Edwards syndrome


Edwards syndrome

Infobox_Disease
Name = Trisomy 18


Caption = Chromosome 18
DiseasesDB = 13378
ICD10 = ICD10|Q|91|0|q|90-ICD10|Q|91|3|q|90
ICD9 = ICD9|758.2
ICDO =
OMIM =
MedlinePlus =
eMedicineSubj = ped
eMedicineTopic = 652
MeshID =

Trisomy 18 or Edwards Syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 18th chromosome. It is named after John H. Edwards, who first described the syndrome in 1960. [cite web|url=http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/3438.html|title=Edwards syndrome (John Hilton Edwards)|publisher=WhoNamedIt.com|accessdate=2008-07-24] It is the most common autosomal trisomy, after Down Syndrome, that carries to term. Trisomy 18 is caused by the presence of three — as opposed to two — copies of chromosome 18 in a fetus or infant's cells. The incidence of the syndrome is estimated as one in 3,000 pregnancies and approximately one in 6,000 live births. The incidence increases as the mother's age increases. The syndrome has a very low rate of survival, resulting from heart abnormalities, kidney malformations, and other internal organ disorders.

Prognosis

The survival rate of Edwards Syndrome is very low. About 95% die "in utero". Of liveborn infants, only 50% live to 2 months, and only 5–10% will survive their first year of life. Major causes of death include apnea and heart abnormalities. It is impossible to predict the exact prognosis of an Edwards Syndrome child during pregnancy or the neonatal period. Because major medical interventions are routinely withheld from these children, it is difficult to determine what the survival rate or prognosis would be with aggressive medical treatment. The median life span is five to fifteen days. [cite book|last=Rodeck|first=Charles H. |coauthors=Whittle, Martin J. |title=Fetal Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Practice|publisher=Elsevier Health Sciences|date=1999|isbn=044305357X|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=0BY0hx2l5uoC&pg=PA555&dq=Trisomy+18&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a&sig=ACfU3U0a7Zv57yptaVir5OE6D9VuAY0uBg#PPA555,M1] [cite web|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYD/is_5_38/ai_98830102|title=Trisomy 13 survival can exceed 1 year|last=Zoler|first=Mitchel L. |date= March 1, 2003|publisher=OB/GYN News|accessdate=2008-07-24] One percent of children born with this syndrome live to age ten, typically in cases of the less severe mosaic Edwards syndrome.

Incidence/prevalence

The rate of occurrence for Edwards Syndrome is approximately one in 3,000 (for conception) and approximately one in 6,000 (for live births), as 50% of those diagnosed prenatally with the condition will not survive the prenatal period. Although women in their 20s and 30s may conceive Edwards Syndrome babies, there is an increased risk of conceiving a child with Edwards Syndrome as a woman's age increases, with the average age for this disorder being 32½. [cite web |url=http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/e/edwards_syndrome/prevalence.htm |title=Prevalence and Incidence of Edwards Syndrome |accessdate=2008-02-17 |date=2008-02-04 |work=Diseases Center-Edwards Syndrome |publisher=Adviware Pty Ltd. |quote=mean maternal age for this disorder is 32½]

Genetics

Edwards syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the presence of an extra copy of genetic material on the 18th chromosome, either in whole (trisomy 18) or part (such as due to translocations). The additional chromosome usually occurs before conception. The effects of the extra copy vary greatly among people, depending on the extent of the extra copy, genetic history, and chance. Edwards syndrome occurs in all human populations, but is more prevalent in females.cite web|url=http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic652.htm#section~Introduction|title=Introduction to Trisomy 18|last=Chen, MD|first=Harold |publisher=EMedicine|accessdate=2008-07-24]

A healthy egg or sperm cell contains individual chromosomes — one to contribute to each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes needed to form a normal cell with typical human karyotype of 46 chromosomes. Numerical errors arise at either of the two meiotic divisions and cause the failure of segregation of a chromosome into the daughter cells (non-disjunction). This results in an extra chromosome making the haploid number 24 rather than 23. Fertilization of these eggs or sperm that contain an extra chromosome results in trisomy, or three copies of a chromosome rather than two. [For a description of human karyotype see cite web |author=Mittleman, A. (editor) |year=1995 |url=http://www.iscn1995.org/ |title=An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomeclature |accessdate = 2006-06-04]

Trisomy 18 (47,XX,+18) is caused by a meiotic nondisjunction event. With nondisjunction, a gamete ("i.e.", a sperm or egg cell) is produced with an extra copy of chromosome 18; the gamete thus has 24 chromosomes. When combined with a normal gamete from the other parent, the embryo now has 47 chromosomes, with three copies of chromosome 18.

A small percentage of cases occur when only some of the body's cells have an extra copy of chromosome 18, resulting in a mixed population of cells with a differing number of chromosomes. Such cases are sometimes called mosaic Edwards syndrome. Very rarely, a piece of chromosome 18 becomes attached to another chromosome (translocated) before or after conception. Affected people have two copies of chromosome 18, plus extra material from chromosome 18 attached to another chromosome. With a translocation, the person has a partial trisomy for chromosome 18 and the abnormalities are often less than for the typical Edwards syndrome.

Features and characteristics

Infants born with Edwards syndrome may have some or all of the following characteristics: kidney malformations, structural heart defects at birth (i.e., ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus), intestines protruding outside the body (omphalocele) esophageal atresia, mental retardation, developmental delays, growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, breathing difficulties, and arthrogryposis (a muscle disorder that causes multiple joint contractures at birth).cite web|url=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/001661.htm|title=Trisomy 18|publisher=Medline|accessdate=2008-07-24]

Some physical malformations associated with Edwards syndrome include: a small head (microcephaly) accompanied by a prominent back portion of the head (occiput), low-set, malformed ears, abnormally small jaw (micrognathia), cleft lip/cleft palate, upturned nose, narrow eyelid folds (palpebral fissures), widely-spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism), drooping of the upper eyelids (ptosis), a short breast bone, clenched hands, underdeveloped thumbs and or nails, absent radius, webbing of the second and third toes, clubfoot or "Rocker bottom feet", and undescended testicles in males.cite web|url=http://www.trisomy18.org/site/PageServer?pagename=parents_whatisT18|title=What is Trisomy 18?|publisher=Trisomy 18 Foundation|accessdate=2008-07-24]

In utero, the most common characteristic is cardiac anomalies, followed by central nervous system anomalies such as head shape abnormalities. The most common head shape anomaly is the presence of choroid plexus cysts, which is a pocket of fluid on the brain that is not problematic in itself but may be a marker for Trisomy 18.cite journal |author=Hurt K, Sottner O, Záhumenský J, "et al" |title= [Choroid plexus cysts and risk of trisomy 18. Modifications regarding maternal age and markers] |language=Czech |journal=Ceska Gynekol |volume=72 |issue=1 |pages=49–52 |year=2007 |pmid=17357350 |doi=] cite journal |author=Papp C, Ban Z, Szigeti Z, Csaba A, Beke A, Papp Z |title=Role of second trimester sonography in detecting trisomy 18: a review of 70 cases |journal=J Clin Ultrasound |volume=35 |issue=2 |pages=68–72 |year=2007 |pmid=17206726 |doi=10.1002/jcu.20290] Sometimes excess amniotic fluid or polyhydramnios is exhibited.

References

*Stenson, Carol M. (1999). "Trisomy 18: A Guidebook for Families". University of Nebraska Medical Center. ISBN 1-889843-29-6.
*Barnes, Ann M. (2000). "Care of the infant and child with trisomy 18 or 13: medical problems, reported treatments and milestones". University of Nebraska Medical Center. ISBN 1-889843-58-X.

External links

* [http://www.trisomy18.org Trisomy 18 Foundation, Inc.]
* [http://www.trisomy18support.org Trisomy 18 Support Program]
* [http://www.trisomy.org Support Organisation For Trisomy 18, 13, and Related Disorders] (SOFT)
* [http://www.chromosome18.org The Chromosome 18 Registry & Research Society]
* [http://video.on.nytimes.com/?fr_story=79cf26acead199fa0a000074e41deda20072c923 Perinatal Hospice Care - Preparing for birth and death”]
*Humpath [http://www.humpath.com/spip.php?page=article&id_article=5389 #5389]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Edwards syndrome — Edwards syndrome. См. синдром Эдвардса. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Edwards syndrome — This is trisomy 18 syndrome. There are three instead of the normal two chromosomes #18. Children with this condition have multiple malformations and mental retardation due to the extra chromosome #18. The children characteristically have low… …   Medical dictionary

  • Edwards' syndrome — a condition resulting from a genetic abnormality in which an extra chromosome is present there are three no. 18 chromosomes instead of the usual two. Affected babies, who rarely survive, have a characteristic abnormally shaped head, low birth… …   Medical dictionary

  • Edwards syndrome — extra chromosome 18 material resulting in elongated skull, ears set low, recessed chin and premature death (named for John H Edwards) …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • Edwards' syndrome — a condition resulting from a genetic abnormality in which an extra chromosome is present – there are three no. 18 chromosomes instead of the usual two. Affected babies, who rarely survive, have a characteristic abnormally shaped head, low birth… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Синдром Эдвард Са (Edwards ' Syndrome) — состояние но ворожденного ребенка, характеризующееся множественными врожденными пороками развития, в том числе олигофренией; возникает в результате трисомии хромосомы № 18. Источник: Медицинский словарь …   Медицинские термины

  • Edwards — may refer to:People: See Edwards (surname) * Edwards family, a prominent family from ChilePlacesAustralia*Edwards Beach, New South Wales *Edwards Islet, TasmaniaUnited States*Edwards, Arkansas *Edwards, California *Edwards, Colorado *Edwards,… …   Wikipedia

  • Syndrome, trisomy 18 — There are three instead of the normal two chromosomes #18. Children with this condition have multiple malformations and mental retardation due to the extra chromosome #18. The children characteristically have low birth weight, small head… …   Medical dictionary

  • Edwards-Syndrom — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 Q91.0 Trisomie 18, meiotische Non disjunction Q91.1 Trisomie 18, Mosaik (mitotische Non disjunction) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Syndrome d'Edwards — Trisomie 18 Le syndrome d’Edwards, aussi appelé trisomie 18, est une maladie chromosomique congénitale provoquée par la présence d un chromosome surnuméraire pour la 18e paire. Ce syndrome malformatif entraîne la plupart du temps une mort précoce …   Wikipédia en Français


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