Albumin


Albumin

Albumin (Latin: albus, white) refers generally to any protein with water solubility, which is moderately soluble in concentrated salt solutions, and experiences heat coagulation (protein denaturation). Substances containing albumin, such as egg white, are called "albuminoids".

Types

erum albumin

The most well-known type of albumin is the serum albumin in the blood.

Serum albumin is the most abundant blood plasma protein and is produced in the liver and forms a large proportion of all plasma protein. The human version is human serum albumin, and it normally constitutes about 70% of human plasma protein; all other proteins present in blood plasma are referred to collectively as globulins.

Serum albumins are important in regulating blood volume by maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood compartment. They also serve as carriers for molecules of low water solubility, including lipid soluble hormones, bile salts, bilirubin, free fatty acids (apoprotein), calcium, iron (transferrin), and some drugs. Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites may cause drug interaction by increasing the free fraction of one of the drugs, thereby affecting potency.

Specific types include:
* human serum albumin
* bovine serum albumin (cattle serum albumin) or BSA, often used in medical and molecular biology labs.

Low albumin (hypoalbuminaemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption, malnutrition, late pregnancy, artefact, posture, genetic variations and malignancy.

High albumin is almost always caused by dehydration. In some cases of retinol (Vitamin A) deficiency the albumin level can become raised to borderline High-normal values. This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic)

Normal range of human serum albumin in adults (> 3 y.o.) is 3.5 to 5 g/dL. For children less than three years of age, the normal range is broader, 2.5-5.5 g/dL. ["Normal Ranges for Common Laboratory Tests." Rush University. [http://www.rush.edu/webapps/rml/RMLRangesCMP.jsp] ]

Other types

Other types include the storage protein ovalbumin in egg white, and different storage albumins in the seeds of some plants. Note that albumin is spelled with an "i" while "albumen" with an "e" is the white of an egg.

References

External links

*
* [http://www.albumin.org/ The Albumin website ]

See also

* Cohn process (human serum albumin purification method)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Albumin — Al*bu min, n. (Chem.) A thick, viscous nitrogenous substance, which is the chief and characteristic constituent of white of eggs and of the serum of blood, and is found in other animal substances, both fluid and solid, also in many plants. It is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Albumīn — (Chem. u. Physiol.), Eiweiß, Eiweißstoff gehört zu den verbreitetsten Körpern im Thier u. Pflanzenreiche, es findet sich namentlich als wesentlicher Bestandtheil aller sogenannten Ernährungsflüssigkeiten: so im Blute, Chylus u. in der Lymphe, in… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Albumīn — Albumīn, s. Eiweiß …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Albumin — Albumin, s. Eiweißstoffe …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Albumin — Albumīn, Eiweißstoff, im Eiweiß (Albumen) der Vogeleier (Eier A.) und in fast allen Säften des tierischen und pflanzlichen Körpers vorkommender Proteïnkörper (s.d.), im reinen Zustande eine blaß bernsteinfarbene, leicht zu einem weißlichen Pulver …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • albumin — v. albumină. Trimis de LauraGellner, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DN …   Dicționar Român

  • albumin — see ALBUMEN (Cf. albumen) …   Etymology dictionary

  • albumin — ► NOUN Biochemistry ▪ a water soluble form of protein found especially in blood serum and egg white and coagulable by heat. DERIVATIVES albuminous adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • albumin — [al byo͞o′min] n. [ ALBUM(EN) + IN1] any of a group of water soluble proteins found in milk, egg, muscle, blood, and in many vegetable tissues and fluids: albumins are coagulated by heat and are hydrolyzed to a number of amino acids: see GLOBULIN …   English World dictionary

  • Albumin — Albumine (lat.: albus, „weiß“) gehören wie die Globuline zur Gruppe der globulären Proteine. Albumin sorgt im menschlichen Organismus vor allem für Aufrechterhaltung des kolloidosmotischen Drucks und vermittelt vielen sonst wasserunlöslichen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.