# Plus/minus

**Plus/minus**is anice hockey statistic that measures the team goal differential when a specific player is on the ice. Players' plus/minus stats get increased by one every time their team scores an even strength orshorthanded goal while they are on the ice. Whenever the team is scored against while at even strength or on apower play when the player is on the ice, his plus/minus is decreased by one. The statistic is sometimes called the "plus/minus ratio" even though it is a difference, not aratio . It is also sometimes referred to as "plus/minus rating" although this is inaccurate as well. For example, a skilled player could be placed on a line with other, less skilled players which may cause his/her plus/minus to be lower than usual even though the player's individual performance may be just as good as before (or perhaps even better).A player's plus/minus statistic can be calculated for a single game or for the season as a whole. For instance, if a player enters a game with a season total plus/minus of -8, then accumulates a statistic of +3 for a single game, the season total will change to a -5.

Plus/minus is mainly used to measure defenders and forwards who play a defensive role since offensive forwards are better measured by scoring statistics such as goals and assists. It is directly affected by team performance, thus accurate comparisons can only be made by taking into consideration the defensive performances of the team as a whole; for example, a player who is +15 on a powerful offensive team is considered by hockey statisticians to have done worse defensively than one who is +10 on a poor defensive team.

The

Montreal Canadiens were the first team to track +/-, starting sometime in the 1950s. Other teams followed in the early 1960s, and the NHL started officially compiling the ratings in 1968.Emile Francis is often credited with devising the system, but he only popularized and adapted the system in use by the Canadiens. Since 1983 theNHL Plus/Minus Award has been awarded to theNational Hockey League player with the highest plus/minus at the end of theregular season ; since they log more even-strength ice time, the winners tend to be defensemen. The most prominent plus/minus winner wasBoston Bruins ' defensemanBobby Orr , who led the league six times (and whose defence partnerDallas Smith was the first league leader).Wayne Gretzky led the league four times, andChris Pronger twice.Larry Robinson , the career leader in plus-minus, only led the league once.Ray Bourque , third on the all-time leaderboard, never led the league in plus/minus for a single season.The NHL single game plus minus record is +10 held by

Tom Bladon on Dec 11, 1977.**Notables [***[*]*http://www.lcshockey.com/feb06/072206.asp The Plus and Minus of Plus-Minus - LCS Hockey*]**Top 3: Season High**

*Bobby Orr , 1970-71, (+124)

*Larry Robinson , 1976-77, (+120)

*Wayne Gretzky , 1984-85, (+98)**Top 5: Career High**

*Larry Robinson , career, (+730)

*Bobby Orr , career, (+597)

*Ray Bourque , career, (+528)

*Wayne Gretzky , career, (+518)

*Bobby Clarke , career, (+506)**Top 3: Season Low**

*Bill Mikkelson , 1974-75, (-82)

* Jack Lynch, 1974-75, (-69)

*Greg Joly , 1974-75, (-68)**References**

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

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**Plus/Minus**— ist eine Statistik beim Eishockey, die für einen Feldspieler die Differenz von Toren und Gegentoren angibt, die gefallen sind, während er auf dem Eis war. Der Plus/Minus Wert eines Feldspielers erhöht sich jedes Mal um eins, wenn ein Tor für… … Deutsch Wikipedia**Plus-minus**— or plus/minus (+/ ) may refer to:*Plus minus sign, a mathematical symbol (±) *Plus/minus, an ice hockey statistic *+/ , an American rock band … Wikipedia**plus minus**— {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}przysł. {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} mniej więcej, w przybliżeniu : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Było tam plus minus dwadzieścia osób. {{/stl 10}} … Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień**plus/minus**— [Redensart] Auch: • ungefähr • mit einer Bandbreite von Bsp.: • Es wird dich dreihundert Pfund kosten plus/minus fünfzig Pfund … Deutsch Wörterbuch**Plus minus**— (lat.), mehr od. weniger, d.h. ungefähr so viel … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon**plus minus**— plusminusadv mittelmäßig;einigermaßen.DerSprachederMathematikerentlehnt.1920ff,stud … Wörterbuch der deutschen Umgangssprache**plus-minus**— … Useful english dictionary**Plus-minus sign**— For other uses, see plus minus (disambiguation). ± The plus minus sign (±) is a mathematical symbol commonly used either to indicate the precision of an approximation, or to indicate a value that can be of either sign. The sign is normally… … Wikipedia**Plus minus method**— The plus minus methos is a geophysical principle attributed to Hagedoorn for statics solution derivation in which two emergence points on a refractor and a common midpoint (cmp) on the surface are considered.Eqs:t+ = tABCD + tDEFG tABFGt = tABCD… … Wikipedia**plus/minus sign**— noun Date: 1971 the sign ± used to indicate a quantity (as 2 in “the square root of 4 is ±2”) taking on both an algebraically positive value and its negative and to indicate a plus or minus quantity (as 4 in “the population age was 30 ± 4 years”) … New Collegiate Dictionary