House of Hador

In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, the House of Marach or House of Hador (pronounced|ˈmarax] , [ˈhadɔr) were the family of Men that ruled the over the last of the Three Houses of the Edain in the First Age. They were the descendants of Marach, but were usually named after his great-great-grandson Hador Lórindol, the first Lord of Dor-lómin.

The Folk of Hador

The Third House of Men, called the Folk of Marach or later the House of Hador, was the greatest of the Three, having at the time of their coming to Beleriand some six thousand full-grown men. "For the most part they were tall people, with flaxen or golden hair and blue-grey eyes, but there were not a few among them that had dark hair, though all were fair-skinned."Me-ref|PoMe|"Of Dwarves and Men", pp. 306-316 and note 13 on p. 373] The People of Marach were "quick to wrath and laughter, fierce in battle, generous to friend and to foe, swift in resolve, fast in loyalty, joyous in heart, the children of Ilúvatar in the youth of Mankind."Me-ref|WotJ|"The Later Quenta Silmarillion", p. 215-229] They were akin to the House of Bëor and spoke a closely related language, called Taliska.

The future Folks of Hador and Bëor were originally a single people, and they journeyed together from the East of Middle-earth after rebelling against the Dark Lord (Morgoth). They became separated on the way and for a time dwelt on opposite shores of the Sea of Rhûn, the Lesser Folk (Bëorians) in the hills to the south-west and the Greater Folk (Marachians) in the woods to the north-east. Afterwards both people went on westward, but the greater part of the Folk of Marach remained in the wide lands of Rhovanion, and of them were descended the Bardings of Dale, the Éothéod and the Woodmen of Mirkwood. A far fewer host settled in Eriador or travelled further westward.

The vanguard of the Greater Folk, now led by one Marach, were the first to reach the Ered Luin, but they were daunted by the heights and turned southward, seeking a way round the Mountains. Thus they came to Beleriand from the south when the other Houses had already settled. [In "The Silmarillion", Marach led his people directly over the Blue Mountains by the Dwarf-pass. This story was apparently rejected by Tolkien in favour of the one presented here. See "The Peoples of Middle-earth", pp. 307, 325.] Marach therefore led his people to the plains of Estolad, where they settled to the south-east of the Folk of Bëor.

Soon the Edain began to migrate from Estolad again, for the Kings of the Noldor sent word that any who wished could come and dwell among their people. Malach, son of Marach lived in Hithlum for fourteen years, and soon he led some of his people there, and yet a greater part journeyed under his son Magor to the lands around the sources of Taeglin south of Ered Wethrin. But some regretted of their coming to Beleriand, having found themselves entangled in the wars with Morgoth whom they had fled. So after a council and assembly in Y.S. 369 a host of the Folk of Marach went back over the Ered Luin to Eriador, mingling with their old kinsmen there. And many men still remained in Estolad until the Ruin of Beleriand; but most of the Third House forsook that land by Y.S. 380 and in Y.S. 416 the land of Dor-lómin in Hithlum was officially granted to their lord Hador.

The House of Hador became the most renowned of the Edain, fighting for the people of Fingolfin and Fingon. They were moreover hardy to endure cold and feared not at times to go far into the north and there keep watch upon the movements of Morgoth's forces. Many of them fell when the Siege of Angband was broken in the Dagor Bragollach, but still Hithlum was defended, and the Men of Hador guarded the tower of Barad Eithel. They fought valiantly under their lord Húrin during the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, and "of all the deeds of war that the fathers of Men wrought on behalf on the Eldar, the last stand of the Men of Dor-lómin is most renowned." [Me-ref|Silm|"Of the Fifth Battle", p. 194] Their forces defended the retreating army of Turgon, holding at last by the Fens of Serech, and all were slain.

To Hithlum no news came of the battle, until Morgoth sent there the allied Easterlings. The remnant of the House of Hador was then put to thraldom; those able to work were taken to mines of the north or laboured as slaves for the Incomers, and the old were killed or driven out to starve. A few indeed remained as beggars or outlaws, hiding in caves, or escaped to the southern havens at the Mouths of Sirion. By the Easterlings the Folk of Hador was called "Strawheads".Me-ref|UT|"Narn i Hîn Húrin"]

Easterlings' lordship under Morgoth lasted nearly a century, until the Host of the Valar arrived in Beleriand and the War of Wrath began. The remnants of the Three Houses then fought on the side of the Valar, and after the defeat of Morgoth, they were granted the Isle of Númenor to dwell in. The descendants of the House of Hador composed the majority of its population, and their language became the chief tongue of the land, the Adûnaic, and later from it spread the Common Tongue of the West. Most of the people of Gondor and Arnor was thus also descended from either the House of Hador or those of their folk that never crossed the Blue Mountains.

Line of Marach

Lords of the House

#Marach (Y.S. 282-376)All dates of birth and death are taken from "The War of the Jewels": "New genealogies of the Edain", pp. 236-238, 268-270.] Led his people to Beleriand, remained in Estolad to the end of his days.
#Malach Aradan (307-398), elder son of Marach. Dwelt in Hithlum in 322-336, where took the Sindarin name of "Aradan". Later led a part of his people to Hithlum.
#Magor (born 341), elder son of Malach. Led the majority of his people from Estolad to the southern slopes of Ered Wethrin. See also "Other versions of the legendarium".
#Hathol (born 365), son of Magor.
#Hador Lórindol (390-455), son of Hathol. Led his people to Dor-lómin, the lordship of which was now granted to him. Fell during the Dagor Bragollach.
#Galdor Orchal (the Tall) (417-462), elder son of Hador. Shortly ruled after his father until he was slain by an arrow that pierced his eye during the siege of Barad Eithel.
#Húrin Thalion (441-502), son of Galdor. Fought valiantly during the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, but was captured and cursed by Morgoth. Wrought final ruin on Brethil.

Other members of the House

*Younger son of Marach was Imlach (born 310), and his son was Amlach (born 337). Originally Amlach was the leader of those Men who became dissatisfied with Beleriand. But after his phantom twin was seen in a council where Amlach was not present, he repented and entered the service of Maedhros.
*Malach Aradan in 337 married Zimrahin of his people, who then took the Sindarin name Meldis. Their children were many, including son Magor and daughter Adanel (born 339), who became the Wise-woman and was the foremother of Beren Erchamion and Elwing.
*Hador's wife was Gildis. Their daughter was Glóredhel (415-472), [pronounced|ˈglɔːrɛðɛlʲ, Sindarin for 'Golden Elf', which can be taken as an indication of her remarkable, 'elven' beauty. In earlier versions of the legendarium she was called "Glorwendil".] who was wedded to Haldir of Brethil during a great feast at the same time as her brother Galdor married Haldir's sister Hareth. Glóredhel died of grief when the news came of her husband's fall in Nírnaeth Arnoediad. Younger brother of Glóredhel and Galdor was Gundor (419-455), who fell "pierced with many arrows" beside his father at Eithel Sirion during the Dagor Bragollach.
*Húrin married Morwen Edhelwen of the People of Bëor, and their children were Túrin Turambar (464-499), Urwen Lalaith (466-469) and Nienor Níniel (473-499). All perished through the Curse of Morgoth.
*Younger brother of Húrin was Huor (444-472), who married Rían cousin of Morwen and fell beside Húrin in the Nírnaeth. His son was Tuor (born 472); he married Idril Turgon's daughter and was the father of Eärendil the Mariner.

Family tree of the House of Hador

Other Men of Dor-lómin

Other Edain of the Third House are known from the stories of the "Narn i Chîn Húrin" and "The Wanderings of Húrin"."The War of the Jewels": "The Wanderings of Húrin"; citations from p. 262.]

*Aerin, Húrin's kinswoman taken as wife by Brodda. Aided Morwen but later killed herself.
*Algund, a Man of Dor-lómin who fled from the Nírnaeth Arnoediad. He became a member of Túrin's band Gaurwaith and was the oldest of them.
*Andróg, another member of Gaurwaith, cursed by Mîm the Petty-dwarf.
*Andvír, son of Andróg. The only member of the Gaurwaith (besides Túrin and Beleg) to survive the sack of Amon Rûdh. Later supposedly lived at the Mouths of Sirion and recounted much of the band's history to Dírhaval (see below)."The War of the Jewels": "Ælfwine and Dírhaval", pp. 311: "... he found a man named Andvír, and he was very old, but was the son of that Andróg who was in the outlaw-band of Túrin, and alone survived the battle on the summit of Amon Rûdh." The wording of J. R. R. Tolkien is unclear, and on p. 315 Christopher Tolkien surmised that it was Andróg who survived the battle. But this cannot have been intended by his father, as this would discard the history of Andróg's death stated elsewhere, and also there would have been no reason to introduce Andvír as the source.]
*Asgon, leader of the seven men that joined Húrin after his release. He "had a stout heart and men said that he was born with good luck". After Húrin slipped away, Asgon led his company to Brethil, where they were made prisoners; their lives were spared, but by Hardang's command they were expelled from the land. They nonetheless brought news of Húrin's coming, and the fear cast by them provoked Hardang to afflict Húrin, what ultimately resulted in the civil war. Later the outlaws helped Húrin to bring the treasure of Nargothrond to Menegroth. [In original versions of the story they slew each other in quarrels upon the road, but Tolkien never reached these parts again in his revisions and his son suggested that the strife was discarded. See "The War of the Jewels", pp. 354-6.]
*Dírhaval, a Mannish poet who lived at the Mouths of Sirion but was descended from the House of Hador, and "the glory and sorrow of that House was nearest to his heart". He gathered all tidings of Túrin's history, and finally composed the "Narn i Chîn Húrin", prized greatly by the Elves, but wrote nothing else as he was slain in Y.S. 538 during the raid of the Sons of Fëanor on the Havens. (In "Unfinished Tales" his name is given as "Dírhavel" instead, but this is a discarded form.) [See "The War of the Jewels": "Ælfwine and Dírhaval", note 5 on p. 315 and "Unfinished Tales", leading section of the notes to "Narn i Hîn Húrin".]
*Forweg, the leader of outlaw band Gaurwaith. He was "a man with fair hair and unsteady glittering eyes, big and bold, but far fallen from the ways of the Edain of the people of Hador". He admitted Túrin into the band, but risked the lives of outlaws in order to get "his pleasures", and in Y.S. 485 was slain by Túrin while attempting to capture Larnach's daughter.
*Gethron and Grithnir, who guided Túrin from Dor-lómin to Doriath in years 472-3. They "had been young in the days of Hador, and though they were now aged they were valiant, and they knew well the lands, for they had journeyed often through Beleriand in former times." When they arrived they were trapped in the Girdle of Melian and would have starved to death if they had not been found and saved by Beleg who gained them entrance to the Kingdom. Later Grithnir died of old age, but Gethron returned to Dor-lómin. [In early versions of the story the names of Túrin's guides were "Halog", who returned, and "Gumlin" or "Mailrond", who remained in Doriath. See Me-ref|LoB]
*Indor, a kinsman of Húrin and father of Aerin.
*Ragnir, a blind retainer of Morwen's household at the time of Túrin's departure.
*Ragnir (distinct from the former), one of the seven men who joined Húrin after his release. He was a tracker and "the youngest of the company, and remembered little of the days before the Nírnaeth". See also "Asgon" above.
*Sador, a woodwright of Húrin's household who accidentally cut off his foot. Later became a friend of Túrin, who called him "Labadal".

Etymology of names

The names of "Marach", "Malach", "Imlach", "Amlach" and of lesser men of Dor-lómin were given in their own tongue, with unknown significance. In "Zimrahin" the first element seems to be same as in "Zimraphel", Adûnaic translation of Tar-Míriel, and can possibly mean 'jewel' like Quenya "mírë". The names of later generations are stated to be Sindarin, with following meanings: "Aradan" 'noble Adan (Man)', "Meldis" 'friend (fem.)', "Gildis" 'star-lady', "Adanel" 'man-(maiden)' or 'man-star', "Magor" 'sword', 'Hathol' 'axe', "Glóredhel" 'golden elf'; [See the Appendix to "The Silmarillion", "New genealogieas of the Edain" and roots MEL-, GIL-, and NDIS- in the "Etymologies".] less certain are "Hador" 'warrior' or 'thrower (of spears or darts)', "Húrin" 'fiery mood', "Túrin" 'mastery mood', "Huor" 'heart-vigour', "Tuor" 'strength-vigour'. [Me-ref|LROW|"The Etymologies", pp. 341-400, stems KHAT-, KHOR-, ID-, TUR-, KHŌ-N-, GOR-, TUG-] However, in a late work Tolkien wrote that the names of Huor and Tuor (and supposedly some of the others) "were given in the language of [the Folk of Hador] - but adapted to [phonology of] Sindarin" and thus are uninterpretable. ["The Peoples of Middle-earth", p. 364 note 49.]

Other versions of the legendarium

In early writing of Tolkien there were only two Houses of Men: of Bëor and of Hador, the latter afterwards was separated in two. [Me-ref|SoMe|"The Quenta", p. 175-177] Hador remained as the leader of the Third House and the grandfather of Húrin; earlier generations were only introduced after the completion of "The Lord of the Rings".

Still the House of Hador was for a long time conceived to be unrelated to the House of Bëor, and the change was only brought about together with the reversal of the order of arrival in Beleriand of the Folks of Marach and Haleth. However, Christopher Tolkien included only the first part of the change into the published "The Silmarillion".

Another late upheaval planned by J. R. R. Tolkien that never reached a finished form was the reversal of Hador's and Magor's positions in the genealogical tree. The reason for this was placing Fingolfin's gift of the lordship of Dor-lómin to ca. Y.S. 400; consequently Marach's grandson became the first Lord of Dor-lómin, and Tolkien wanted to preserve this title with Hador. This changed appears in "Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth" [Me-ref|MR|pp. 305-7] and late genealogies, where Marach's grandson is "Hador Lorindol first lord of Dorlómin", while his great-great-grandson is "Magor Dagorlind singer in battle". Otherwise their biographies must have been simply reversed.


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