St. John's College, U.S.
name = St. John's College
motto = Facio liberos ex liberis libris libraque
("I make free men from children by means of books and a balance")
established = 1696, King William's School
1784, St. John's College
1964, Santa Fe campus
type = Private
president = Christopher Nelson, Annapolis
Michael Peters, Santa Fe
dean = Michael Dink, Annapolis
Victoria Mora, Santa Fe
city = Annapolis,
and Santa Fe,
country = USA
undergrad = 450-475 per campus
postgrad = 100
faculty = ~164 total (both campuses)
campus = Annapolis: Urban
Santa Fe: Urban / Semi-rural
mascot = None (Platypus / Book) [According to the website of the Annapolis campus's college bookstore, "Though the College has no mascot, the platypus sometimes fills in, wearing a St. John's College shirt and providing unique company for the students at St. John's." URL accessed
2006-07-27.) The Santa Fe campus has soccer, football, and Ultimate Frisbeeteams, all of which are known as the St. John's College Books.]
free_label = Athletics
Croquet, Fencing, Crew, Sailing, Intramurals, Search and Rescue
website = [http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/ www.stjohnscollege.edu]
St. John's College is a
liberal arts collegewith two U.S. campuses: Annapolis, Marylandand Santa Fe, New Mexico. Founded in 1696 as a preparatory school, King William's School, the institution received a collegiate charter in 1784. St. John's is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the U.S. Since 1937, it has followed an unusual curriculum, the Great BooksProgram, based on discussion of works from the Western philosophic and literary canon.
Despite its name, St. John's College has no religious affiliation. The school grants only one bachelor's degree. Two master's degrees are currently available, one in Liberal Arts, which is a modified version of the undergraduate curriculum, and a parallel course of studies in Eastern Classics. Both graduate degrees are awarded to graduate students through the college's Graduate Institute.
The Great Books program
Great Booksprogram (often called simply "the Program" or "the New Program" at St. John's) was developed at the University of Chicagoby Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, Robert Hutchins, and Mortimer Adlerin the mid-1930s as an alternative form of education to the then rapidly changing undergraduate curriculum. St. John's adopted the Great Books program in 1937, when the college was facing the possibility of financial and academic ruin. The Great Books program in use today was heavily influenced by Jacob Klein, who was Dean of the college in the 1940s and 1950s.
The four-year program of study, nearly all of which is mandatory, demands that students read and discuss the works of many of Western civilization's most prominent contributors to philosophy, theology, mathematics, science, music, poetry, and literature, such as
Aristotle, Shakespeare, Descartes, and Einstein. In line with the views of the program's founders—who complained of "vocational interests" that "clutter" other college's curricula—"Johnnies", as St. John's students style themselves, usually value intellectual pursuits for their own sake, regardless of whether they have practical application. Tutorials (mathematics, language, and music), as well as Seminar and Laboratory, are discussion-based. In the Mathematics tutorial students often demonstrate propositions that mathematicians throughout various ages have laid out. In the Language tutorial student translations are presented (Ancient Greek is studied in the first two years and French for the last two). The tutorials, with Seminar and Laboratory, constitute the "classes". All classes, and in particular the Seminar, are considered formal exercises; consequently, students address one another, as well as their teachers, only by their last names during class.
Unlike mainstream U.S. colleges, St. John's avoids modern textbooks, lectures, and examinations. Instead of textbooks, in addition to primary materials, the college relies on a series of manuals. While traditional (A through F) grades are given, the culture of the school deemphasizes their importance and grades are released only at the request of the student. Grading is based largely on class participation and papers. Tutors, as faculty members are called at the College, play a non-directive role in the classroom, compared to mainstream colleges. However, at St. John's this does vary somewhat by course and instructor.
The Great Books program inspired the Integral Program at
Saint Mary's College of California.
The Eastern Classics Program
At the Santa Fe campus, there is a program offering a Master of Arts in Eastern Classics (M.A.E.C.). This program is three semesters long and is designed to be completed in one 12-month period. The impetus for the program came with the recognition that the undergraduate program simply could not do justice to the Great Books of the three main Asian traditions (
India, Chinaand Japan) by trying to squeeze in a few works among so many European masterworks. The EC program therefore provides a full set of readings in the philosophical, religious and literary traditions of the three cultures listed above. Thus, students learn Chinese culture by reading not only Confucius, Laoziand Zhuangzi, but also Mencius, Xun Zi, Han Feizi, and Mozi, as well as historical narratives by Sima Qianand the Zuo Zhuan, the later movement of Neo-Confucianismand Zhu Xi, narrative works such as Journey to the Westor the Romance of the Three Kingdomsand the great Chinese poets, Li Bai, Wang Wei and Du Fu. This list represents only one-third of the required corpus, which also covers the major teachings and branches of Hinduismand the development of Theravada, Mahayanaand Zen Buddhism, as well as the such literary masterpieces as the Mahabharata, Shakuntala, The Tale of Genji, The Narrow Road to the Deep Northand others. Students also take a language, either Sanskritor Classical Chinese.
St. John's College was founded as King William's School in 1696. In 1784, Maryland granted a charter to St. John's College, into which the original preparatory school merged. [ [http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/asp/main.aspx?page=1101 About St. John's College] , URL accessed
May 18, 2007] The college took up residence in a building known as Bladen's Folly (the current McDowell Hall), which was originally built to be the Maryland governor's mansion, but was not completed. There was some association with the Freemasonsearly in the college's history, leading to speculation that it was named after Saint John the Evangelist, the favoured saint of Freemasons. The College's original charter, reflecting the Masonic value of religious tolerance as well as the religious diversity of the founders (they included both Presbyterians and Episcopalians), stated that "youth of all religious denominations shall be freely and liberally admitted."
The College curriculum has taken various forms throughout its history. Although it began with a general program of study in the liberal arts, St. John's was a military school for much of the 19th century. In contrast to
Washington and Lee University, a contemporary institution, the College always maintained a small size, generally enrolling fewer than 500 men at a time.
In 1936, the College lost its accreditation.cite web|author=Kathy Witkowsky|year=1999|url=http://www.highereducation.org/crosstalk/ct0499/news0499-revolution.shtml|title=A Quiet Counterrevolution: St. John's College teaches the classics—and only the classics|publisher=highereducation.org: "Educational Crosstalk"|accessdate=2006-09-14] The Board of Visitors and Governors, faced with dire financial straits caused by the
Great Depression, invited educational innovators Stringfellow Barrand Scott Buchananto make a completely fresh start. They introduced a new program of study, which remains in effect today. Buchanan became dean of the College, while Barr assumed its presidency.
In his guide "Cool Colleges",
Donald Asherwrites that the New Program was implemented to save the college from closing: "Several benefactors convinced the college to reject a watered-down curriculum in favor of becoming a very distinctive academic community. Thus this great institution was reborn as a survival measure."
Walter Lippmanwrote a column praising liberal arts education as a bulwark against fascism, and said "in the future, men will point to St. John’s College and say that there was the seed-bed of the American renaissance."Charles A. Nelson (2001), "Radical Visions: Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, and Their Efforts on behalf of Education and Politics in the Twentieth Century." Bergin and Garvey, Westport, CT. ISBN 0-89789-804-4.]
Classic works unavailable in English translation were translated by faculty members, typed, mimeographed, and bound. They were sold to the general public as well as to students, and by 1941 the St. John's College bookshop was famous as the only source for English translations of works such as
Copernicus's" De revolutionibus orbium coelestium", St. Augustine's " De Musica," and Ptolemy's " Almagest."
From 1940 to 1946, St. John's was repeatedly confronted with threats of its land being seized by the Navy for expansion of the neighboring Naval Academy, and
James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy, formally announced plans to do so in 1945. At the time, the " New York Times", which had expected a legal battle royal comparable to the Dartmouth case, commented that "although a small college of fewer than 200 students, St. John's has, because of its experimental liberal arts program, received more publicity and been the center of a greater academic controversy than most other colleges in the land. Its best-books program has been attacked and praised by leading educators of the day." ["St. John's and Navy Facing Fight In Courts Over College's Campus", June 29, 1945, p. 17.]
The constant threat of eviction discouraged Stringfellow Barr. In late 1946 Forrestal withdrew the plan, in the face of public opposition and the disapproval of the House Naval Affairs Committee, but Barr and Scott Buchanan were already committed to leaving St. John's and launching a new, similar college in
Stockbridge, Massachusetts; that project eventually failed -- but thinking about other sites for the college eventually led to the opening of St. John's second campus, in Santa Fe, in 1964.
In 1948, St. John's became the first previously all-white college south of the
Mason-Dixon lineto voluntarily admit African American students. ["Letter from Martin A. Dyer, Class of 1952, to St. John's Alumni", July 16, 2004, [http://web.archive.org/web/20051103051206/http://www.sjca.edu/asp/alumAssocMain.aspx?page=6834 accessed 26 July 2007] ] The movement to desegregate the College was wholly internal, beginning with students who, with the support of the faculty and administration, persuaded a reluctant Board of Visitors and Governors to go along. The first African American student was Martin A. Dyer, from Baltimore, who graduated in 1952.
In 1949, Richard D. Weigle became president of St. John's. Following the chaotic and difficult period from 1940 to 1949, Weigle's presidency continued for 31 years, ["Richard Weigle, 80, Served as President Of St. John's College" (Obituary), "New York Times",
December 17, 1992, p. B22.] during which the New Program and the college itself became well established.
In 1951, St. John's became coeducational, admitting women for the first time in its then-254-year history. There was some objection from students because they had not been involved in -- nor even aware of -- the decision before it was announced to the media, and from some who believed that the college could not remain a serious institution were it to admit women. But Martin Dyer reports that the women who were admitted were an extraordinary group, quickly proving that they were the academic and intellectual equals of their male counterparts.
As enrollment grew during the 1950s, and facing the coming larger baby-boom generation, thoughts turned again towards opening another campus -- but this time in addition to, not instead of, the one in Annapolis. Serious talk of expansion began in 1959 when the father of a student from Monterey, California, suggested to Pres. Weigle that he establish a new campus there. Time Magazine ran an article on the college's possible expansion plans, [" [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,895177-1,00.html College Spawns College] ",
December 26, 1960, accessed 28 April 2007] and, in addition to California, 32 offers came in to the college, from New Hampshire, Oregon, Georgia, Alaska, Florida, Connecticut, and more.
A group from the Monterey Peninsula told Weigle that they were definitely interested, though funding was a problem, and suitable land was a big question. There was also an offer of land in Claremont, California, but competition with the other colleges there for students and financial contributions was a negative. The Riverside
Mission Inn(in Riverside, California) was another possibility, but with only convert|5|acre|m2 of land and lots of renovations needed to the inn, funding was again a major question. A negative factor for California in general was the cost of living for faculty.
Nevertheless all three of these locations were major contenders, when Robert McKinney (publisher of the Santa Fe New Mexican newspaper, and a former SJC board member) called and told Weigle that a group of city leaders had long been looking for another college for Santa Fe. At a lunch Weigle attended at John Gaw Meem's house on the outskirts of Santa Fe in late January, 1961, Meem volunteered that he had a little piece of land (214 acres) that he would gladly donate to the college. Upon looking at it after lunch, Weigle instantly fell in love with it. A committee of four faculty members (Robert Bart, Barbara Leonard, Douglas Allanbrook, and William Darkey) went to visit all four sites (the three in California, and Santa Fe) and, after much deliberation, also recommended Santa Fe. ["The Colonization of a College: The Beginnings and Early History of St. John's College in Santa Fe", by Richard D. Weigle, Fishergate Publishing Company (St. John's College Print Shop), Annapolis, 1985]
Western mystery writer
Tony Hillermantells a slightly different story: The site selection committee, having originally expected to locate in Claremont, California, reluctantly accepted an invitation to inspect the site in Santa Fe. Hillerman spins a tale of the committeemen::made pale from the weak sun of the coastal climate and their scholarly profession, generally urban, generally Eastern, solidly W.A.S.P. They came from a world which was old Anglo-Saxon family, old books, Greek and Latin literacy, prep schools and Blue Point oysters and Ivy League; a world bounded on the north by Boston... and on the south by Virginia.According to Hillerman, the Eastern scholars became captivated by the Sangre de Cristo range and the presence of mule deer tracks. [Tony Hillerman (2001), "The Committee and the Mule Deer," from "The Great Taos Bank Robbery: And Other True Stories of the Southwest." Harper paperbacks; ISBN 0-06-093712-2; [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0060937122 A9 online page images] ]
In 1961, the governing board of St. John's thus approved plans to establish a second college at
Santa Fe, New Mexico. Groundbreaking occurred on April 22, 1963, and the first classes began in 1964.
As it turned out, land was also donated to the college on the Monterey Peninsula (CA) shortly after this, on condition that a campus also be developed there by a certain date. It eventually became apparent that opening yet a third campus in close succession to the second would stretch the college's resources too far, however.
The two campuses of St. John's College both have a Ptolemy Stone, which is an astronomical instrument invented by the ancient Greek astronomer
Ptolemyto measure the altitude of celestial bodies, in this case, the sun. The Ptolemy Stone at St. John's takes the form of an outdoor rectangular prismical column of concrete with a movable metal dial. This device was the precursor to the sextant. Freshman and sophomore math classes learn to use this stone to calculate the apparent movement of the sun across the ecliptic. The use of the two Ptolemy Stones by students underscores the mathematics and laboratory programs' connection to the practical experimentation and hands-on experience of the natural world.
St. John's is located in the Historic Annapolis district, one block away from the Maryland State Capitol building. Its proximity to the
United States Naval Academyhas inspired many a comparison to Athensand Sparta. The schools carry on a spirited rivalry seen in the annual croquetmatch between the two schools on the front lawn of St. John's, which has been called by Gentleman's Quarterly(GQ) "the purest intercollegiate athletic event in America." St. John's has won 21 out of the last 26 matches.
Construction of McDowell Hall at the center of campus, was begun in 1742 by Provincial
Governor of Maryland, Thomas Bladen, but was not completed until after the end of Proprietary government. [cite book
first =Newton Dennison
title =Maryland as a Proprietary Province
publisher =The MacMillan Company
isbn = ] Its Great Hall has seen many college events, from balls feting Generals Lafayette and Washington to the unique St. John's institutions called waltz parties. [ [http://www.sjca.edu/asp/main.aspx?page=6586 About McDowell Hall (Built 1742)] , URL accessed
September 16, 2006.] Despite their name, waltz parties have gradually evolved to consist mostly of swing dancing, though waltz, polka, and even some tango are still played. Champagne and strawberries have been known to be served, and it is not uncommon for students, especially the women, to dress in formal evening ballroom attire.
anta Fe campus
St. John's Santa Fe campus is located at the foot of Monte Sol, on the eastern edge of Santa Fe. It was opened in 1964 due to the increase in qualified applicants at the Annapolis campus. The College chose to open a second campus rather than increase the size of the Annapolis campus. The second campus was part of a larger project, championed by then-college president Richard Weigle, which called for six campuses to be built across the country. St. John's abandoned the concept when it later sold a tract of land it owned in
The Santa Fe campus offers students a more secluded atmosphere than the Annapolis campus, with the vast
Pecos Wildernessand Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The campus also boasts an expansive view of Santa Fe that extends to Los Alamos to the west.
The college maintains gear to facilitate student use of the outdoors, such as kayaks, rafts, hiking equipment, and sports equipment. In addition, the college
Search and Rescueteam is recognized throughout the Southwest, participating in a wide variety of rescue missions in conjunction with the New Mexico State Police and other volunteer teams.
The program involves:
* Four years of literature, philosophy, and political science in seminar
* Four years of mathematics
* Three years of laboratory science
* Four years of language (Ancient Greek, Middle/Early English, and French)
* Freshman year chorus followed by sophomore year music
The Great Books are not the only texts used at St. John's. Greek and French classes make use of supplemental materials that are more like traditional textbooks. Science laboratory courses and mathematics courses use manuals prepared by faculty members that combine source materials with workbook exercises. For example, the mathematics tutorial combines a 1905 paper by
Albert Einsteinwith exercises that require the student to work through the mathematics used in the paper. [*Harty, Rosemary (2005), Director of Communications, St. John's College, Annapolis, personal communication (Source details of non-Great-Books materials used at St. John's)]
Nevertheless, the emphasis on source materials is strong; all seminar readings are from the book list, and music is studied from scores that are primary sources.
The only elective courses are brief "preceptorials" offered in the winter of the junior and senior years. The options for these classes change each year, and often include courses on topics not covered in the Great Books program, including works by authors beyond the Great Books list, such as Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Wallace Stevens.
No written tests are given, apart from occasional quizzes in language tutorials, an algebra test to be passed by the end of sophomore year and a French exam given at the end of the Junior year. Students are evaluated based on class participation and papers. In the seminar, an oral examination is also given each semester. This examination is a discussion with the tutor or tutors intended to show that the student has read and understood the material covered. In-term written assignments consist of occasional short (usually less than 10 pages) papers. Longer papers are required for seminars. On the Santa Fe campus students must write seminar papers at the end of each semester. The paper for the spring semester is a longer paper, and is awarded a separate grade on the transcript. Students at the Annapolis campus write a single longer (20-30 pages) essay at the end of each year. Papers for tutorials and seminars are not research papers, and emphasize the individual student's analysis of a work or interpretation of an idea or theory. Of particular importance is the sophomore annual essay, which plays a prominent role in the college's formal decision to allow a student to continue into the final two years. In their senior year, students must also write and defend a full-length thesis. Defense of a Senior Essay is open to the public, with the student engaging in discussion of his or her essay with a panel of three tutors.
The Don Rag
While the school does not release grades to students (except upon direct request), there is an evaluation system. At the end of every semester at St. John's, each student comes together with his or her tutors to be evaluated on his or her academic performance. This exercise is called a Don Rag.
Don Rags begin with each tutor discussing the present student's performance in the third person to the other tutors. The discussion takes place as if the student were not there. After this, the student is asked if he or she has anything to add, at which point the student may discuss his or her own performance in light of the tutors' comments, although he or she is not required to do so.
For the first semester of junior year, students may elect to have a Conference (instead of a Don Rag), in which the students first report on their progress and then hear responses from their tutors.
The regular Don Rag format continues for the student's last Don Rag, which is at the end of junior year.
The term "Don Rag" comes from Oxford, where professors ("dons") would "rag" on their students.
ophomore Enabling and Committee
At the end of the Sophomore year, tutors give a higher level of scrutiny to the student in the Don Rag. The tutors formally ask themselves and each other whether the student should remain at the college in light of current performance. This question is largely independent of the student's grades however, and is more subjective than other Don Rags. Any of the tutors present at the final Sophomore Don Rag may object to the student remaining at St. John's. Any objection begins the process of an evaluation by the faculty disciplinary committee ("the Committee") as to whether the student should be allowed to remain at St. John's.
The Committee is closed to all but faculty - even to the student whose matriculation is in jeopardy. The Committee consists of a panel of Tutors and the administration who are appointed for the year to handle disciplinary matters. At the end of the year the Committee is convened to evaluate each student presented, hearing testimony from Tutors who have taught that student over the past two years. The Committee makes a decision to either "Enable" the student, allowing them to continue into the Junior year, or to "Disenable" the student, ejecting them from the student body. Appeals are allowed to students who have been "disenabled", and if successful, the "disenabled" student is allowed to continue without interruption at St. John's.
While specific numbers aren't available, generally between 5% and 10% of the Sophomore class are referred to the Committee and a portion of those are Disenabled. Disenabled students are allowed to reapply to the school to continue into their Junior year after a period of one year, but readmission is not guaranteed and few bother to reapply.
Ranking and reputation
In 1975, a St. John's graduate gave this description of how a St. John's degree was received by other institutions::Bernard M. Davidoff, M. D., a graduate of St. John's in 1969 and of Columbia Medical School... said the medical schools to which he applied reacted to his unconventional preparation in two ways. "Those who had not heard of St. John's were not impressed. Those who knew of the college generally waived requirements." Like most St. John's alumni who enter medical school, he took an undergraduate course in organic chemistry at another college. Dr. Davidoff... cited only one difficulty in adapting to medical school. "I didn't have any interesting people to talk to," he recalled. ["Mixing Frogs and Aristotle," "
The New York Times", May 4, 1975]
Motivational business speaker
Zig Ziglarincluded a chapter on "St. John's: A College That Works" in a 1997 book. [Zig Ziglar (1997), "Something To Smile About: Encouragement And Inspiration For Life's Ups And Downs", Nelson Books, ISBN 0-8407-9183-6 [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0840791836 A9 online page images] ] He said St. John's holds fast to the "medieval" notion that all knowledge is one and states that "the books they use are terribly hard." He notes that the school "ranks fifth nationally in the number of graduates earning doctorates in the humanities" and is impressed by the 81% of graduates entering education, engineering, law, medicine, and other professions. He concludes "Sounds like St. John's is onto something. Maybe more schools should take that approach."
According to a [http://web.reed.edu/ir/phd.html study] published by the Higher Education Data Sharing Consortium, based on data from 1992 through 2001, St. John's ranked first nationally in percentage of graduates attaining Ph.D.s in both Humanities and English Literature. In addition, the college ranked among the top ten institutions in Political Science, Linguistics, Foreign Languages, Area & Ethnic Studies, and Math & Computer Sciences.
St. John's runs counter to the usual emphasis on rankings and selectivity. As of 2005, St. John's college has chosen not to participate in any collegiate rankings surveys, has not sent them their requested survey information. However, the school is still included in the influential "U.S News" college ranking guide. President Christopher B. Nelson states that "In principle, St. John's is opposed to rankings." He notes that:Over the years, St. John's College has been ranked everywhere from third, second, and first tier, to one of the "Top 25" liberal arts colleges. Yet, the curious thing is: We haven't changed. Our mission and our methods have been virtually constant for almost 60 years. So when it comes to the U.S. News and World Report rankings, we would rather be ourselves and have our college speak for itself, than be subjected to fluctuating outside analysis. [Christopher B. Nelson, " [http://www.universitybusiness.com/page.cfm?p=64 Why you won't find St. John's College ranked in U.S. News and World Report] ", "University Business: The Magazine for College and University Administrators".] An educational reporter wrote::Unlike many top-flight liberal arts colleges, St. John's isn't all that hard to get into: The school accepts 75 to 80 percent of applicants, primarily based on three written essays and, to a certain extent, grades. There is no application fee, and standardized tests, like the Scholastic Assessment Test, are optional. About three-quarters of the enrolled students ranked in the top half of their high school class, but only one fifth graduated in the top tenth. School officials said that's because they're less concerned that the applicant show a body of accumulated knowledge than a true desire for attaining it.
Princeton Review's list of the twenty colleges with the "happiest students" includes both St. John's campuses, the Santa Fe campus ranking seventh and the Annapolis campus ranking seventeenth. In the 2005 edition of the Princeton Review Guide entitled "The Best 357 Colleges", St. John's College (Santa Fe) received the following rankings:
*No. 1 in the nation for "accessibility of teachers".
*No. 1 in the nation for "best class discussion".
*No. 4 in the nation for "best overall quality of life".
*No. 4 in the nation for "best overall academic experience".
*No. 6 in the nation for "best teachers".
*No. 6 in the nation for "best dorms".
St. John's College is listed in
Loren Pope's " Colleges That Change Lives".
As of the 2005 class, 35 U.S. states are represented in Annapolis and 32 in Santa Fe; there are also several students from foreign countries. Approximately 65% of students receive financial aid. The student body is relatively small compared to other liberal arts colleges, with a population historically below 500 students during a year. They are making efforts to increase awareness of the College's unique program of study, and offer many community seminars and lectures that are available to the public. [ [http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/user/PROFILE.aspx Undergraduate Student Profile] , URL accessed
Notable people associated with St. John's
Eva Brann, tutor; 2005 recipient of the National Humanities Medal. [cite news
last = Harty
first = Rosemary
title = Bush Awards National Humanities Medal to St. John's College Tutor
publisher = CollegeNews.org
November 15, 2005
url = http://web.archive.org/web/20051124092133/http://www.collegenews.org/x5062.xml
accessmonthday=8 December | accessyear=2006]
Samuel Kutler, tutor and mathematician.
Christian Burks, President and CEO of Ontario Genomics Institute. [ [http://www.ontariogenomics.ca/ogi/staffDetails.asp?id=433&cat=st Ontario Genomics Institute Staff] , URL accessed 2007-07-17]
James M. Cain, novelist; was professor of journalism at St. John's from 1923 to 1924. Later famous for hard-boiled "noir" novels such as " The Postman Always Rings Twice".
Elliott Carter, composer; taught courses in physics, mathematics and classical Greek, as well as music, at St. John's from 1939 to 1941.
Charles Van Dorenalumnus of Annapolis, infamous for involvement in the rigged game show "Twenty-One". [cite news
title = College Spawns College
date = December 26, 1960
url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,895177,00.html]
Clement Dorsey, Congressman for Maryland's 1st congressional district, 1825-1831. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000437 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress] Retrieved on October 27, 2007.]
Ahmet Ertegün; founded Atlantic Recordsin 1947, 1923-2006. [cite news
title = Ahmet Ertegun, Music Executive, Dies at 83
The New York Times
date = December 15, 2006
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/15/arts/music/15ertegun.html
accessdate = 2007-10-27]
Hillary Fields, alumna; romance novelist; won the Pushcart Prizefor a short story in 1998.
* Erik Fisher, Daniel Littleton, and Colin Meeder, musicians; members of seminal emo band
Robert A George, alumnus and newspaper columnist.
Jac Holzmanfounded Elektra Recordsin 1950 while a student at St. John's. [cite book |last= Holzman|first= Jac |title= Follow the Music: The Life and High Times of Elektra Records in the Great Years of American Pop Culture |year= 2000|publisher= Jawbone Press|isbn=0966122100]
Alexander Contee Hanson(Class of 1802), Congressman for Maryland's 3rd District, 1813-1816. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000176 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress] Retrieved on October 27, 2007 ]
Emerson Harrington, former Governor of Maryland
Leon Kass, tutor at the college 1972–1976, chair of the President's Council on Bioethics2002-2006
John Leeds Kerr, Congressman for Maryland's 7th District [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=K000139 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress] Retrieved on October 28, 2007.]
Francis Scott Key, alumnus; lyricist of the United States national anthem, " The Star-Spangled Banner". [cite news
title = Maryland Historical Society Library
url = http://www.mdhs.org/library/digitalarchives/ssb/ssbaboutssb.shtml
accessdate = 2007-10-27 ] [cite news
title = Francis Scott Key's Alma Mater
publisher = The New York Times
url = http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9403E3DC1E38E033A25752C2A9609C94679FD7CF&oref=slogin | accessdate = 2007-10-27]
William Pinkney, alumnus; 7th Attorney General of the United States
* Jacob Klein, tutor, dean; author of "Greek Mathematical Thought and the Origin of Algebra" and "Commentary on Plato's Meno"; leading 20th-century Platonist.
* William John Kowalski III, alumnus, author of four novels: Eddie’s Bastard (1999); Somewhere South of Here (2001); The Adventures of Flash Jackson (2003); and The Good Neighbor (2004), all published in the U.S. by HarperCollins and in the U.K. by Transworld/Doubleday/Black Swan.
Jeremy Leven, alumnus, author, screenwriter and director whose works include Don Juan DeMarco
* Duncan North, alumnus, screenwriter (
The Tao of Steve).
Tom G. Palmer, alumnus; Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute.
* Gerald Peters, real-estate developer and owner of galleries in Santa Fe, NM. Twenty-fifth–richest man in New Mexico in October 1996. [cite news
title = The 25 Richest People in New Mexico
publisher = Crosswinds
url = http://members.aol.com/wmpb/CrossRich/index.html
accessdate = 2006-12-08 ]
* Lisa Simeone, host,
National Public Radio. [cite news
title = Lisa Simeone, NPR Biography
publisher = National Public Radio
url = http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=2101205
accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
* Warren Spector, former Co-COO of
Louis Leo Snyder, German scholar and historian, alumnus, 1907-1993.
Leo Strauss, political philosopher; lectured at St. John's.
Francis Thomas, Governor of Maryland, 1842-1844; member of House of Representatives, 1861-1869. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000166 Biographical Directory of the United States Congress] Retrieved on October 27, 2007.]
N. D. Wilson, alumnus and author
Warren Winiarski, founder of Stag's Leap Wine Cellars.
John C. Wright, alumnus and author [ [http://www.sfsite.com/05a/jcw127.htm SF Site "An Interview with John C. Wright"] Accessed November 3, 2007 ]
Glenn Yarbrough, original lead tenor of The Limeliters. [cite news
title = Glenn Yarbrough Biography
publisher = Folk Era Records
url = http://www.folkera.com/gyarbrough/bio.html
accessdate = 2007-10-27 ]
Lee David Zlotoff, creator of " MacGyver". [cite news
title = MacGyver Meets the Johnnies
publisher = "The College", St. John's College
date = Winter 2005
url = http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/user/MAG_W05_article12.aspx#macgyver
accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
The Great Books
The Great Books reading list, though it varies from year to year, is the basis of the curriculum at both St. John's campuses. The list, as of 2005, is as follows:
Homer: " Iliad", " Odyssey"
Aeschylus: "Agamemnon", "Libation Bearers", "The Eumenides"
Sophocles: "Oedipus Rex", " Oedipus at Colonus", "Antigone", "Philoctetes"
Thucydides: " History of the Peloponnesian War"
Euripides: "Hippolytus", " The Bacchae"
Aristophanes: "Clouds", "Birds"
Plato: " Meno", "Gorgias", "Republic", " Apology", " Crito", " Phaedo", "Symposium", "Parmenides", " Theaetetus", " Sophist", "Timaeus", "Phaedrus"
Aristotle: "Poetics", " Physics", " Metaphysics", " Nicomachean Ethics", " On Generation and Corruption", " Politics", " Parts of Animals", "Generation of Animals"
Lucretius: " On the Nature of Things"
Plutarch: "Lycurgus", "Solon"
Antoine Lavoisier: "Elements of Chemistry"
William Harvey: "Motion of the Heart and Blood"
Theophrastus, Galen, Archimedes, Blaise Pascal, Gabriel Fahrenheit, Amedeo Avogadro, Joseph Black, John Dalton, Cannizzaro, Virchow, Edme Mariotte, Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Hans Spemann, Stears, J. J. Thomson, Dmitri Mendeleev, Berthollet, Joseph Proust
Aristotle: "De Anima", "On Interpretation", "Prior Analytics", "Categories"
Virgil: " Aeneid"
Plutarch: "Caesar" and "Cato the Younger"
Epictetus: "Discourses", "Manual"
Ptolemy: " Almagest"
Plotinus: "The Enneads"
Augustine of Hippo: "Confessions"
Anselm of Canterbury: " Proslogion"
Thomas Aquinas: " Summa Theologiae", " Summa Contra Gentiles"
Geoffrey Chaucer: " Canterbury Tales"
Josquin Des Prez: "Mass"
Niccolò Machiavelli: " The Prince", " Discourses on Livy"
Nicolaus Copernicus: "On the Revolutions of the Spheres"
Martin Luther: " On the Freedom of a Christian"
François Rabelais: " Gargantua and Pantagruel"
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina: " Missa Papae Marcelli"
Michel de Montaigne: "Essays"
François Viète: "Introduction to the Analytical Art"
Francis Bacon: " Novum Organum", " New Atlantis"
William Shakespeare: "Richard II", "Henry IV", "Henry V", "The Tempest", " As You Like It", " Hamlet", " Othello", " Macbeth", " King Lear", "Coriolanus", "Sonnets"
Andrew Marvell, John Donne, and other 16th- and 17th-century poets
René Descartes: "Geometry", " Discourse on Method"
Blaise Pascal: "Generation of Conic Sections"
Johann Sebastian Bach: " St. Matthew Passion", "Inventions"
Joseph Haydn: "Quartets"
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: "Operas"
Ludwig van Beethoven: "Sonatas"
Franz Schubert: "Songs"
Igor Stravinsky: " Symphony of Psalms"
Miguel de Cervantes: " Don Quixote"
Galileo Galilei: "Dialogues on Two New Sciences"
René Descartes: " Meditations on First Philosophy", " Rules for the Direction of the Mind"
John Milton: " Paradise Lost"
*François de La Rochefoucauld: "Maximes"
Jean de La Fontaine: "Fables"
Blaise Pascal: " Pensées"
Christiaan Huygens: "Treatise on Light", "On the Movement of Bodies by Impact"
George Eliot: " Middlemarch"
Baruch Spinoza: " Theologico-Political Treatise"
John Locke: " Second Treatise of Government"
Jean Racine: " Phèdre"
Isaac Newton: "Principia Mathematica"
Johannes Kepler: "Epitome IV"
Gottfried Leibniz: "Monadology", "Discourse on Metaphysics", "Essay on Dynamics", "Philosophical Essays", "Principles of Nature and Grace"
Jonathan Swift: " Gulliver's Travels"
David Hume: " A Treatise of Human Nature"
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: " Social Contract", "Discourse on Origins of Inequality"
Molière: "The Misanthrope"
Adam Smith: " Wealth of Nations"
Immanuel Kant: " Critique of Pure Reason", "Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals", " Metaphysics of Morals"
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: " Don Giovanni"
Jane Austen: " Pride and Prejudice"
Richard Dedekind: "Essay on the Theory of Numbers"
The Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
The Constitution of the United States of America
The Federalist Papers
*Supreme Court opinions
Charles Darwin: " The Origin of Species"
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: "Phenomenology of Mind", "Logic" (from the "Encyclopedia")
Albert Einstein: "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", "Relativity: The Special and General Theory"
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky: "Theory of Parallels"
Alexis de Tocqueville: " Democracy in America"
Abraham Lincoln: "Selected Speeches"
Søren Kierkegaard: " Philosophical Fragments", " Fear and Trembling"
Karl Marx: "Capital", "Political and Economic Manuscripts of 1844", " The German Ideology"
Fyodor Dostoevsky: " The Brothers Karamazov"
Leo Tolstoy: " War and Peace"
Herman Melville: " Benito Cereno"
Mark Twain: " The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn"
Flannery O'Connor: Parker's Back, The Artificial Nigger
Sigmund Freud: "General Introduction to Psychoanalysis"
Booker T. Washington: Selected Writings
W. E. B. DuBois: " The Souls of Black Folk"
Martin Heidegger: "What is Philosophy?"
Werner Heisenberg: "The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory"
Robert Millikan: "The Electron"
Joseph Conrad: " Heart of Darkness"
Michael Faraday, J. J. Thomson, Gregor Mendel, Hermann Minkowski, Ernest Rutherford, Clinton Davisson, Erwin Schrödinger, Niels Bohr, James Clerk Maxwell, Louis-Victor de Broglie, Dreisch, Hans Christian Ørsted, André-Marie Ampère, Theodor Boveri, Walter Sutton, Morgan, Beadle and Tatum, Gerald Jay Sussman, Watson and Crick, Jacob & Monod, G. H. Hardy
Criticism and controversy
St. John's curriculum has drawn criticism and controversy since its inception. It went far beyond the then-existing
Columbia Universityand University of ChicagoGreat Books programs in making the Great Books the "entire" curriculum rather than one of many courses of study, and in extending the Great Books approach to the sciences as well as the humanities.
Writing in 1938, just after the first group of freshmen completed their first semester under the new curriculum, Stringfellow Barr insisted that there was nothing radical about the curriculum and that it was:merely carrying out the terms of the eighteenth century charter of St. John's and restoring discipline in the liberal arts and an acquaintance with our intellectual heritage in place of the vocational interests and cafeteria courses that clutter our liberal arts curricula today. ["St. John's Hails New Curriculum; President Barr of Annapolis College Analyzes Results of 100 Books' program; Elective System Goes; 'Discipline in Liberal Arts' is Substituted for 'Vocational and Cafeteria Course'", "
The New York Times", July 3, 1938, p. 20.] He referred to "opponents of the St. John's program" and said that they consider it "authoritarian and fascist." He said that some "suspect that some sort of Catholic indoctrination is being attempted" because of the inclusion of Aristotle and medieval scholastic works in the curriculum, while "Catholic educators have denounced the list for including Marx and Freud."
In a 1944 essay, the
pragmatistphilosopher Sidney Hookwas highly critical of the "St. John's experiment." In particular, he asked whether the presentation of science and mathematics through historical texts instead of conventional systematic study actually helped students "acquire greater competence in mathematics and science or a better insight into their character as liberal arts." By way of answer, he quoted three prominent mathematicians and scientists who opposed a historical approach to scientific education.
Richard Courant::"There is no doubt that it is unrealistic to expect a scientific enlightenment of beginners by the study of Euclid, Appolonius or Ptolemy. It will just give them an oblique perspective of what is important and what is not. Studying the more modern works by Descartes, Newton, etc., except for a few single items, would be even more difficult and likewise not lead to a balanced understanding of mathematics." Bertrand Russell::"The subject on which you write is one about which I feel very strongly. I think the 'Best Hundred Books' people are utterly absurd on the scientific side. I was myself brought up on Euclid and Newton and I can see the case for them. But on the whole Euclid is much too slow-moving. Boole is not comparable to his successors. Descartes' geometry is surpassed by every modern textbook of analytical geometry. The broad rule is: historical approach where truth is unattainable, but not in a subject like mathematics or anatomy. (They read Harvey!)"and Albert Einstein::"In my opinion there should be no compulsory reading of classical authors in the field of science. I believe also that the laboratory studies should be selected from a purely pedagogical and not historical point of view. On the other side, I am convinced that lectures concerning the historical development of ideas in different fields are of great value for intelligent students, for such studies are furthering very effectively the independence of judgment and independence from blind belief in temporarily accepted views. I believe that such lectures should be treated as a kind of beautiful luxury and the students should not be bothered with examinations concerning historical facts." [ [http://www.ditext.com/hook/hook.html A Critical Appraisal of the St. John's College Curriculum] , online text from "Education for Modern Man" (New York: The Dial Press, 1946). Reprinted with some minor changes from The New Leader, May 26 and June 4, 1944.]
St. John's provokes to an intensified degree the long-standing question of whether a liberal arts degree is suitable preparation for modern-day employment. In the case of St. John's, the question is intensified because of St. John's idiosyncratic program and educational philosophy.
Robert Hutchins defended that educational philosophy in 1937, insisting that other educational methods "fail in all respects—we don't get either good practitioners or well-educated people." He said that thirty-six industries in Minneapolis and St. Paul, answering a questionnaire, said that they preferred "no specific education in schools" for their workers. ["Dr. Hutchins to Aid New-Type College. Head of Chicago University To Be A Governor of St. Johns at Annapolis, Md. To Revive Ancient Aims. Idea of Educating People to Live Instead of To Earn Living to Be Tested, He says." "
The New York Times", July 7, 1937, p. 19]
In his 1987 book "College: The Undergraduate Experience in America",
Ernest L. Boyerlampoons St. John's College, claiming that "The fixed curriculum of the colonial era is as much an anachronism today as the stocks in the village square." [Quoted in Donald Asher (2000), "Cool Colleges", Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, p. 118.]
Shimer College: another Great Books College with a slightly different approach
Colonial Colleges: Details on St. John's antiquity vis-a-vis other old U. S. colleges
Harrison Middleton University
Liberal Arts, Inc.Failed attempt by Barr and Buchanan to start a Great Books-based college in the Massachusetts Berkshires, a mile-and-a-half from Tanglewood.
* [http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/ St. John's College] official website
* [http://www.stjohnscollege.edu/GI/AN/readlist.shtml Graduate Institute Tutorial and Seminar Reading Lists]
* [http://everything2.com/title/St.%2520John%2527s%2520College St. John's College] on
* [http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/11091.php/ Racing Odysseus: A College President Becomes a Freshman Again] A former college president attended St. John's College and wrote a memoir about his experience reading Homer, rowing Crew, and examining the importance of a liberal arts education in today’s society.
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