Toyota Supra

Mark II (1982-1986)

In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The official model year is designated as 1986.5. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; they were now two completely different models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive, while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive platform. Though the Mark II and Mark III had similar designs, the engine was updated to a more powerful 3.0 Convert|200|hp|kW|0|abbr=on inline 6. Although only available in naturally aspirated trim in 1986.5, a turbocharged version of the engine was introduced in the 1987 model year. The Supra was now related mechanically to the Toyota Soarer for the Japanese market.

The new Mark III Supra engine was the flagship engine of Toyota's arsenal. Both versions of the engine contained 4 valves per cylinder and dual overhead cams. The turbocharged 7M-GTE engine was Toyota's first distributor-less engine offered in the U.S which used coil packs sitting on the cam covers and a cam position sensor off of the exhaust camshaftcite web|url=http://www.importworkshop.com/files/manuals/toyota/MK3_1990_Toyota_Supra.pdf|work=Toyota MK3 Supra: Factory Service Manual|title=FSM|accessdate=2008-01-11|format=PDF|year=1990|] . It was equipped with a CT26 turbocharger and was rated at Convert|230|hp|kW|0|abbr=on at 5600 RPM while the naturally-aspirated 7M-GE engine was rated at Convert|200|hp|kW|0|abbr=on at 6000 RPM. Further refinement on the turbo model increased power to Convert|232|hp|kW|0|abbr=on and Auto lbft|260 in 1989. This was mostly due to a redesign of the wastegate. Unfortunately, the engine was known for one main weakness as it aged: a blown head gasket. A common cure for this is to replace it with a multi-layered steel reinforced head gasket and ARP head studs torqued to the included ARP specs. It was later discovered that retorquing the factory head bolts would help prolong the head gasket life. At least the valve seal problem of the 5M engine was cured.

The reason for blowing head gaskets was due to Toyota only torquing the head gasket from the factory to Auto lbft|56-Auto lbft|58. This torque spec would have been more than adequate for the asbestos HG that was originally intended for the engine. Since Toyota did not switch the torque spec to roughly Auto lbft|72 when switching HG material, every 7M-GE that is left untouched is doomed to a fate of a 'BHG', usually between 125,000 miles and 175,000 miles (201,000km - 282,000km). A correctly torqued OEM HG will last as long as the engine will.

The naturally aspirated came as standard issue with the W58 manual transmission. The turbo versions included the more robust R154 manual transmission. Both were available with the optional 4-speed A340E automatic transmission.

During the year of 1989, the car received new tail lights, a front bumper, steering wheel, lower redline (due to the heavier crank with cylinders 2 & 5 counterbalanced), badging and side trim amongst other features. Modifications to the wastegate actuator, feed location and engine management netted another Convert|2|hp|kW|0|abbr=on on the turbo model. The engine mount and brace were also changed so it could accommodate the 1JZ engine for Japan models. Fortunately, this also allowed the 2JZ engine to be put in since they both use the same engine mounts. The protective body molding was also changed by taking away the steel reinforcement. This made the molding lighter and prevented the rusting problem on the previous years. For the 1991 model year, the wheel design was changed to 5-spoke wheels. Both models wore 16x7 aluminum alloy wheels that were fitted with 225/50/16 tires and full-sized spares on steel wheels. It was also the last Supra to come with hood struts and a full-sized spare wheel since they added weight.

The Supra was also available in two non-export models in Japan, the JZA70 with a 2.5 L Convert|280|hp|kW|0|abbr=on twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE, known as 2.5GT Twin Turbo (JZA70), and with a 2.0 L Convert|210|hp|kW|0|abbr=on twin-turbo 1G-GTE.

A special version of the 1JZ-GTE equipped JZA70, the 2.5 Twin Turbo R, had black/gray Recaro seats, a Torsen differential, additional braces to mount the diff, Bilstein suspension and uprated springs, Momo wheel and gear knob and matching interior trim. This was the fastest factory production version of the Mk3 Supra, running a mid 14 second 1/4 mile.

The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, options available for the Supra included 4-channel ABS and TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension) which gave the driver 2 settings which affected the damper rates; a third was automatically activated at WOT, hard braking, and high speed maneuvering. HKS also made a "TEMS Controller" to hack the system and activate it on the fly, though the controllers are now nearly impossible to find.

ACIS (Acoustic Controlled Induction System), a method of controlling air compression pulses inside the intake piping to increase power, was also apart of the 7M-GE's technological arsenal. All models were fitted with double wishbone suspensions front and rear. A targa top was offered along with a metal power sliding sunroof (added in '91).

The 7M-GTE MA71's top speed is convert|156|mi/h|km/h|0|abbr=on. Due to an extremely restrictive exhaust, the 7M responds very well to exhaust modifications; often yielding Convert|100|hp|kW|0|abbr=on more by switching to a 'divorced downpipe' (where rather than blocking off an exit for the wastegated exhaust, it gives the gas its own pipe to flow through) and full 3" diameter exhaust.

Turbo A

The Turbo-A was Toyota's evolution model for Group A touring car championships all over the world which required a minimum of 500 which were only sold in Japan and was produced between August and September 1987. Some noted differences between the standard Supra and the Turbo-A model are both cosmetic and some mechanical. The front nose features the ducting to cool the engine, the badging 'turboA' and a Black paint job (all 500 are black). The engine bay features a Convert|287|hp|kW|0|abbr=on 7M-GTEU. All Turbo-As also came standard with leather interior.

The car did not win as many races as hoped, being a 3.0 L it was forced to run with more weight where the R32 Skyline GTR didn't have the same restriction and was soon outmoded by the latter when it made its debut in 1990. For the JTCC Toyota would in 1991 switched to racing AE111 Corolla Levins in the lower category until the series final year in 1993. However in the less 'limited' racing it did considerably better.

Quick info

Mark IV (1993-2002)

With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more serious high performance car. Production started in December 1992 with only 20 models, but started mass production in April 1993.Fact|date=May 2008 The new Supra was completely redesigned, with rounded body styling and featured two new engines: a naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE producing convert|220|hp|kW PS|abbr=on at 5800 rpm and convert|210|ftlb|abbr=on at 4800 rpm of torque and a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making convert|280|hp|kW PS|0|abbr=on and convert|318|ftlb|N.m|abbr=on of torque for the Japanese version. For the export model (America/Europe) Toyota upgraded the Supra turbo's engine (smaller, steel wheeled turbochargers, bigger fuel injectors, etc.). This increased the power output to convert|320|hp|kW PS|abbr=on at 5600 rpm and convert|315|ftlb|abbr=on at 4000 rpm. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 mph in as low as 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds at convert|109|mi/h|km/h|0|abbr=on . The turbo version was tested to reach over convert|291|km/h|mi/h|0|abbr=on all-stock, but the cars are restricted to just convert|180|km/h|mi/h|0|abbr=on in Japan and convert|250|km/h|mi/h|0|abbr=on elsewhere. European versions also had an air intake on the bonnet (hood). Drag coefficient is .31 for the naturally aspirated models and .32 for the turbo models and N/A's with the rear spoiler.

The MKIV Supra's twin turbos operated in sequential mode instead of the more common parallel mode. The sequential setup featured a pair of CT-12b turbos, with ceramic blades for the domestic Japanese market and steel blades for export (USA, Europe) markets. Initially all of the exhaust is routed to the first turbine for reduced lag. This resulted in boost and enhanced torque as early as 1800 rpm. Approaching 3500 RPM, some of the exhaust is routed to the second turbine for a "pre-boost" mode, although none of the compressor output is used by the engine at this point. Approaching 4000 RPM, the second turbo's output is used to augment the first turbo's output. As opposed to the parallel mode, the sequential turbos provides quicker low RPM response and increased high RPM boost. The valve seal problem was back from the Mark II engines. Another weakness is the engine mounts.

For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag/Toyota V160 gearbox on the Turbo models while the naturally aspirated models made do with a 5-speed manual W58, revised from the previous version. Both models were offered with a 4-speed automatic with a manumatic mode. However, the turbo model utilized larger 4-piston brake calipers on the front and 2-piston calipers for the rear. The base model used smaller 2-piston calipers for the front and a single piston caliper for the rear. The turbo models were fitted with 235/45/17 tires on the front and 255/40/17 tires for the rear. The base model used 225/50/16 for the front and 245/50/16 for the rears. All vehicles were equipped with 5-spoke aluminium alloy wheels and a "donut" spare tire on a steel wheel to save weight and space. Additionally, there are other differences in the rear axle differential, headlight assemblies, throttle body, oil cooler and myriad additional sensors that exist on the turbo model which do not exist on the normally aspirated model.

Toyota took measures to reduce the weight of the current model compared to the previous model. Aluminium was used for the hood, targa top (if so equipped), front crossmember, oil and transmission pans, and the suspension upper A-arms. Other measures included dished out head bolts, hollow carpet fibers, magnesium steering wheel, plastic gas tank and lid, gas injected rear spoiler, and a single pipe exhaust. Despite having more features such as dual airbags, traction control, larger brakes, larger wheels, larger tires, and an additional turbo, the car was at least convert|200|lb|abbr=on lighter than its predecessor. The base model with a manual transmission had a curb weight of convert|3210|lb|abbr=on. The Sport Roof added convert|40|lb|abbr=on while the automatic transmission added convert|55|lb|abbr=on. It had 51% of its weight up front and 49% to the rear wheels. The turbo model came in as convert|3505|lb|abbr=on with the manual and the automatic added another convert|10|lb|abbr=on. The front wheels held 53% of the weight and the rear wheels had 47% of the weight.

For the 1996 model year in the U.S., the turbo model was only available with the automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. The targa roof was made standard on all turbo models. For 1997, the manual transmission returned for the optional engine along with a redesign of the tail lights, headlights, front fascia, chromed wheels, and other minor changes such as the radio and steering wheel designs. The SZ-R model was also updated with the introduction of a six-speed Getrag V161 transmission, the same used for the twin-turbo RZ models. All 1997 models included badges that said "Limited Edition 15th Anniversary." For 1998, the radio and steering wheel were redesigned once again. The naturally aspirated engine was enhanced with VVT-i which raised the output by Convert|5|hp|kW PS|0|abbr=on and convert|10|ft.lbf|N.m|abbr=on of torque. The turbo model was not available in California, New Jersey, New York and Massachusetts due to increased emission regulations. In Japan, the turbo engines were installed with VVT-i as well.

The stock MKIV Supra chassis has also proven an effective platform for roadracing, with several top 20 and top 10 [http://www.onelapofamerica.com/history/2003/results/showResults.shtml?y=2003&res=SSGT1 "One Lap Of America"] finishes in the SSGT1 class. The Supra is one of the heavier 2-door Japanese sports cars, however still lighter than the Nissan R33 and R34 Skyline GTRs to which the Supra is traditionally a rival in its home country. The Supra was also lighter than the Mitsubishi 3000GT VR4 and the Nissan 300ZX Turbo. Despite its curb weight, in 1994 the MKIV managed a remarkable skidpad rating of 0.95 lateral g's (200ft) or 0.98 lateral g's (300ft) [http://mkiv.com/publications/road&track/3_93/rt393_06.jpg] due in part to a four-sensor four-channel track tuned ABS system with yaw control whereby each caliper is sensored and the brakes are controlled individually according to the speed, angle, and pitch of the approaching corner. This unique Formula One inspired braking system allowed the Supra Turbo to record a convert|70|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on -0 braking distance of convert|149|ft|m|0 [http://mkiv.com/publications/car&driver/3_97/page3.jpg] , the best braking performance of any production car tested in 1997 by Car and Driver magazine. This record was finally broken in 2004 by convert|3|ft|m by a Porsche Carrera GT.

Due to the strength of the stock non turbo engine, the 2JZ series 1994-1996 has remained a popular import platform for modification. This non-turbo engine pulls from 0-100 km/h in as few as 6.2 seconds and has convert|220|hp|kW PS|abbr=on from factory.

Sales to Canada were ceased in 1997 (there were no 1996 Celicas), and in the US in 1998. Production continued in Japan until August 2002, ceasing due to restrictive emission standards to be adhered to by 2003.

Mark V

Throughout the past couple of years, major print and online auto publications have hinted at a possible revival of the Supra, pointing the car in different directions. The vehicle was originally thought to be the flagship or halo model in the Toyota lineup, be powered by a high output V8, and have an estimated cost anywhere between $50,000 and $70,000. Other rumors hint at a V10 F1-inspired powerplant, like the current BMW M5 and M6, though 2006 saw F1 engines change to V8s. Power is convert|500|bhp|kW PS|0|abbr=on or more, as this was likely due to the increasing number of sighting of a high performance sports car being tested throughout Europe and, more specifically, on the Nürburgring. These vehicles turned out to be the test mules for Lexus' future Lexus LF-A.cite web|url=http://www.lexus.ca/lexus/experience/en/home/concept/concept_vehicles.jsp|work=lexus.ca|title=Lexus LF-A|accessdate=2006-12-22]

Topspeed.com was among a number of publications that claimed that there will be a return of the Supra in 2008 cite web|url=http://www.topspeed.com/cars/toyota/toyota-supra-ar6872.html|work=topspeed.com|title=2008 Toyota Supra|accessdate=2006-12-22] but Toyota disclaimed this rumor on August 15, 2006. The same numerous publications that originally speculated on a future Supra all stated no new vehicle was being developed. According to an "AutoWeek" article on current and upcoming Toyota vehicles, all rumors on the Supra's return are false.cite web|url=http://www.autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060815/FREE/60814015/1041/TOC01ARCHIVE|title=Future Products--Toyota|accessdate=2006-12-22|date=2006-08-15|publisher=AutoWeek] "Automotive News" also claim Toyota has absolutely no plans for a Supra in the future. [http://www.leftlanenews.com/2006/08/15/report-no-new-supra-is-convertible-delayed-new-sc-in-2008/ Report: No New Supra] - Left Lane News article stating no future Supra is currently being planned]

:" All the rumors of the two-passenger sports car's return are false." - Automotive News

The Toyota FT-HS (Future Toyota-Hybrid Sport), [ [http://www.automobilemag.com/auto_shows/2007_detroit/0702_2007_toyota_ft_hs_concept/ 2007 Toyota FT-HS Concept - Latest News, Features, and Auto Show Coverage - Automobile Magazine:] ] which debuted at the 2007 North American International Auto Show, was stated to be a concept for a vehicle that could fill the gap in Toyota's line-up left by the Supra. [ [http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=118933 It's only a concept car for the Detroit auto show, but it might become the next Supra] - accessed December 27, 2006] According to "Automobile Magazine", Toyota is planning to launch a production version of the FT-HS in 2009. [ [http://www.automobilemag.com/features/news/0706_2009_toyota_ft_hs/index.html Toyota FT-HS Concept is a Go For 2009] "Automobile Magazine" accessed on May 29, 2007] Toyota has yet to make an official announcement so it is unknown if it will wear the Supra nameplate.

Motorsport

Awards

*The MK II, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by "Motor Trend". It also made "Car and Driver" magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.
*In 1994, the MK IV Supra won "Popular Mechanics" "Design & Engineering awards".

United States timeline

*1979 - Celica Supra MK I introduced with Auto cc|2563 SOHC 4M-E I6 engine.
*1981 - MK I engine displacement upped to Auto cc|2759 with SOHC 5M-E I6 engine.
*1982 - MK II Celica Supra introduced with a Auto cc|2759 DOHC 5M-GE I6 engine.
*1986 - 1986.5 MK III Supra introduced on its own platform with Auto cc|2954 DOHC 7M-GE I6 engine.
*1987 - Option of turbocharger to Auto cc|2954 DOHC 7M-GTE engine that produces Convert|230|hp|kW|0|abbr=on Auto lbft|245.
*1989 - Restyled. Turbo power increase to Convert|232|hp|kW|0|abbr=on & Auto lbft|250.
*1993 - 1993.5 MK IV Supra introduced with Auto cc|2997 turbo (2JZ-GTE) or non-turbo (2JZ-GE) DOHC engine.
*1996 - Turbo only available with Automatic transmission due to OBD2 certification requirements. Targa roof standard on all Turbo models.
*1997 - Manual transmission available on turbo models. Restyled. All 1997 labeled as 15th Anniversary model. Japanese production stopped in September.
*1998 - Slight restyling of interior. VVT-i on non-turbo models which increased power. Turbos not available in states that require California emissions.
*1999 - Export of MK IV Toyota Supra halted in the U.S., production in Japan continues.
*2002 - Production of MK IV Toyota Supra halts.

References

External links

* [http://www.toyota.co.uk/cgi-bin/toyota/bv/frame_start.jsp?id=Heritage_Supra_Main Official Toyota Supra site - UK] en icon
* [http://www.toyota.com/vehicles/supra/supra.html Toyota.com : Vehicles : Supra] (official site)


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