Border states (American Civil War)
In the context of the
American Civil War, the term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginiawhich bordered a free state and were aligned with the Union. All but Delaware share borders with states that joined the Confederacy. In Kentucky and Missouri there were both pro-Confederate and pro-Union government factions. West Virginiawas formed in 1863 from the northwestern counties of Virginia that had seceded from Virginia after Virginia seceded from the Union. Though every slave state (except South Carolina) contributed some troops to the Union side, [ [http://www.1stalabamacavalryusv.com/loyalist.asp History of the 1st Alabama Cavalry, USV ] ] [ [http://www.worldhistoryblog.com/2007/05/pro-union-southerners.html World History Blog: Pro-Union Southerners ] ] the split was most severe in these border states, with men from the same family often fighting on opposite sides.
In addition, two territories not yet statesndash the
Indian Territory(now the state of Oklahoma) and the New Mexico Territory(now the states of Arizonaand New Mexico)ndash also permitted slavery. Yet very few slaves could actually be found in these territories, despite the institution's legal status there. During the war, the major Indian tribes in Oklahoma signed an alliance with the Confederacy and participated in its military efforts. Residents of New Mexico Territory were of divided loyalties; the region was split between the Union and Confederacy at the 34th Parallel. Oklahoma is often cited as a "border state" today, but Arizona and New Mexico are rarely, if ever, so characterized.
With geographic, social, political, and economic connections to both the North and the South, the border states were critical to the outcome of the war and still delineate the cultural border that separates the North from the South. After Reconstruction, most of the border states adopted
Jim Crow lawsresembling those enacted in the South, but in recent decades some of them (most notably Delaware and Maryland) have become more Northern in their political, economic, and social orientation, while others (particularly Kentucky and West Virginia) have adopted a Southern way of life. [Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, by Mary L. Hart, Charles Reagan Wilson, William Ferris and Ann J. Adadie, Univ. of N. Carolina Press, 1989. ISBN 0807818232] [Ambler, Charles "The History of West Virginia". re: the discard of the 1863 State Constitution and adoption of the new 1872 Constitution: "As a consequence of these changes, for more than twenty years West Virginia was allied with the 'Solid South'...It gave West Virginia the laws and institutions that best reflected the sentiments of her people..."] [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/maps/MapsS/Map1S.html Telsur Southern Dialect Regional Map] Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, designed as a war-measures act, applied only to territories not already under Union control, so it did not apply to the border states. Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia each changed their state constitution to prohibit slavery. Slavery in Kentucky and Delaware (as well as remnants of slavery in West Virginia and New Jersey) was not ended until the 1865 ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
The five border states
Both houses of Delaware's General Assembly rejected secession overwhelmingly, the House of Representatives unanimously.
The Maryland Legislature rejected secession in 1861, Governor Hicks voted against it. As a result of the
Union Army's heavy presence in the state and the suspension of habeas corpusby Abraham Lincoln, several Maryland state legislators, as well as the mayorand police chief of Baltimore, who supported the secession, were arrested and imprisoned by Union authorities. (Notice that with Virginia having seceded, Union troops had to go through Maryland to reach the national capital at Washington DC) Had Maryland also joined the Confederacy, Washington DC would have been totally surrounded. Maryland contributed troops to both the Union (60,000) and the Confederate (25,000) armies.
Maryland was not covered by the 1863
Emancipation Proclamation. Maryland adopted a new state constitution in 1864, which prohibited slavery and thus emancipated all slaves in the state.
Kentucky was strategic to Union victory in the Civil War. Lincoln once said, "I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor Maryland. These all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capital" (Washington, which was surrounded by slave states: Confederate Virginia and Union-controlled Maryland). He is further reported to have said that he "hoped" to have God on his side, but he "had" to have Kentucky.
Kentucky did not secede, but a faction known as the
Russellville Conventionformed a Confederate government of Kentuckywhich was recognized by the Confederate States of America as a member state. Kentucky was represented by the central star on the Confederate battle flag. [cite web |url=http://ngeorgia.com/history/flagsofga.html |title=A Concise History of the Flags of the Confederate States of America and the Sovereign State of Georgia |accessdate=2006-11-29 |last=Irby, Jr. |first=Richard E. |work=About North Georgia |publisher=Golden Ink]
Beriah Magoffinproposed that slave states like Kentucky should conform to the US Constitutionand remain in the Union. When Lincoln requested 75,000 men to serve in the Union, however, Magoffin, a Southern sympathizer, countered that Kentucky would "furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern states."
Kentucky tried to remain neutral, even issuing a proclamation
May 20, 1861, asking both sides to keep out. The neutrality was broken when Confederate General Leonidas Polkoccupied Columbus, Kentucky, in the summer of 1861, though the Union had been openly enlisting troops in the state before this. In response, the Kentucky Legislature passed a resolution directing the governor to demand the evacuation of Confederate forces from Kentucky soil. Magoffin vetoed the proclamation, but the legislature overrode his veto. The legislature further decided to back General Ulysses S. Grantand his Union troops stationed in Paducah, Kentucky, on the grounds that the Confederacy voided the original pledge by entering Kentucky first.
Southern sympathizers were outraged at the legislature's decisions, citing that Polk's troops in Kentucky were only in route to countering Grant's forces. Later legislative resolutions—such as inviting Union General Robert Anderson to enroll volunteers to expel the Confederate forces, requesting the governor to call out the militia, and appointing Union General
Thomas L. Crittendenin command of Kentucky forces—only incensed the Southerners further. (Magoffin vetoed the resolutions but all were overridden.) In 1862, the legislature passed an act to disfranchise citizens who enlisted in the Confederate States Army. Thus Kentucky's neutral status evolved into backing the Union. Most of those who originally sought neutrality turned to the Union cause.
When Confederate General
Albert Sidney Johnstonoccupied Bowling Green, Kentuckyin the summer of 1861, the pro-Confederates in western and central Kentucky moved to establish a Confederate state government. The Russellville Conventionmet in Logan County on November 18, 1861. One hundred sixteen delegates from 68 counties elected to depose the current government and create a provisional governmentloyal to Kentucky's new unofficial Confederate Governor George W. Johnson. On December 10, 1861, Kentucky became the 13th state admitted to the Confederacy. Kentucky, along with Missouri, was a state with representatives in both Congresses and with regiments in both Union and Confederate armies.
Magoffin, still functioning as official governor in Frankfort, would not recognize the Kentucky Confederates nor their attempts to establish a government in his state. He continued to declare Kentucky's official status in the war was as a neutral state—even though the legislature backed the Union. Magoffin, fed up with the party divisions within the population and legislature, announced a special session of the legislature and then resigned his office in 1862.
Bowling Green remained occupied by the Confederates until February 1862 when General Grant moved from Missouri through Kentucky along the Tennessee line. Confederate Governor Johnson fled Bowling Green with the Confederate state records, headed south, and joined Confederate forces in Tennessee. After Johnson was killed fighting in the
Battle of Shiloh, Richard Haweswas named Confederate governor. Shortly afterwards, the Provisional Confederate Congresswas adjourned on February 17, 1862, on the eve of inauguration of a permanent Congress. However, as Union occupation henceforth dominated the state, the Kentucky Confederate government, as of 1863, existed only on paper, and its representation in the permanent congress was minimal. It was dissolved when the Civil War ended in the spring of 1865.
After the secession of Southern states began, the newly elected governor of Missouri called upon the legislature to authorize a state constitutional convention on secession. A special election approved of the convention and delegates to it. This Missouri Constitutional Convention voted to remain within the Union, but rejected coercion of the Southern States by the United States. Pro-Southern Governor
Claiborne F. Jacksonwas disappointed with the outcome. He called up the state militia to their districts for annual training. Jackson had plans on the St. Louis Arsenaland had been in secret correspondence with Confederate President Jefferson Davisto obtain artillery for the militia in St. Louis. Aware of these developments, Union Captain Nathaniel Lyonstruck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state militia to surrender. While marching the prisoners to the arsenal, a deadly riot erupted (the Camp Jackson Affair.)
These events caused greater Confederate support within the state. The already pro-Southern legislature passed the governor's military bill creating the
Missouri State Guard. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, who had been president of the convention, as major generalof this reformed and expanded militia. Price and Union district commander Harney came to an agreement known as the Price-Harney Trucethat calmed tensions in the state for several weeks. After Harney was removed and Lyon placed in charge, a meeting was held in St. Louis at the Planters' House between Lyon, his political ally Francis P. Blair, Jr., Price, and Jackson. The negotiations went nowhere and after a few fruitless hours Lyon made his famous declaration, "this means war!" Price and Jackson rapidly departed for the capital.
Jackson, Price, and the state legislature were forced to flee the state capital of
Jefferson Cityon June 14, 1861, in the face of Lyon's rapid advance against the state government. In the absence of the now exiled state government, the Missouri Constitutional Convention reconvened in late July. On July 30the convention declared the state offices vacant and appointed a new provisional government with Hamilton Gambleas governor. President Lincoln's Administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal government, which provided both pro-Union militia forces for service within the state and volunteer regiments for the Union Army.
Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from
Arkansasand Texasunder General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri, the secessionist forces had little choice but to retreat again to Southwest Missouri as Union reinforcements arrived. There, on October 30, 1861in the town of Neosho, Jackson called the exiled state legislature into session where they enacted a secession ordinance. It was recognized by the Confederate congress, and Missouri was admitted into the Confederacy on November 28.
The exiled state government was forced to withdraw into Arkansas in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army. Though regular Confederate troops staged several large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted mainly of
guerrilla warfare. The guerrillas were primarily southern partisans including William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson. Such small unit tactics pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers were seen in other occupied portions of the Confederacy during the Civil War. The James' brothers outlawry after the war has been seen as a continuation of guerrilla warfare.
Thomas C. Fletcherended slavery in Missouri on January 11, 1865, by executive proclamation.
The serious divisions between the western and eastern sections of Virginia did not begin in the winter of 1860-1861. West Virginia historian C. H. Ambler wrote that “there are few years during the period from 1830 to 1850 which did not bring forth schemes for the dismemberment of the commonwealth.” The western part of the state during this time was “the growing and aggressive section” while the east was “the declining and conservative one.” The west centered its grievances on the east’s disproportionate (based on population) legislative representation and share of state revenues. The east justified this dominance because of its dependence on slaves, “the possession of which could be guaranteed and secured only by giving to masters a voice in the government adequate to the protection of their interests.” [Ambler (1910) pp. 764-765] In 1851 the Virginia Reform Convention, forced to recognize that the white population of the western part of the state outnumbered the east, made significant changes. Universal white suffrage was granted and the governor was to be determined by the direct vote of the people. The lower house of the legislature was apportioned strictly based on population, although the upper house still used a combination of population and property in determining its electoral districts. [Crofts pp. 57-58]
By 1859 there were again strong sectional tensions at work within the state, although the west itself was split between the north and the south, with the south more satisfied with the changes made in 1851. Historian Daniel W. Crofts wrote, “Northwesterners complained that they had become ‘the complete vassals of Eastern Virginia,’ taxed ‘unmercifully and increasingly, at her instance and for her benefit.’” Internal improvements important to the west, such as the
James River and Kanawha Canalor railroads connecting the west to the east had been promised but not built. Slaves, for tax purposes, were not valued above $300 despite a top field hand being worth five times that amount. [Crofts p. 159. The only railroad in the area, the B & O, had been built with out of state money. Slaves under age 12 were not taxed at all.] The west had 135,000 more whites than the east, but the east controlled the state Senate. In the United States House of Representatives, because of the three-fifth rule, only five of Virginia’s thirteen representatives came from western districts. [Nevins p. 140. Nevins also wrote, “... according to Francis H. Pierpont, the principal western leader, each year [the east] escaped paying $900,000 in taxes justly its due” and “all of the $30,000,000 by which the State debt had been augmented since 1851 had gone for internal improvements in the east.”] In the 1859 gubernatorial elections there was disenchantment with both parties in the west. Western grievances were ignored as “both parties engaged in a proslavery shouting match.” Antislavery Whigs began to move towards the Republican Party; in the 1860 presidential election, Abraham Lincoln received 2,000 votes from the western panhandle. [Croft pp. 59, 160. Ambler p. 779. Ambler wrote f the state Republican platform drafted in Wheeling in the spring of 1860, “It also alleged that the slave interests of Virginia had encroached upon the personal rights of the free white men of her western counties by weighing them down with oppressive taxation and by denying them a proportionate representation in the general assembly.”]
Crofts wrote that “no document better captures the mood of unconditional northwestern Virginia Unionists” than the following from a
March 16, 1861letter by Henry Dering of Morgantown to Waitman T. Willey:
Virginia’s secession and western reaction
By December 1860 secession was being publicly debated throughout Virginia. Leading eastern newspapers such as the Richmond Inquirer, Richmond Examiner, and Norfolk Argus were openly calling for secession. [Croft p. 102] The Wellsburg Herald on
December 14warned the east that the west would not be “legislated into treason or dragged into trouble to gratify the wishes of any set of men, or to subserve the interests of any section.” [Link p. 250] The Morgantown Star on January 12said that their region was “unwilling that slavery in Virginia shall be used to oppress the people of our section of the state. ... We people in Western Virginia have borne the burden just about as long as we can stand it. We have been ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’ for Eastern Virginia long enough.” [Crofts p. 162] In addition to traditional east- west differences, the specter of secession raised new issues for the northwest. This section [Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia” p. 404. Throughout this article the term “northwest” refers to a section made up of 35 counties, only twenty four of which had significant unionist strongholds] shared a convert|450|mi|km|sing=on border with Ohio and Pennsylvania and, by virtue of the state’s failure to build roads, was isolated from the rest of the state. A leading unionist said, “We would be swept by the enemy from the face of the earth before the news of the attack could reach our Eastern friends.” Another unionist, addressing the section’s close economic links with the North, asked, “Would you have us ... act like madmen and cut our own throats merely to sustain you in a most unwarrantable rebellion.” [Crofts p. 160]
Despite unionist opposition, a special session of the state legislature in early January called for the election of delegates to a state convention on
February 4to consider secession. A proposal by Waitman T. Willey to have the convention also consider reforms to taxation and representation went nowhere. [Crofts p. 161. After the ordinance was passed by the convention Chester T. Hubard wrote to Willey, “I should like to show those traitors at Richmond ... that we are not to be transformed like the cattle on the hills or the slaves on their plantations, without our knowledge or consent.” Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia”, p. 406] The convention first met on February 13and voted for secession on April 17, 1861. The decision was dependent on ratification by a statewide referendum.
April 22, 1861John S. Carlisle led a meeting of 1,200 people in Harrison County. The meeting approved the “Clarksburg Resolutions”, calling for the creation of a new state separate from Virginia. The resolutions were widely circulated and each county was asked to choose five “of their wisest, best, and distinguished men” as delegates. [Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia”, p. 406. Lesser pp. 25-26.] Historian Allan Nevins wrote, “ The movement, spontaneous, full of extralegal irregularities, and varying from place to place, spread like the wind. Community after community held mass meetings.” [Nevins p. 141]
Unionists in Virginia met at the
Wheeling Conventionfrom May 13to May 15to await the decision of the state referendum called to ratify the decision to secede. [Link p. 251] In attendance were over four hundred delegates from twenty-seven counties. Most delegations were chosen by public meetings rather than elections and some attendees came strictly on their own. The editor of the Wheeling Western Star called it “almost a mass meeting of the people instead of a representative body.” [Lesser p. 26. Curry p. 406]
Carlisle, in front of a banner proclaiming “New Virginia, now or never”, spoke for the immediate creation of a new state consisting of thirty-two counties. Speaking of the actions of the Virginia secession convention, he said, “Let us act; let us repudiate these monstrous usurpations; let us show our loyalty to Virginia and the Union at every hazard. It is useless to cry peace when there is no peace; and I for one will repeat what was said by one of Virginia’s noblest sons and greatest statesmen, ‘Give me liberty or give me death.’ [Lesser p. 27]
Speaking in opposition to action at this time, Willey argued that the convention had no authority to take such an action and referred to it as “triple treason”. Francis H. Pierpont supported Willey and helped to work out a compromise that secured the withdrawal of the Carlisle motion, declared the state’s Ordinance of Secession to be “unconstitutional, null, and void", and called for a second convention on
June 11if secession was ratified. [Lesser pp. 28-29. “Triple treason” referred to, in Lesser’s paraphrasing, “treason against the State of Virginia, treason against the U. S. Constitution, even treason against Virginia’s alliance with the Confederacy.”]
Willey’s closing remarks to the convention set the stage for the June meeting:
econd Wheeling Convention
The statewide vote in favor of secession was 132,201 to 37,451. In the core Unionist enclave of northwestern Virginia the vote was 30,586 to 10,021 against secession, although the total vote in the counties that would become West Virginia was a closer 34,677 to 19,121 against. [Crofts p. 341]
The Second Wheeling Convention opened on
June 11with more than 100 delegates from 32 western counties representing nearly one-third of Virginia’s total voting population. Members of the Virginia General Assembly were accepted as long as they were loyal to the Union [Lesser p. 77] "and still others were seemingly self-appointed." [Ambler, "The History of West Virginia", p. 318] The convention met “ in open defiance of the Richmond authorities” and efforts were made in many counties to restrict attendance. Delegates were required to take a loyalty oath to the United State Constitution “anything in the Ordinance of the Convention which assembled in Richmond, on 13 Februarylast, to the contrary notwithstanding.”. [Lesser p. 77] Arthur I. Boreman, the future governor of West Virginia, was chosen as president, but the main leaders were Carlisle and Frank Pierpont. While many still supported Carlisle’s original plan to create a new state, Article IV Section 3 of the Constitution presented a problem. This section guaranteed that “no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of ay their State ... without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States Concerned as well as of Congress.” [Lesser pp. 77-78] The legal solution chosen by the convention is described by author W. Hunter Lesser:
This restored Virginia government would then, under this theory, have the authority to the creation of a new state within the Old Dominion’s old borders.
June 13Carlisle presented his “Declaration of Rights of the People of Virginia” to the convention. It accused the secessionists of “usurping” the rights of the people, creating an “illegal confederacy of rebellious states”, and declared it was now their duty “to abolish” the state government as it existed. The convention approved this declaration on June 17by a 56 to 0 vote. On June 14“An Ordinance for the Re-organization of the State Government” was presented which provided for the selection of a governor, lieutenant governor, and a five-member governor’s council by the convention, declared all state government offices vacant, and recognized a “rump legislature” composed of loyal members of the General Assembly who had been elected in the May 23statewide voting. This ordinance was approved on June 19. [Lesser pp. 78-79]
Francis H. Peirpont was chosen as governor by the convention on
June 20. Historian Virgil Lewis said this process was carried out in an “irregular... unjustifiable mode.” [Lewis, "How West Virginia Was Made", p. 266] The next day Governor Peirpont notified President Lincoln of the convention’s decisions. Noting that there were “evil-minded persons” who were “making war on the loyal people of the state” and “pressing citizens against their consent into their military organization and seizing and appropriating their property to aid in the rebellion,” Peirpont requested aid “to suppress such rebellion and violence.” [Current p. 15] Secretary of War Cameron, replying for Lincoln, wrote:
”Restored” Virginia and dismemberment
Restored Government of Virginiagranted permission for the formation of a new state on August 20, 1861. The Lt. Governor of the Restored Government, Daniel Polsley, strongly objected to the ordinance for the new state, saying in a speech on August 16:
October 24, 1861popular vote on the new state drew only 19,000 voters (compared to the 54,000 who had voted in the original secession referendum), one hundred of whom, according to two individual observers, were Ohio soldiers ["Mr. Lamb, of Ohio County, whose Unionism could not be doubted, declared that out of two thousand voters in Hampshire County, one hundred and ninety-five votes had been cast and he had heard that of these one hundred had been cast by soldiers. Mr. Carskadon confirmed this and added that only thirty-nine were the votes of citizens of the state." McGregor, "The Disruption of Virginia", p. 270]
The Second Wheeling Convention had proposed that only 39 counties be included in the new state. This number included 24 clearly Unionist counties and 15 pro-Confederate counties which the new state would find “imperative” because of their geographic relationship with the rest of the new state. These 39 counties contained a white population of 272,759, 78% of whom had a Unionist orientation. [Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia" p. 417] While there was overwhelming support at this convention for statehood, there was a “small, effective minority” that opposed this and they used “obstructionist tactics at every opportunity” in their efforts to defeat the majority. It was this group opposed to statehood that was largely responsible for the inclusion of additional counties beyond this core. [Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia” p. 412]
When the constitutional convention was held in Wheeling on
November 16, 1861, the obstructionists attempted to have 71 counties included in the new state, a move which would have created a white confederate sympathizer majority of 316,308. Eventually a compromise was worked out to include 50 counties. [Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia” pp. 417-418] Historian Richard O. Curry summed the results up this way:
Curry further concluded:
Military events and statehood
While the above political events were unfolding, in the late spring of 1861 Union troops from Ohio moved into western Virginia with the primary strategic goal of protecting the B & O Railroad. General
George B. McClellanin June 3at Philippi, July 11at Rich Mountain, and September 10at Carnifex Ferry “completely destroyed Confederate defenses in western Virginia.” [McGehee p. 149] However after these victories most Federal troops were sent out of the new state to support McClellan elsewhere, leading Governor Boreman to write from Parkersburg "The whole country South and East of us is abandoned to the Southern Confederacy." [ Curry, "A House Divided", p. 77] In central, southern and eastern West Virginia a guerrilla war ensued that lasted until 1865. [ "Exterminating Savages", by Kenneth W. Noe, in "The Civil War in Appalachia", pp. 104-130] Raids and recruitment by the Confederacy took place throughout the war. Estimates of Union and Confederate soldiers from West Virginia have varied widely, but some recent studies indicate that the numbers were about equal, from 22-25,000 each. ["Although early estimates noted that Union soldiers from the region outnumbered Confederates by more than three to one, more recent and detailed studies have concluded that there were nearly equal numbers of Union and Confederate soldiers." http://www.wvculture.org/History/civwaran.html] Historian Richard Nelson Current places the number of West Virginians fighting for the Union at approximately 29,000. [Current p. 216]
The new state constitution was passed by the Unionist counties in the spring of 1862 and this was approved by the restored Virginia government in May 1862. The statehood bill for West Virginia was passed by Congress in December and signed by President Lincoln on
December 31, 1862. [Curry “A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia” p. 407] As a condition for statehood the US Congress required that a policy of gradual emancipation be granted to the slaves of the new state, called the Willey Amendment, which was amended to the state constitution on March 26, 1863.
New Mexico and Arizona territories
Mesilla, New Mexico, on March 18, 1861, and Tucson, Arizona, on March 23adopted an ordinance of secession. The conventions established a pro-Southern government for the southern portions of the territory and called for the election of representatives to petition the Confederacy for admission and relief. [http://members.tripod.com/~azrebel/page9.html] Lewis Owingsof Mesilla was elected the territory's first provisional governor, and Granville Henderson Ouryof Tucson presented the territory's petition for admission into the Confederacy. [http://www.jackpurcellbooks.us/pages/book%20pages/sw%20history%20post%201860.htm] In July 1861, Confederate forces from Texas, under Lieutenant Colonel John Baylor, entered Mesilla, described as "a strongly pro-Confederate community." [http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/MM/qfm4.html] The following day, Union Major Isaac Lyndeapproached Mesilla to engage Baylor's forces. Baylor's men, accompanied by militia out of Mesilla, attacked and defeated Lynde at the Battle of Mesillaon July 27. On August 1, Baylor proclaimed that the Confederate territory of Arizona would extend to the 34th parallel and named himself the new territorial governor. [http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/MM/qfm4.html] The territory was home to several subsequent engagements and skirmishes between the western armies of the Union and the Confederacy during the war. The Confederate loss at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, in March 1862, drove them back to Texas and ended involvement of New Mexico in the Civil War. [http://www.oldmesilla.org/html/civil_war_period.html]
Though Tennessee had officially seceded,
East Tennesseewas pro-Union and had mostly voted against secession. Attempts to secede from Tennessee were suppressed by the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis arrested over 3,000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without trial. [Mark Neely, "Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties" 1993 pp. 10–11] Tennessee came under control of Union forces in 1862 and was omitted from the Emancipation Proclamation. After the war, Tennessee was the first state to have its elected members readmitted to the US Congress.
Winston County, Alabama, issued a resolution of secession from the state of Alabama.
Border states and emancipation
President Abraham Lincoln's
Emancipation Proclamationwas designed with the interests of border states in mind. The Proclamation did not free slaves within current Union-controlled territory because the presidential war power did not extend there. Lincoln maintained that under the Constitution, ending slavery in a state not in active rebellion against the Union could only be done legally by action of that state, or by amendment to the Constitution.
Constitutional Union Party (United States)
Free state (United States)
The Solid South
Golden Circle (Slavery)
History of slavery in Kentucky
History of slavery in Missouri
Missouri Constitutional Convention (1861-63)
* Ambler, Charles H. "The Cleavage between Eastern and Western Virginia". "The American Historical Review"Vol. 15, No. 4, (July 1910) pp. 762-780 in JSTOR.
* Ash Steven V. "Middle Tennessee Transformed, 1860-1870" Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
* Baker Jean H. "The Politics of Continuity: Maryland Political Parties from 1858 to 1870" Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
* Richard S. Brownlee, "Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy: Guerrilla Warfare in the West, 1861-1865" (1958).
* Coulter E. Merton. "The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky" University of North Carolina Press, 1926.
* Crofts, Daniel W. "Reluctant Confederates: Upper South Unionists in the Secession Crisis." (1989).
* Current, Richard Nelson. "Lincoln's Loyalists: Union Soldiers From the Confederacy. " (1992).
* Curry Richard O. "A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and the Copperhead Movement in West Virginia." University of Pittsburgh Press, 1964.
* Curry, Richard O. "A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia". "The Journal of Southern History" Vol. 28, No. 4. (Nov., 1962) pp. 403-421.
* Fellman, Michael. "Inside War. The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri during the American Civil War" (1989).
* Fields, Barbara. "Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland During the Nineteenth Century" (1987).
* Frazier Donald S. "Blood and Treasure: Confederate Empire in the Southwest." Texas A&M University Press, 1995.
* Donald L. Gilmore. "Civil War on the Missouri-Kansas Border" (2005)
* Hancock Harold. "Delaware during the Civil War". Historical Society of Delaware, 1961.
* Harrison Lowell. "The Civil War in Kentucky" University Press of Kentucky, 1975.
* Josephy, Alvin M. Jr., "The Civil War in the American West." 1991.
* Kerby, Robert L. "Kirby Smith's Confederacy: The Trans-Mississippi South, 1863-1865" Columbia University Press, 1972.
* Link, William A. "Roots of Secession: Slavery and Politics in Antebellum Virginia." (2003)
* Lesser, W. Hunter. "Rebels at the Gate: Lee and McClellan at the Front Line of a Nation Divided." (2004)
* Maslowski Peter. "Treason Must Be Made Odious: Military Occupation and Wartime Reconstruction in Nashville, Tennessee, 1862-65" 1978.
* McGehee, C. Stuart. "The Tarnished Thirty-fifth Star" in "Virginia at War: 1861. " Davis William C. and Robertson, James I. Jr. (2005).
* Jay Monaghan. "Civil War on the Western Border, 1854-1865" (1955)
* George E. Moore. "A Banner in the Hills: West Virginia's Statehood" (1963)
* Nevins, Allan. "The War for the Union: The Improvised War 1861-1862." (1959).
* Parrish William E. "Turbulent Partnership: Missouri and the Union, 1861-1865" University of Missouri Press, 1963.
* Patton James W. "Unionism and Reconstruction in Tennessee, 1860-1867" University of North Carolina Press, 1934.
* Rampp Lary C., and Donald L. Rampp. "The Civil War in the Indian Territory". Austin: Presidial Press, 1975.
* Sheeler J. Reuben. "The Development of Unionism in East Tennessee." "Journal of Negro History" 29 (1944): 166-203. in JSTOR
* Stiles, T.J. "Jesse James: The Last Rebel of the Civil War". Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.
* [http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=36&subjectID=3 Mr. Lincoln and Freedom: Border States]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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American Civil War bibliography — The American Civil War bibliography is vast, with over 60,000 books on the American Civil War, with many more appearing each year. [ In 2001, Jonathan Sarna estimated that over 50,000 books had already appeared, with 1500 more appearing annually … Wikipedia
American Civil War — the war in the U.S. between the North and the South, 1861 65. * * * or Civil War or War Between the States (1861–65) Conflict between the U.S. federal government and 11 Southern states that fought to secede from the Union. It arose out of… … Universalium
American Civil War reenactment — Confederate reenactors fire their rifles during a reenactment of the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 2008 … Wikipedia
American Civil War — (1861–1865) The American Civil War was fought between the military forces of the Federal Government of the United States against those of the Confederate States of American, made up of 11 states who announced their secession from the Union in… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
West Virginia in the American Civil War — Confederate States in the American Civil War South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama … Wikipedia
Origins of the American Civil War — For events following South Carolina s declaration of secession from the Union, see Battle of Fort Sumter and American Civil War. The Battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. The main explanation… … Wikipedia
Union (American Civil War) — Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. Blue represents Union states, including those admitted during the war; light blue represents Union states which permitted slavery (border states); red represents Confederate states. White or … Wikipedia
Missouri in the American Civil War — Confederate States in the American Civil War South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama Georgia Louisiana Texas Virginia Arkansas North Carolina … Wikipedia
Kentucky in the American Civil War — Confederate States in the American Civil War South Carolina Mississippi Florida Alabama … Wikipedia