Les Indes galantes


Les Indes galantes

Les Indes galantes is an "opéra-ballet" consisting of a prologue and four "entrées" (acts) by Jean-Philippe Rameau with libretto by Louis Fuzelier. The première, including only the first three "entrés", took place in Paris at the Académie Royale de Musique et Danse on 23 August 1735 with Mlle Pélissier as Emilie, Mme Petitpas as Fatima, Mme Antier as Phani, Jelyotte as Valère and don Carlos, de Chasse as Huascar and Tribou as Tacmas. Dupré provided the choreography, which was danced by Mlles Mariette, LeBreton, Sallé, and Messieurs Dupré, Maltayre, DuMoulin, Javillier and Corps de Ballet. Chéron conducted. The Third "Entrée", known as the "Entrée des Fleurs", was not well received and was revised after the fourth performance with Mlles Petipas as Fatima, Eremans as Atalide and Bourbonnais as Roxane, and Triadou as Tacmas.

Performance history

At the revival of "Les Indes galantes" on 10 March 1736, the 30th performance of the work, a Fourth "entrée" was added, with Mme Pélissier as Zima, Jelyotte as Damon and Dun as don Alvar. The complete work was played for the 185th and last time in 1761.

Nevertheless, parts of it were revived from time to time: the Prologue in 1762 (20 performances) and 1771 (26 performances); the "Entrée des Incas" in 1771 (11 performances) and the "Entrée des Sauvages" in 1773 (22 performances). Thereafter, the Académie Royale (Paris Opéra) abandoned this work for 179 years. Nevertheless, the Opéra-Comique did present the Third "entrée", the "Entrée des Fleurs", with a new orchestration by Paul Dukas, on 30 May 1925, with Yvonne Brothier as Zaïre, Antoinette Reville as Fatima, Miguel Villabella as Tacmas and Emile Rousseau as Ali, and Maurice Frigara conducting.

Finally, there was a reprise at the Opéra itself, the Salle Garnier of the Académie Nationale de Musique et Danse, with the Dukas orchestration supplemented for the other "entrées" with music by Henri Busser, the 186th performance, on 18 June 1952, with sets by Arbus, Jacques Dupont, Wakhévitch, Carzou, Fost, Moulène and Chapelain-Midy for a production by the Académie's own director, Maurice Lehmann.

In the 1st Entrée ("The Gracious Turk"), the lovely and adorable Jacqueline Brumaire sang Emilie, Jean Giraudeau was Valère and Huc-Santana (the Puerto-Rican baritone Hugo Santana) was Osman. The dances were choreographed by the legendary André Aveline and danced by Mlle Bourgeois and M Legrand. In the 2nd Entrée, ("The Incas of Peru"), Marisa Ferrer was Phani, the elegant Georges Noré was don Carlos, and René Bianco was a rather gruff Huascar. Serge Lifar, no less, choreographed what he himself danced, unforgettably, with Vyroubova and Bozzoni. The 3rd Entrée, ("The Flowers") had Janine Micheau as the unutterably elegant and seductive Fatima, side by side with Denise Duval as Zaïre! Giraudeau was totally eclipsed (literally!) as Tacmas and Jacques Jansen, the famous Pelléas, was Ali.

Harald Lander choreographed this act, with Mlle Bardin as the Rose, Mlle Dayde as the Butterfly, Ritz as Zéphir and Renault as a Persian. The 4th Entrée, ("The Savages of America"), had the most seductive soprano ever seen at the Opéra, Mme Géori Boué, as Zima, with José Luccioni as a loud Adario, Raoul Jobin as a lumbering Damon and Roger Bourdin a dry-voiced don Alvar. Lifar again choreographed the dancing for this act, executed by Mlles Darsonval, Lafon and Guillot and Messieurs Kalioujny and Efimoff.
Louis Fourestier conducted.

There were no less than 246 performances of this gorgeous revival by the end of 1961 which finally included an imposing array of singers and dancers of all kinds.

Roles

ynopsis

Prologue

Act 1

"Le Turc généreux (The Gracious Turk)"

Osman sets free his captive, Emilie, whom he loves, so that she may be reunited with her former lover, Valère.

Act 2

"Les Incas du Pérou (The Incas of Peru)"

Represents the rivalry of the Inca Huascar and the Spaniard Don Carlos, both in pursuit of Princess Phani. Wonderful eruption of a volcano is the central moment of this act.

Act 3

"Les Fleurs (The Flowers)"

A Persian love intrigue in which prince Tacmas is in love with his favourite, Ali's, slave Zaire. Tacmas's slave Fatime in turn is in love with Ali.

Act 4

"Les Sauvages (The Savages of America)"

Set in North America, where a Spaniard and a Frenchman compete for the love of Zima, daughter of a native chief, who prefers one of her own people.

elected recordings

Both Camille Mauranne (Philips) and Gérard Souzay (DECCA) have left masterful recorded performances of Huascar's "Invocation au Soleil" (from the Peruvian "Entrée"), a seminal piece in the history of French musical drama.

On compact disc:

* Gerda Hartman, Jennifer Smith (sopranos); Louis Devos, John Elwes (tenors); Philippe Huttenlocher (baritone). The Ensemble Vocal à Coeur-Joie de Valence and the Orchestre Jean-François Paillard, Valence conducted by Jean-François Paillard. Recorded in 1974. ERATO 4509-95310-2

* Miriam Ruggeri (Soprano), Bernard Delétré (Bass), Howard Crook (Tenor), Nicolas Rivenq (Baritone), Noémi Rime (Soprano), Sandrine Piau (Soprano), Jean-Paul Fouchécourt (Tenor), Jérôme Corréas (Baritone), Isabelle Poulenard (Soprano), Claron McFadden(Soprano). The Ensemble of Les Arts Florissants conducted by William Christie. Released 12/1992 on 3CDs. Duration 3 Hours 13 Mins. Harmonia Mundi 901367

On video disc:

* Valérie Gabail, Nicolas Cavallier, Patricia Petibon, Paul Agnew, Jaël Azzaretti, Anna Maria Panzarella, Nicolas Rivenq. The Ensemble of Les Arts Florissants conducted by William Christie. Released 08/2005 on 2 DVDs. BBC/Opus Arte Catalog No. 923

Bibliography

* Wolff, Stéphane: "L' Opéra au Palais Garnier, 1875-1962" Paris, Entr'acte, 1962.

External links

* [http://www.naxos.com/mainsite/NewDesign/fintro.files/bintro.files/operas/Indes_galantes_Les(The_Gallant_Indies).htm Short Synopsis of Les Indes galantes from NAXOS.COM]
* [http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/velde/indesgal.htm Review of Les Indes Galantes]
* [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&token=&sql=42:96062 Description of Les Indes Galantes]
* [http://opera.stanford.edu/iu/libretti/indesgal.htm "Les Indes Galantes" Libretto]


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