- Ma'alot massacre
The Ma'alot massacre was an attack by Palestinian militants on May 15, 1974 in
Ma'alot, Israel, in which 22 Israeli high school students, aged 14-16, from Safedwere killed by members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/833554.html] Before reaching the school, the militants shot and killed several other people. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,911276,00.html?iid=chix-sphere "Bullets, Bombs and a Sign of Hope"] "TIME, May 27, 1974. Time magazine's description of the events]
Ma'alot, located on a plateau in the hills of the
Western Galileeregion of Israel, six miles south of the Lebanese border, [ [http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/tm_objectid=17538670&method=full&siteid=94762&headline=israel-s-front-line-children--name_page.html Iain Mayhew, ‘Israel’s Front Line Children,’ Mirror10 August 2006,] ] is a development town founded in 1957 by Jewish immigrants, mainly from Moroccoand Tunisia. The attack was carried out by three members of the Popular Democratic Front, al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiyya li-Tahrir Filastin - Ahmed Lini, Ahmed Haribi and Ziad Rachim, who were dressed in Israeli army uniforms. [http://palestinefacts.org/pf_1967to1991_terrorism_1970s.php]
The militants infiltrated through the Nahal
Mattatnature reserve from south of the Lebanese village of Ramish. The group entered Israel near Moshav Zar'iton Sunday night, May 13. They were armed with AK-47assault rifles, hand grenades, and plastic explosives of Czechoslovakian manufacture. They hid until the next night in the orchards near the Druzevillage of Hurfeish. A border patrol unit discovered their footprints but could not follow the trail, and mistakenly reported to superiors that the footprints belonged to smugglers. Fact|date=October 2008
Proceeding to Ma'alot up the winding road, they encountered a van driven by a Druze resident of Hurfiesh bringing Christian Arab women from the village of
Fassutahome from work at the Ata textile works in the HaifaBay area. The commander of the operation, Lini, stood on the roadway and opened fire on the vehicle, killing a woman and wounding both the driver and other workers. The driver turned off the headlights and drove backwards up the hill towards Moshav Tzuriel.
Reaching Ma'alot, the militants knocked on the doors of several homes. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,911276,00.html?iid=chix-sphere "Bullets, Bombs and a Sign of Hope"] "TIME, May 27, 1974. Time magazine's description of the events] Fortuna and Yosef Cohen heard the noise and opened their door. The militants shot and killed the couple, their 4-year old son Eliahu and 5-year old daughter Miriam. Fortuna, seven months pregnant, tried to flee the intruders, but was also shot. The only one in the family who survived was 16-month-old Yitzhak, a deaf-mute. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,911276,00.html?iid=chix-sphere "Bullets, Bombs and a Sign of Hope" "TIME, May 27, 1974. Time magazine's description of the events] From there, the militants headed for the Netiv Meir elementary school where students on a school trip were lodged. On the way, they met Yaakov Kadosh, a sanitation worker, and asked for directions to the school. They beat and shot him, leaving him for dead.
Netiv Meir elementary school was a three-story concrete building with apartment buildings under construction nearby. The militants entered the building at 4 a.m., taking 102 students hostage. Some managed to escape by jumping out of windows, but 85 students and several teachers were held hostage. The students were forced to sit on the floor at gunpoint, with explosive charges between them.
In the morning, the captors demanded the release from Israeli prisons of 23 Arab and three other prisoners, including
Kozo Okamoto- a Japanese national involved in the 1972 Lod Airport Massacre. Unless these conditions were met, they declared that they would kill the students. The deadline was set for 6:00 p.m. the same day.
At 10 a.m. a young man named Sylvan Zerach tried to climb a water tower not far from the school building to get a closer view of what was going on. He was shot to death by one of the hostage-takers.
Mordechai Gurwas in favor of negotiating with the hostage-takers, but according to Noam Chomsky, he was overruled by Moshe Dayan. [ Noam Chomsky, "Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World," South End Press, Cambridge Mass. rev.edition 2002 p.65, citing Uri Milstein, "Monitin", August 1984] At an emergency session of the Knesset, a decision was reached to negotiate, but the hostage-takers turned down a request for more time. [Stohl, Michael. 1983. "Demystifying Terrorism: The Myths and Realities of Contemporary Political Terrorism," in M. Stohl (ed.) "The Politics of Terrorism," 2nd edition. Marcel Dekker, p. 10. ]
At 17:25, the commander of the elite
Sayeret MatkalSpecial Forces group was given the ‘green light’ to storm the building. The assault force was divided into three units; two to break in from the entrance while a third was to climb a ladder and enter from a window facing north. The squads moved into position from the blind side to the east, from the frames of some apartment buildings under construction The operation was to have been coordinated with simultaneous sniper fire on the three hostage-takers. At 17:32 the first squad entered the building through the main entrance on the first floor, which was blocked with tables and chairs. The first three-man team, led by Yuval Galili of Kibbutz Geva, was hit by gunfire on the stairs leading to the second floor. Galili threw a phosphorus grenade into the second floor hallway to create a smokescreen. The smoke from the explosion blinded the second team led by Amiran Levine, which had been ordered to take out Lini, at that time posted at the third floor window where he had shot Zerach.
When they broke into the classroom where the students were being held, Haribi grabbed a student, Gabi Amsalem, and held him at gunpoint on the floor. Rachim was shot dead but Lini managed to reach the classroom, grab ammunition clips from the teacher’s desk and reload his weapon. He then sprayed the students with machinegun fire and tossed grenades out the window. When a burst of fire broke his left wrist, he threw two grenades at a group of girls huddled on the floor. Several students leaped from the windows to the ground, some ten feet below.
Twenty-two high school students were killed in the attack, including Ilana Turgeman, Rachel Aputa, Yocheved Mazoz, Sarah Ben-Shim'on, Yona Sabag, Yafa Cohen, Shoshana Cohen, Michal Sitrok, Malka Amrosy, Aviva Saada, Yocheved Diyi, Yaakov Levi, Yaakov Kabla, Rina Cohen, Ilana Ne'eman, Sarah Madar, Tamar Dahan, Sarah Sofer, Lili Morad, David Madar and Yehudit Madar. Over 50 were wounded. The student victims were buried in their hometown, Safed. [http://web.israelinsider.com/bin/en.jsp?enPage=ArticlePage&enDisplay=view&enDispWhat=object&enDispWho=Article%5El4085&enZone=Security&enVersion=0& ] . Some of the 10,000 mourners who attended the funerals chanted "Death to the terrorists." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/16/newsid_2512000/2512399.stm]
The next day the
Israel Defence Forceplanes bombed offices and training bases of the Popular Democratic Front and the Popular Front. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/16/newsid_2512000/2512399.stm 1974] According to a BBCreport, the bombing inflicted damage in seven Palestinian refugeecamps and villages in southern Lebanon, leaving 27 dead and 138 injured. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/16/newsid_2512000/2512399.stm 1974]
In 2007, American filmmakers visited Ma'alot to film a documentary on the massacre. A memorial corner in the library of the Netiv Meir school displays photographs of the victims and archival footage on the massacre. A feature movie is also being planned. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/833554.html]
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