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود

A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,
who was always alert and awake at night
―"Bustan of Sadi"

تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است
نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس

As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of,
The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehran River are enough!
―"Khaqani"

Art of Rug

Tabriz is the number one center for production of the famous Iranian Rugs.

Nowaday Tabrizian carpets are the most wanted in world markets, having many customers in western countries from Europe to California.

Tabrizian rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. Rugs and carpets often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos and are of excellent quality.

Tabrizian modern rugs are in many different designs and colors.

Music

The classical music of Azerbaijan is called mugam ("muğam"), and is usually melded with poetry and instrumental interludes. The sung poetry sometimes includes tahrir segments, which use a form of throat singing similar to yodeling. The poetry is typically about divine love and is often linked to Sufi Islam.

In contrast to the mugam traditions of Central Asian countries, Azeri mugam is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of jazz. [2]

UNESCO proclaimed the Azerbaijani mugam tradition a "Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" on November 7, 2003.

Ashiqs are travelling bards who sing and play the saz, a form of lute. Their songs are semi-improvised around a common base.

Food and Confectionary

"kufta Tabrizi" (Azeri:Tabriz kufta si) is a special food prepared in Tabriz. Some restaurants offer kufta Tabrizi on their menu but the quality is not as good as when it is prepared by Tabriz families at home.

Another traditional food is "Garniyarikh' ("the torn abdomen" in Azeri).That is some kind of Dolma that is filled with meat, garlic, almonds that is so delicious.

Tabriz is also famous for its delicious cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialities, including "Ghorabiye, Eris, Nogha" and many others. They can be bought at markets: the most famous markets for this purpose are "Rex" (in Imam Ave near to Ferdowsi Ave.), "Tashrifat" (Abrassan Sq.), "Karimi" (Valieasr Quarter) and "Eftekhari" (Mansour Street)," Ayubi"(Abrassan Sq.) ,"Tesaj"(serah Sq.)

Tourism

Monuments

Several times in its history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721), Tabriz was devastated by earthquakes which wiped out most of the historic monuments. One important monument that has survived these earthquakes is the Tabriz Citadel (Ark-e Tabriz or Ark-e Alishah), a ruin of vertical book-shaped elements. The Blue Mosque of Tabriz (مسجد کبود "Gouy-Masjed") is another important monument in the city. Here is a list of city's monuments:
* Aji River Bridge, an old bridge on the Aji River, beside the airport street
* Ark-e Tabriz
* The Amir Nezam House
* Armenian church of Adontist
* Armenian church of Saint Mary
* Asurian church
* Bagh Golestan park
* Baghlar Baghi park
* Bazaar of Tabriz
* The Behnam House (School of Architecture, Islamic Art University of Tabriz)
* Goy Masjid (Blue Mosque)
* Bogh'e Imamzade Ibrahim
* Catholic church of Tabriz
* [http://www.tabriziau.ac.ir/vmhbt/charmsazy-history.htm Charm Sazi-e Khosravi] (Faculty of Applied Arts)
* Shrine in Eynali Mountain
* Ghari Bridge, 2 Historical Bridges on the Mehran River
* Jameh Mosque of Tabriz, located at raste-koucheh
* Maqbaratoshoara (Tumb of Poets)
* Nobar Hamami
* Saat Tower (Tabriz City Hall)
* Saheb ol Amr
* Seyed Hamzeh Grave
* Shah Gholi (Pool Of King) park
* Tabriz Fire Fighting Tower
* Tabriz Railway Station
* Tarbiyat street
* The House of Boulourchian
* The House of Mashrouteh (constitution)
* The House of Sheykh-al-Islam
* 2-Kamal Tomb,in Abbasi street
* sharbatoglu house , in seqat ol eslam street ,sorkhab alley no 62.

Museums

There are eight major museums in Tabriz:

* Museum of Azarbaijan in Khomeyni Street
* Measurement Museum
* Tabriz Constitution House (Museum of Constitution Revolution) in Bazaar
* Shahryar Literature Museum (House of Late Poet Shahryar) in Maqsoudieh Quarter
* Museum of Ostad Bohtouni in Laklar Quarter
* Museum of Qajar in Sheshghelan Quarter
* Museum of Nature in Azadi Street near to Abresan Crossway
* Museum of Iran municipalities history in saat (municipality) tower of Tabriz

Major hotels

* [http://www.parshotels.com 'Hotel Pars (Hotel El Gholi)] (International, 5 star) in Shah Goli
* [http://shahryarinternationalhotel.com/En/Home_E.htm Shahryar International Hotel] (5 star) in Shah Gholi Street
* Hotel Gostaresh (4 star) in Abresan Sq.
* [http://www.hoteltabriz.com/english.aspx Tabriz International Hotel] (4 star ) in Abresan Sq.
* Hotel Azarbaijan in Shahnaz Street
* Hotel Ark in Shahnaz Street
* Hotel Darya (3 star) in Khomeyni Street
* Hotel Park in Khomeyni Street
* Hotel Negin
* Hotel Sina, in front of Golestan Park (Gunga Bashi)
* Hotel Marmar, in Darvazeh Tehran road
* Kandovan Tourism Cliff (Rocky) Hotel (5 star), located at Kandovan touristy village. It is the first of its kind in Iran and the second in the world after Turkey's rocky hotel.
* and many hostels (with low cost) in Ferdowsi Street

Transportation

Since ancient times Tabriz has been known as a transportation center between West and East. It lies on the ancient Silk Road.

International

Currently Tabriz is linked to the world by Sento International Road, Iran Railways and Tabriz International Airport.

Inner City

Tabriz has taxi and public bus network. There are also some private groups which provide taxi services.

Metro Network (Subway Urban Train Network)

Tabriz does not have a completed subway train network at the moment. The government of Iran had planned to finish 6km of line No.1 of subway urban train network of Tabriz in 2006 but they could not reach to this goal because of financial problems. [ [http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=382628 [Tabriz Metro | U/C - SkyscraperCity ] ]

Education & Research

Universities & Research Centres

Tabriz University is one of Iran's most prestigious schools of higher education. A list of the universities and research centers in the city follows:

* University of Tabriz
* Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
* Sahand University of Technology
* [http://www.azaruniv.edu/ Tarbiat Moallem University of Azarbaijan]
* [http://www.tabriziau.ac.ir/ Tabriz Arts University]
* [http://www.ea-uast.ac.ir Elmi Karbordi University of Tabriz]
* [http://www.iaut.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Tabriz]
* [http://www.ucna.ac.ir University College of Nabi Akram]
* [http://www.seraj.ac.ir Seraj Higher Education Institute]
* Jahad Daneshgahi(ACECR) Higher Education Institute,East Azarbaijan branch , located at Jaam Jam Street
* Payame Noor University of Tabriz
* Khajeh Rashid University
* Imam Hossein University, Tabriz Branch
* [http://www.bttt.ir Shahid Beheshti Training Teacher Center of Tabriz]
* [http://www.eastp.ir East Azarbaijan Park of Science & Technology]
* [http://www.tct.ac.ir Tabriz college of Technology]
* Azzahra College of Technology, Tabriz, girls college
*State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training

Famous Schools

* Roshdieh School is the first modern Iranian school which was established by Haj-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh. Currently its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iranian Documents and Library Office.

* Memorial School (American School of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of its type. After World War II the school's name was changed to Parvin High School under Iran education ministry's management. Currently it is divided into three separate high schools and the original building is under reconstruction.

* Vahdat Technical College is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans during World War II. The main building has the shape of an "A" (the first letter of Germany in German Language).

* Ferdowsi High School is one of the largest and most prominent academic high schools in Tabriz. The original building was constructed by German Engineers before World War II (to serve as Hospital). The building has an aerial view as H.

* Teezhoushan School(Shahid Madani)(Farzanegan) (SAMPAD/NODET) middle and high schools established in 1989 for high I.Q talented students.

Religious Schools

* Valiiasr religious school
* Talebiieh Islamic Sciences School

Libraries

* Tabriz National Library ( Central Library of Tabriz ) was the biggest library in Tabriz. It has been reconstructed during last decade. It has numerous pieces of hand written Iranian literature.

* Tarbiat Library.

* Library of Helal Ahmar.

* Library of Farhangsara Tabriz.

* Library of Shahid Motahhari.

* Library of Shahryar.

Sport

Tabrizi people are fans of soccer. The city is the site of four Iranian major soccer teams:
* Machine Sazi F.C.
* Iranian Tractor Manufacturing Co F.C. (ITMCO)
* Shahrdari Tabriz F.C.
* Tabriz Petrochemical Complex F.C.Tabriz also has two stadiums for soccer:
* Bagh Shomal Stadium, with 20,000 Capacity
* Yadegar-e-Emam Stadium with 71,000 Capacity

Famous Tabrizian

ufi:

* Shams Tabrizi

Politicians and reformists:

*Sattar khan, nationalist revolutionary leader
*Baqer khan, nationalist revolutionary leader
*Mohammad Khiabani, cleric, a political leader during Iran's constitutionalist revolution
*Hasan Taqizadeh, politician (former President of the Iranian Senate), Diplomat and Scholar.
*Ahmad Kasravi, politician and author
*Iraj Mirza,
*Mirza Abdul'Rahim Talibov Tabrizi, intellectual and social reformer.
*Ali Soheili, Prime Minister of Iran
*Ebrahim Hakimi, Prime Minister of Iran
*Mahmud Jam, Prime Minister of Iran
*Ali Sadri,poet.and famous politician

Poet, Writer:

*Qatran Tabrizi, poet
*Homam Tabrizi, poet
*Parvin E'tesami, poetess
*Mohammad Hoseyn Behjat Tabrizi (Shahriyar), poet
*Mirza Taqikhan Raf'at Tabrizi, poet, writer, funder of Raf'at Literary School
*Irajmirza, poet
*Yadollah Maftun Amini, poet
*Abu'l Majd Tabrizi, compiler of Safina-yi Tabriz and also a writer
*Samad Behrangi, Famous Children's books writer
*Reza Baraheni, novelist, poet, critic and political activist
*Gholamhossein Saedi, writer, novelist, and political activist
*Naser Merqati, Poet, writer,
*Fariba Vafi, novelist

cientist:

*Mohsen Hashtroodi, Mathematician
*Javad Tabatabaei, political philosopher, historian and a distinguished university professor.

Clergy:

*Allameh Tabatabaei, one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam
*Allameh Mohammad Taghi Jafari, philosopher , thinker

Artist:

*Farhad Fakhredini, musician, Conductor of National Orchestra
*Kamal Tabrizi, movie producer
*Tahmineh Milani, film director, screenwriter, and producer
*Resam Arjangi, painter
*Behrouz Jamali, musician

Other

*Karim Bagheri, footballer
*Feridoun Jam, Marshal and previous head of Iran Imperial Army Core

"For a complete list see: List of people from Tabriz"

Major Industries

Heavy Industries

Tabriz is one of Iran's most important industrial cities. Its products include cement, machine tools, vehicles, petrochemical and many other industrial products. Some of the major industrial complexes in the city are listed below:
* [http://www.mst.ir/ Machine Sazi-e-Tabriz] , Producer of machine tools
* [http://www.itm.co.ir/ Iran Tractor Manufacturer Company (ITMCO)] , Producer of various types of vehicles
* [http://www.nipc.net/affiliated/english/tabriz.html Tabriz Petrochemical Complex] , One of main pertrochemical companies in the country
* [http://www.tbzrefinery.co.ir/ Tabriz Oil Refinery Complex] , The main oil refinery in the north west of country
* [http://www.iktbz.com/ Iran Khodro Tabriz] , It is a branch of Iran Khodro Indistrial Group, producer of a variety cars
* [http://www.rakhshkhodro.com/ Rakhsh Khodro Diesel,Tabriz] , Producer of various types of heavy vehicles and cars
* [http://www.idemco.com/ ‎‎I.D.E.M. Co. Iranian Diesel Engine Manufacturing Co.] , The leading manufacturer of diesel engines in middle east
* [http://www.charkheshgar.com/main.asp? Charkheshgar Co.] , The leading manufacturer of different types of auto gearbox in Iran
* [http://www.motogen.ir Motogen Co.] , The leading manufacturer of different type of electromotors in Iran
* [http://www.sahand-forklift.com/ Sahand Forklift Truck Co.] , Manufacturer of different type of Forklift Trucks
* Azarbaijan Glass industrial Company, Producer of any kind of standard glasses
* [http://www.simcat.ir/ Tabriz Wire and Cable Co. (Simcat)] , Producer of power wire and cables
* [http://www.iridco.ir/Farsi/PublicHistory.aspx Iran Rail Industrial Development Company]
* [http://www.soufiancement.com/English/e_home.htm Soufian Cement Company] , Cement supplier of civil projects in Northwest of Iran with highest quality in Cement producing.
* [http://www.cst-ir.com/ Compressor Sazi Tabriz Company] , first and the largest producer of various types of Air Compressors and Pneumatic tools

Major Chocolate Factories

Tabriz food industries, specially in chocolate manufacturing, are famous. That could be the reason to honor the city as Chocolate City of Iran also. Some of the most famous chocolate industries of inside the city are:
* [http://www.aidin.com/ Aidin (Dadash Baradar Co.)]
* [http://www.anataco.com/Index.htm ANATA (Nejati Industrial Group)]
* [http://www.shirinasal.com/ Shirin Asal co.]
* [http://www.chichak.net/en/ Chichak (Iran chocolate Co.)]
* [http://www.aysuda.com/defaultS.asp Aysuda (Shokouh Shad Shanjan Co.)]
* [http://www. chocomad.com/home.asp Shokomad (Shokomad Co.)]

Photo Gallery of Tabriz

----For a more extensive photo gallery of Tabriz see Tabriz City Photo Gallery.

Town twinning

The following is a list of Tabriz's sister cities:
* - Baku, Azerbaijan
* - Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
* - Istanbul, Turkey

Notes

References

* North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50
* [http://www.iranchamber.com/cities/tabriz/tabriz.php City of Tabriz on Iran Chamber Society (www.iranchamber.com)]
* [http://chap.sch.ir/ketabDetail.asp?id=215 Editorial Board, East Azarbaijan Geography, Iranian Ministry of Education, 2000] (High School Text Book in Persian)

External links

* [http://www.tabriziau.ac.ir/vmhbt/ Tabriz Historical Buildings Virtual Library - Related to Tabriz University]
* [http://www.irantour.org/Iran/city/TABRIZ.html Tabriz Information]
* [http://www.tabriz.com/ Tabriz Culture & Information Center]
* [http://www.geocities.com/tabrizazer Tabriz City]
* [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/tabriz.htm Tabriz from Encyclopaedia of the Orient]
* [http://www.tabrizcity.org/ Tabriz Municipal Office]
* [http://www.tabrizinfo.com/ tabrizinfo.com]
* [http://www.tmna.ir/index.asp Tabriz Municipality News Agency]
* [http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=382628 Tabriz Metro]
* [http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=403242 Hundreds of Tabriz Pictures]
* Bahram Moshiri's brief talk on Azarbaijan. [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=304775902151936247] .
* [http://illusions.hu/index.php?task=100&lang=0&statpage=111 A google video from Tabriz]


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  • TABRIZ — TABRIZ, capital of the Third Province, N.W. Iran . A Jewish community existed in Tabriz in the Middle Ages. Samauʾal b. Yahya al Maghribī, 12th century author of Ifhām al Yahūd, mentions Tabriz, together with Salmas (Shahpur) and Khoi, as a place …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Tabriz — (تبریز) es una ciudad de Irán, con una población de alrededor de 2,5 millones de habitantes. Es el centro de la provincia de Azerbaiyán Oriental. La ciudad está localizada en el noroeste de Irán al norte de la cordillera de Sahand. * * * (Täbriz) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • TABRIZ — TABR 壟Z Chef lieu de la province iranienne de l’Azerbaïdjan e Sharqui (65 842 km2; 4 390 000 habitants lors du recensement de 1991), Tabr 稜z se trouve au carrefour des routes et des voies ferrées reliant le plateau iranien à la mer Noire et aux… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Tabriz — Tabriz1 [tə brēz′] n. [after TABRIZ2] a Persian rug usually having a stiff pile and a medallion center with an arabesque border Tabriz2 [tä brēz′] city in NW Iran: pop. 1,089,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Tabriz — 38° 04′ 48″ N 46° 17′ 31″ E / 38.08, 46.2919444 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tabriz — تبریز Tabriz …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tabriz — Täbris DEC …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Täbriz — Täbris DEC …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tabriz — /tah breez , teuh /, n. a city in and the capital of Eastern Azerbaijan province, in NW Iran. 403,413. * * * City (pop., 1996: 1,191,043), northwestern Iran. Earthquakes and invasions by Arabs, Turks, and Mongols have damaged the city numerous… …   Universalium

  • Tabriz — I. noun (plural Tabriz) Etymology: Tabriz, Iran Date: 1900 a Persian rug usually having a cotton warp, firm wool pile, and a medallion design II. geographical name city NW Iran in Azerbaijan population 971,482 …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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