name = Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
status = EN | status_system = IUCN3.1
trend = up
status_ref =IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2004|id=680|title=Agelaius xanthomus|downloaded=09 May 2006 Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is endangered and the criteria used. ]
image_width = 200px
classis = Aves
genus = "
species = "A. xanthomus"
binomial = "Agelaius xanthomus"
binomial_authority = Sclater, 1862
subspecies = "A. x. xanthomus"
"A. x. monensis"
The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird ("Agelaius xanthomus"), "La Mariquita de Puerto Rico" or "Capitán" is a diurnal blackbird endemic to the
archipelagoof Puerto Ricoand one of the eleven species belonging to the "Agelaius" genus of the Icteridae family.
The nominate form of the Yellow-shouldered Blackbird ("A. x. xanthomus") was first described from Puerto Rico and Vieques in 1862 by Philip Sclater as "Icterus xanthomus". The species is closely related to, and possibly derived from, the
Red-winged Blackbird("Agelaius pheoniceus"). The Tawny-shouldered Blackbird("Agelaius humeralis"), a species from Cubaand Haiti, is morphologically intermediate between "A. xanthomus" and "A. humeralis". Until recently, some authors considered "A. xanthomus" as a subspecies of "A. humeralis". The 1983 American Ornithologists' Unionedition considered "A. xanthomus", together with "A. humeralis", a superspecies. The main physical difference between "A. xanthomus" and "A. humeralis" resides in their bills, with "A. humerali"'s being broader toward the base. [cite journal
author = Barnés, Ventura Jr.
year = 1945
month = April
title = A new form of Agelaius from Mona Island, Puerto Rico
journal = The Auk
volume = 62
issue = 2
pages = 299–300
url = http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v062n02/p0299-p0300.pdf
accessdate = 2006-04-22 ] The recognized subspecies "A. x. monensis", or Mona Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, was described by Barnes in 1945 from the islands of Mona and Monito.
The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird, as its name implies, is a glossy black bird with a small yellow humeral patch around its "shoulders" outlined by a white margin. Immature individuals possess a duller coloration and a brown abdomen. Although plumage coloration is indistinguishable between the sexes,
sexual dimorphismis present in this species with males being larger than females. Plumage abnormality is rare in this species. Adult individuals measure from 20 to 23 cm; on average, males weigh 41 g and females weigh 35 g. Sexual categorization may also be made by measurement of the wings, with males' being 1.1 times larger and having a mean length of 102.8 mm ,while females' wings have an average length of 93.3 mm.
Habitat and distribution
The species was once commonly found in the coastal forests of the archipelago of Puerto Rico but during the early 20th century Puerto Rico's coastal forests were destroyed to allow for the development of
sugar cane plantations. After the decline of the sugar industry after the 1930s the coastal areas were developed for housing. As a result, the species is now limited to three areas: Mona island and Monito Island, where a subspecies developed ("A. g. xmonensis"); the Roosevelt Roads Naval Stationarea in eastern Puerto Rico; and the southern Puerto Rican dry forestsand mangroves. Although all three present locations are considered coastal subtropical dry forests, the species has also been observed as far inland as the mountain town of Lares and in subtropical wet forests during the non-breeding season. The destruction of habitat and brood parasitism by the Shiny Cowbird("Molothrus bonariensis") led to a drastic population decline during the mid-70s to early 80s. In 1976, the population of the nominate form was estimated at 2000 individuals but in 1982 the population estimate dropped to 300 individuals. Conservation efforts have increased the population to 1250 pairs.
In 1976 Post and Wiley estimated the Mona subspecies population at 200 individuals. [Post, W., and J.W. Wiley. (1976). The yellow-shouldered blackbird–present and future. "American Birds" 30:13-20.] Subsequent roost counts and studies from 1981 to 1995 estimated the population at anywhere between 220 to 400 individuals. Studies performed in the island of Monito, located 5 km northwest of Mona, revealed an average of 25 individuals with breeding also being observed. The studies also revealed that birds traveled from the west coast of Mona to Monito.
Yellow-shouldered Blackbirds are non-migratory birds, but a portion of the population of the nominate form moves from coastal areas to inland areas during the non-breeding season to feed.
Yellow-shouldered Blackbirds are omnivorous, but are considered to be arboreal
insectivores since the majority of their diet consists of insects. Wetmore and Post performed studies to determine the dietary habits of the nominate form "A. x. xanthomus". The studies analyzed the stomach contents of several individuals (25 by Post and 55 by Wetmore) and found evidence of consumption of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Dermapteraand Hymemoptera, arachnidmaterial of the order Araneae, unidentified molluscs, and plant matter. Aside from natural material, the species also consumes processed food such as cattle ration, human food (cooked rice and sugar), dog food and monkey chow. Plant matter was acquired from processed foods while insects are gleaned from the canopy and sub-canopy layers of trees.
Studies have not been performed to determine the dietary habits of the Mona subspecies, but consumption of insects, spiders, fruits from "
Pithecellobiumsp". and the cacti " Selenicereussp.", " Cephalocereus royenii", " Harrisia portoricensis", and " Opuntiasp.", seeds from gumbo limbo(" Bursera simaruba") and " Ficussp." and nectar from aloe("Aloe vularis"), yuccaand " Croton discolor" have been observed.
Reproduction and behavior
The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird breeding season commonly spans from April to August but breeding activity has been observed from February to November. The breeding season's start coincides with the start of the rainy season, thus explaining the fluctuation in the start and end of the breeding season. The species is believed to be monogamous with a single attempt at nesting per year and with nesting being performed in loose colonies. Nests of both the nominate form and the Mona subspecies contain from 1 to 4 eggs with an average of 3 eggs. Eggs are blue-green with brown spots and are incubated for 13 days by the female. Both sexes reach
sexual maturityat 1 year of age. As with other "Agelaius sp." the species usually builds open, cup-shaped nests in trees, but nest locations and shapes may vary depending on location and availability of building materials. The Roosevelt Roads's population builds nests on hollows in dead mangroves, while the Mona subspecies builds nests in ledges or crevices near the coastal cliffs. In all, the species uses eight distinct nesting habitats: mud flats and salinas; offshore red mangrove cays; black mangrove forest; lowland pastures (dry coastal forest); suburban areas; coconut plantations; and coastal cliffs. Building of the nest is performed solely by females while feeding of the young is performed by both sexes. Nestlings leave the nest 13 to 16 days after hatching. Males defend small territories, usually around 3 metres, during the nesting period. Before the nesting period males defend slightly larger territories to repel other males. [cite journal|author = Searcy, William S, Yasukawa, Ken and Lanyon, Scott| year = 1999| month = January | title = Evolution of polygyny in the ancestors of Red-winged Blackbirds | journal = The Auk| url = http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3793/is_199901/ai_n8845302| accessdate = 2006-04-24]
Yellow-shouldered Blackbirds engage in anting, a rare behavior only observed in the
Puerto Rican Tanageramong West Indian birds. [cite journal| author = Post, William and Browne, Micou, M.| year = 1982| title = Active anting by the Yellow-shouldered Blackbird| journal = Wilson Bulletin| volume = 94| issue = 1| pages = 89–90|url= http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v094n01/p0089-p0090.pdf| accessdate = 2006-04-22] Individuals were observed applying " Pheidolesp." ants to its body and feathers for a short period of time (8 min.).
The species engages in mobbing, a behavior in which a pack of birds, from one or more species, attack a known
predator(usually to defend eggs or hatchlings).
Threats and conservation efforts
The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird was listed as an endangered species on
November 19, 1976by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. [cite web| url = http://ecos.fws.gov/species_profile/servlet/gov.doi.species_profile.servlets.SpeciesProfile?spcode=B05T| title = Species profile for Yellow-shouldered Blackbird| publisher = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service|accessdate = April 21| accessyear = 2006] Critical habitat was subsequently established for the entire Mona and Monito islands, the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station in Ceiba, an area expanding from Cabo Rojo to Guánica in the southwest region of Puerto Rico, and a small area in San Germán.
Diseases such as avian pox have been associated with extinction of bird populations such as
Hawaiian honeycreepers. For this species only one type of parasite has been observed, the Chewing louse(formerly classified as "Mallophaga"), with three species being observed: " Philopterus agelaii"; " Machaerilaemussp."; and " Myrsideasp.". [cite journal| author = Post, William
year = 1981 | month = Winter| title = The prevalence of some ectoparasites, diseases and abnormalities in Yellow-shouldered Blackbirds | journal = Journal of Field Ornithology| volume = 52| issue = 1| pages = 16–22| url = http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/JFO/v052n01/p0016-p0022.pdf
accessdate = 2006-04-22] The parasites predominantly occur in the head area with adult males having the highest infestation percentage and juveniles having a lower infestation rate than adults. The
mites " Acarinasp.", " Ornithonyssus bursa", and " Anclrolaelaps casalis" have also been observed in nests, but the information presently available does not indicate they are a threat. Another disease commonly experienced by Yellow-shouldered Blackbirds is fowl pox, also known as avian pox. Lesions caused by this disease occur in exposed areas such as the legs and the bend of the wings.
Nest predation has been an important contributor to the decline of the Yellow-shouldered Blackbird. Known terrestrial predators include
rats ("Rattus rattus"), mongooses and feral cats, all introduced speciesto Puerto Rico. Rats constituted the main nest predator eating both eggs and hacthlings. A 1983 report concluded that rat predation accounted for 48% of nest failures that year. The majority of the activity coincided with the recession of water from July to August which exposed the mangrove nesting area to dry land. Since the middle 1980s artificial PVC nesting structures have been created in mud flats surrounding mangrove forests to reduce rat predation. These structures replaced old wooden nesting boxes and were readily accepted by the species. Presently, few (1 to 2) natural nests are observed each year in the area.
The loss of feeding and breeding habitat and
brood parasitismby the Shiny Cowbirdare among other threats that limit and endanger the Yellow-shouldered Blackbird populations. Natural predators, such as the Pearly-eyed Thrasher("Margarops fuscatus"), also represent a threat, although minor, to the populations. These animals have been reported to steal eggs and young from nests and to also destroy or steal nesting materials.
List of Puerto Rican birds
List of endemic fauna of Puerto Rico
url = http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plans/1996/961112a.pdf
title = Recovery plan for the Yellow-shouldered Blackbird ("Agelaius xanthomus")
publisher = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
accessdate = April 21
accessyear = 2006
*cite book|last=Oberle|first=Mark|year=2003|title=Las aves de Puerto Rico en fotografías|publisher=Editorial Humanitas|id = ISBN 0-9650104-2-2 es icon
url = http://www.fws.gov/endangered/i/b/sab5u.html
title = Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
work = Division of Endangered Species
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
accessdate = April 21
accessyear = 2006
url = http://audubon2.org/webapp/watchlist/viewSpecies.jsp?id=229
title = Yellow-shouldered Blackbird ("Agelaius xanthomus")
publisher = National Audubon Society
accessdate = April 21
accessyear = 2006
url = http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e104009.htm
title = Blackbird, Yellow-shouldered
accessdate = April 21
accessyear = 2006
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