- History of modern Mongolia
Following the collapse of the
Communist regime, Mongolia's first free, multi-party elections for a bicameral parliament were held on July 29, 1990. The Mongolian People's Revolutionary PartyMPRP won 85% of the seats. The State Great Khural(upper house) first met on September 3and elected a president (MPRP), vice president (Social Democrat), prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Khural(lower house). The vice president was also chairman of the Baga Khural. In November 1991, the People's Great Khural began discussion on a new constitution, which entered into force February 12. In addition to establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Khural (SGKh).
The constitution was amended in 1992. In the same year, the MPRP won another round of parliamentary elections. The new constitution also provided that the president would be elected by popular vote rather than by the legislature as before. Incumbent
Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbatbecame Mongolia's first universally elected president in 1993. Originally an MPRP member, he was running as the candidate of the democratic opposition, after the MPRP had nominated an orthodox communist as their candidate.
The early and mid-1990s were marked by heavy economic shocks. Foreign trade broke down, economic and technical aid from the former socialist countries ended, and domestic economy was struggling with privatization. Inflation rose, and for some time certain foodstuffs had to be rationed.
The MPRP lost the majority the State Ikh Khural to a coalition of opposition parties in the 1996 elections. However, the governments in headed by the former opposition parties proved unstable, and the election period saw four different prime ministers.
Natsagiin Bagabandibecame elected as president in 1997, and re-elected in 2001. The 2000 parliamentary elections also returned the MPRP to power in the State Ikh Khural. Wide dissatisfaction with economic conditions and perceived corruption under the previous government had led to the MPRP's taking of all but four seats in the Great Khural.
Results of the 2004 election forced the MPRP to join a coalition government with the Motherland Democratic Coalition, a coalition of the
Democratic Party (Mongolia), the Civic Will Party, and the Motherland Party. The MPRP left the coalition in January 2006, however, and proceeded to create a government on her own. Another government reshuffle took place at the end of 2007, when the MPRP decided to replace prime minister Miyeegombyn Enkhboldwith Sanjaagiin Bayar.
Timeline of modern Mongolian history
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