Julia Morgan

Infobox Architect

name=Julia Morgan
birth_date=birth date|1872|1|20
birth_place=San Francisco, United States
death_date=death date and age|1957|02|2|1872|01|20
significant_buildings=Los Angeles Examiner Building
The YWCA in Chinatown, San Francisco
Riverside Art Museum
Asilomar Conference Grounds
significant_projects=Hearst Castle

Julia Morgan (January 20, 1872February 2, 1957) was an American architect. The architect of over 700 buildings in California, [cite news
last =Davies
first =Stacy
coauthors =
title =Best Architectural Wonder—The Riverside Art Museum
work =Inland Empire Weekly
pages =p. 21
language =
publisher =Alternative Weekly Network
date =2007-10-11
url =http://www.ieweekly.com/Oct4-Oct10_2007issue26.pdf
accessdate =2007-10-13
] she is best known for her work on Hearst Castle in San Simeon, California. Throughout her long career, she designed multiple buildings for institutions serving women and girls.

Early life and education

Born in San Francisco, California, she was raised in Oakland and graduated from Oakland High School in 1890. She graduated from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1894 with a degree in civil engineering. At the urging of her friend and mentor Bernard Maybeck, whom she met in her final year in undergraduate school, she headed to Paris to apply to the famous Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Denied at first because the school was not accepting women, and a second time because she failed the entrance exam (she claimed in a letter that she had been failed deliberately because she was a woman [ [http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2006-09/BeyondSanSimeon.html Reichers, M. (2006). Beyond San Simeon. "Humanities", September/October 2006, Volume 27/Number 5] ] ), after two years she finally passed the entrance exams in the architecture program, placing 13th out of 376 applicants [ [http://www.capitolmuseum.ca.gov/english/remarkable/panel4.html Julia Morgan: Early Architect. California State Capitol website] ] , and was duly admitted. She was the first woman to graduate with a degree in architecture from the school in Paris.


Upon her return from Paris she took employment with the San Francisco architect John Galen Howard who was at that time supervising the University of California Master Plan. Morgan worked on several buildings on the UC Berkeley campus, most notably providing the decorative elements for the Hearst Mining Building, and designs for the Hearst Greek Theatre.

In 1904, she opened her own office in San Francisco. One of her earliest works from this period was North Star House in Grass Valley, California, commissioned in 1906 by mining engineer Arthur De Wint Foote and his wife, the author and illustrator, Mary Hallock Foote. Naturally, many commissions followed the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, ensuring her financial success.

The most famous of Morgan's patrons was the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, who had been introduced to Morgan by his mother Phoebe Apperson Hearst, the chief patroness of the University of California at Berkeley. It is believed that this introduction led to Morgan's first downstate commission by Hearst, circa 1914, for the design of the Los Angeles Examiner Building, .

The Julia Morgan School for Girls [http://www.juliamorganschool.org/ Julia Morgan School for Girls] in Oakland is named after her. The school is the only middle school for girls in the East Bay. It occupies Alderwood Hall at Mills College, a 1924 building designed by Morgan.cite news | last = Ito | first = Susan | title = Julia Morgan at Mills | work = Mills Quarterly | pages = 14 | date = Winter 2004 | url = http://www.mills.edu/alumnae/publications/backissues/W2004_03.pdf | publisher = Mills College | accessdate = 2008-02-27]

Her best-known works not commissioned by Hearst include the YWCAs in San Francisco's Chinatown, Oakland, and Riverside, the latter of which is now the Riverside Art Museum, as well as a World War I YWCA Hostess House in Palo Alto which has been the site of MacArthur Park restaurant [ [http://www.macpark.com MacArthur Park - Fine Dining, Events and Catering in Palo Alto, CA: Home Page ] ] since 1981, the Mills College Bell Tower, St. John's Presbyterian Church in Berkeley, the Chapel of the Chimes in Oakland, the Asilomar Conference Grounds in Pacific Grove near Monterey, California, the sanctuary at 32 Ocean Avenue, San Francisco, where [Mission Bay Community Church] now meets and several houses on San Francisco's Russian Hill. Some of her residential projects, most of them located in the San Francisco Bay Area, may be categorized as ultimate bungalows, a term often associated with the work of Greene and Greene and some of Morgan's other contemporaries and teachers.

Morgan is buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland.

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver announced on May 28, 2008 that Morgan will be inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts. The induction ceremony will take place December 10th and her great-niece will accept the honor in her place.


*Boutelle, Sara Holmes (1988). "Julia Morgan, Architect." New York: Abbeville Press.
*Morgan, J. (1976). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/58882003&referer=brief_results Architectural drawings by Julia Morgan: beau-arts assignments and other buildings] . Oakland, Calif: Oakland Museum, Art Dept.
*Steilberg, W. T., & Morgan, J. (1983). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/23465769&referer=brief_results Some examples of the work of Julia Morgan] . San Francisco: Architect and Engineer of California.
*Morgan, J., Hearst, W. R., & Loe, N. E. (1987). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/16866193&referer=brief_results San Simeon revisited: the correspondence between architect Julia Morgan and William Randolph Hearst] . San Luis Obispo, Calif: Library Associates, California Polytechnic State University.
*Morgan, J. (1987). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/19479144&referer=brief_results Berkeley houses by Julia Morgan] . [Berkeley, Calif.] : The Association.

Further reading

*Longstreth, R. W. (1977). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/3446933&referer=brief_results Julia Morgan, architect. Berkeley Architectural Heritage publication series, no. 1] . [Berkeley, Calif.] : Berkeley Architectural Heritage Association.
*University of California, Berkeley. (1986). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/50159106&referer=brief_results Julia Morgan, architectural drawings: inventory of holdings, College of Environmental Design] . Berkeley: The College.
*Pasadena Cultural Heritage Commission. (1988). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/18433474&referer=brief_results Report on reuse of the Julia Morgan YWCA building: YWCA & YMCA Pasadena, California] . New York: Halsband.
*Quacchia, R. L. (2005). [http://worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/62952271&referer=brief_results Julia Morgan, architect, and the creation of the Asilomar Conference Grounds: including a comparison with Hearst Castle] . [Virginia Beach, Va.] : Q Pub.
*McNeill, Karen (May 2007). "Julia Morgan: Gender, Architecture, and Professional Style." Pacific Historical Review, pp. 229-267.


External links

* [http://www.lib.calpoly.edu/specialcollections/findingaids/ms010/ The Julia Morgan Collection at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo]
* [http://www.lib.calpoly.edu/specialcollections/architecture/juliamorgan/ Julia Morgan An Online Exhibition]
* [http://www.hearstcastle.org/history/julia_morgan.asp Julia Morgan at Hearst Castle]
* [http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/jmindex/genericindex.html Index of Buildings by Julia Morgan]
* [http://www.northstarhouse.org/history.htm North Star House Foundation]
* [http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Wyntoon.html Wyntoon at Great Buildings Online]
* [http://www2.arch.uiuc.edu/organizations/wia/archtspotl/morganjulia.html Women in Architecture]
* [http://www.edhat.com/site/tidbit.cfm?id=1034 Carrillo Rec Center in Santa Barbara]
* [http://www.home.earthlink.net/~hdrctw34 William J. Dodd: American Architect & Designer ~ Los Angeles]
* [http://www.juliamorgan.org/ Julia Morgan Center for the Arts ~ Berkeley, CA]

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