Politics of California
The recent and current politics of the
U.S. stateof Californiaare complex and involve a number of entrenched interests. "(For historical politics, see Politics of California to 1899)."
There have been several events, many dubbed "constitutional crises" by their opponents, over the last twenty years including:
* the passage of
term limits for the California legislature and elected constitutional officers, which was hotly argued state-wide, and debated in the Supreme Court of California;
* a test of the ratification process for the Supreme Court, in which a liberal chief justice,
Rose Bird, and two liberal associate Justices, Joseph Grodin and Cruz Reynoso, were ousted;
* a full-fledged tax revolt, "Proposition 13," which resulted in the freezing of real estate tax rates at 1% of the property's last sale price (plus a modest 2% maximum annual inflator); and
* a test of the state recall provision, in which Governor
Gray Daviswas recalled in a 2003 special election.
* a failure to pass a budget until almost three months after the constitutional deadline (2008).
Northern California's inland areas, the Central Valley (outside of Sacramento) and Southern Californiasuburbs of Los Angeles and San Diego tend to be conservative, mostly Republican areas. Los Angeles, San Francisco Bay Area, and along the coastal areas tend to be liberal, mostly Democratic areas. San Diego, California's second largest city, tends to be more moderate. As most of the population is in Los Angeles County and the northern coast, California as a whole tends to be liberal.
California was a Republican Party (GOP) stronghold in Presidential elections the 1950s to 1992: the Republicans won California in every election except the election of 1964. (
Jimmy Cartercame close to winning the state in 1976.) In these years, the GOP regularly nominated Californians as presidential candidates: Richard Nixonin 1960, 1968, and 1972, and Ronald Reaganin 1980 and 1984. The immigration of Latinos/Hispanics, who tend to vote Democratic, and the flight of middle-class and upper class suburban Republicans away to Rocky Mountain states like Nevada, Arizona, Utah, and Coloradoin the 1980s and 1990s shifted the balance in favor of the Democratic Party.
Among the state's divisive issues are water and water rights, resulting in the
California Water Wars. Lacking reliable dry season rainfall, water is limited and available surface sources are extensively developed through dams, canals, and pipelines. The principle water sources are mountain runoff from wet season rains and higher altitude snowpack (70%), wells (limited by salt-water incursion and overuse), and some Colorado River water supplying southern California (strictly limited by treaties with the other western states and Mexico). Waste water reclamation in California is already routine (for irrigation and industrial use). Most water is in the north of the State, while most people are in the south. Water viewed as excess by the south is viewed by the north as environmentally essential for fisheries and wildlife. While the southern electorate has a greater portion of the population it is not as unified in its viewpoint as is that of the north, so ballot propositions such as those promoting a Peripheral Canalto transport water to the south have failed.
Land use is also divisive. High land prices mean that ordinary people keep a large proportion of their net worth in land. This leads them to agitate strongly about issues that can affect the prices of their home or investments. The most vicious local political battles concern local school boards (good local schools substantially raise local housing prices) and local land-use policies. In built-up areas it is extremely difficult to site new airports, dumps, or jails. Many cities routinely employ
eminent domainto make land available for development. A multi-city political battle was fought for several years in Orange County concerning the decommissioning of the huge El Toro Marine airbase. Orange County needs a new airport (pilot unions voted the existing airport, John Wayne, the least safe in the U.S.), but the noise could reduce land prices throughout the southern part of the county, including wealthy, politically-powerful Irvine. Gun controlis another divisive issue. In the cities, California has one of the U.S.'s most serious gangproblems, and in some farming regions, some of the highest murder rates. The state also contains many individuals who desire to keep and bear arms in defense of themselves, their families and property. The legislature has passed restrictive gun-control laws. Private purchase of "assault" weapons (generally, semi-automatic rifles that look like military rifles) is a felony. The law does not prohibit sales of semi-automatic hunting-style civilian weapons, which might be intended to be a distinction without a real difference. Pistols may be purchased and kept in one's home or place of business, but it is illegal to carry weapons or ammunition outside these areas without a concealed weapons permit, except in a locked area (car trunk) to licensed practice ranges or other legitimate uses (hunting, repair, collection, etc.) Open carry of an unloaded firearm in some areas is legal but very uncommon due to the confusing laws such as the federal law regarding the school gun free zone. Except in a handful of rural counties, most people find it impossible to get concealed weapons permits since they are issued at the arbitrary discretion of the local law enforcement officials. California is not a "shall issue" state for concealed weapons permits. (ref. section 12000 of the [http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/calawquery?codesection=pen California Penal Code] )
A reference is "California, Its Government and Politics" by Michael J. Ross.
After the 2000 year
census, the legislature was obliged to set new district boundaries, both for the state Assembly and Senate and for Federal Congressional Districts (CDs). The Republican and Democratic parties came to an agreement to gerrymanderthe boundaries and greatly reduce the power of voters of the state. It was mutually decided that the status quo in terms of balance of power would be preserved. With this goal, districts were assigned to voters in such a way that they were dominated by one or the other party, with few districts that could be considered competitive.
In only a few cases did this require extremely convoluted boundaries, but resulted in preservation of existing strongholds: in the [http://vote2004.ss.ca.gov/ results of the 2004 election] , a win by less than 55 percent of the vote was quite rare -- only five of eighty Assembly districts, and two of 39 Senate district seats, and no seat was changed in the party of its winner, and neither was any U.S. Congressional seat.
Arnold Schwarzeneggerproposed placing the redistricting process in the hands of retired judges, which was on the November ballot as an initiative in a special election (called by the Governor on June 14, 2005), Proposition 77. The special election was held on November 8, 2005. However, the initiative was overwhelmingly defeated, with 59.5% No votes. All initiatives, including those proposed by the Governor's allies and several independent initiatives, failed.
United States House of Representativesdistricts are less competitive than the state districts with only three out of 53 congressional districts being won with less than 60 percent majority.
Considering the 10th CD in the San Francisco Bay Area, in earlier elections the almost evenly divided district was a focus of national attention, owing to its balanced electorate with a slight Republican edge in registration and a Republican advantage in electoral participation. The district had been held since its creation in 1990 by a Republican, Congressman Bill Baker, a former State Assembly member, for whom the district was designed. After several weak challenges to the seat by Democrats, the election was hotly contested in 1996 by a newcomer to politics,
Ellen Tauscher, a candidate with sufficient funds of her own to be competitive against the incumbent. Receiving a great amount of grass rootssupport from local Democratic clubs and votes from moderate Republican women, her defeat of Congressman Baker was considered a great victory for what many consider a 'middle of the road' Democrat. Her redrawn district is now 'safe' (she won reelection with 65.8 percent of the vote in 2004) and the recent congressional election drew no national attention to California.
As desired by the two major parties, in the 2004 elections there was no change of political party in any of the district-elected offices at either the State or Federal level - no member of the State Assembly, State Senator, or U. S. Representative was not of the same party as their predecessor.
Despite the supposed uncertainty for Republican prospects of dominance in the U.S. Congress in the November 2006 elections, no California seats in the House of Representatives were considered to be "in play" by national analysts within several months of the election, although a few Republican-held seats offered at least improved prospects for Democrats during this cycle. Republican Representatives
Richard Pombo(11th CA) and John Doolittle(4th CA) each hosted President Bush in October 2006 for fundraisers, a rare event in California (and also rare for Bush in this election cycle) that may have been indicative of perceived insecurities in these seats (these Representatives have strongly supported the present Administration).
In an unexpected turn of the 2006 elections in California, Democrat
Jerry McNerney, although never having held an elective office, defeated incumbent Republican Richard Pombo, 53% to 47%. In 2004 the same paring resulted in 62.5% for Pombo. There has been some demographic change in the district in the Pleasanton area, but not sufficient in itself to account for the difference, and the victory is considered by many (given the gerrymander of the district) to be an overwhelming repudiation both of President George W. Bushand of many of the stands taken by Pombo, particularly concerning environmental matters. This district was the sole exception, as none of the remaining 99 federal and state district legislative elections involved a change of party.
:"Official California preliminary 2006 election returns are available at http://vote.ss.ca.gov/"
A California constitutional amendment [http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/postquery?bill_number=sca_3&sess=0506&house=B] to be presented to the electorate and designed to encourage competitive districts (but with significant loopholes included) was passed by the California Senate for transmittal to the Assembly on the last possible day for the 2006 election cycle, with Assembly Democratic legislative functionaries claiming that it was not received in time. ( [http://www.commoncause.org/site/pp.asp?c=dkLNK1MQIwG&b=1416067 Index to news articles, many at no cost but requiring registration] .) Although this could have been corrected with little effort by additional legislation, the issue was killed for the 2006 electoral cycle, with some asserting that the death of the bill was not accidental [http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060819/news_lz1ed19middle.html] .
Negative results for the effective operation of the political process can be seen directly in California's 2008 budget impasse, [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/15/us/15calif.html?em New York Times: California Embroiled in a Battle Over the Budget] ] extending for 76 days since June 1, with an agreement announced September 15. [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/09/15/MN8G12U0IC.DTL&hw=California+budget+agreement&sn=001&sc=1000 Legislators reach accord on state budget] SFGate.com (San Francisco Cronicle)] The high turnover due to term limits combined with "safe" districts makes it more likely that "hard liners" will be elected and that the legislators will lack experience in dealing across party lines in a collegial manner. California's budget as it stood projected a deficit of over fifteen billion dollars, requiring program cuts and/or additional taxes, As the California budget requires an almost-unique 2/3 "supermajority" for passage, the Republican minority could stick to their pledge of no additional taxes without consideration of compromise with Democrats who have pledged to not balance the budget solely on the backs of children, impoverished citizens, or the elderly [ [http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/ne/yr08/yr08rel101.asp California Department of Education News Release] ] . As a substantial portion of the budget is fixed by statute, state constitutional amendment, or by Federal court decisions regarding prison health care [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/08/13/BA9U12ACV8.DTL Prison overseer: $8 billion for med facilities] SFGate.com (San Francisco Chronicle)] there was little room for maneuver in reducing expenditures without adversely affecting programs (such as public transportation and education) or for raising taxes since either accommodation would conflict with viewpoints that the parties have adapted as reflecting their core philosophy of governance. In fact, the "solution" involved no new taxes (but closing of some loopholes), and minor program cuts, with the bulk of the solution being creative accounting methods (such as accelerating revenue collections) that are likely to make the problem more severe in 2009 if there is not an exceptional (and unexpected) improvement in the economy. Under a veto threat [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/09/16/MNI412VAMT.DTL&tsp=1 Governor says he'll veto budget; override vote looms] SFGate.com (San Francisco Chronicle)] by Governor Schwarzenegger some modifications were made and California now has a budget, almost three months late [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/09/24/MND1133LEV.DTL&hw=California+budget+passed+2008&sn=007&sc=317 Governor cuts, signs long-overdue budget] SFGate.com (San Francisco (Chronicle)] , with the "structural deficit" problems deferred until 2009.
With the current safety of legislative districts, any negative consequences for members of either party owing to their ineffectiveness are highly unlikely while the consequences of breaking with party stances (especially for Republicans) could be severe. (In 2004, of the four Republicans who broke with party discipline, two retired and two were defeated in Republican primary contests.Fact|date=September 2008, while in 2008 a Democratic member of the Assembly was reassigned to a much smaller office remote from the Capitol building, as punishment for her abstention from a vote during the 2008 budget impasse. [ [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/blogs/sfgate/detail?blogid=14&entry_id=29225 Central Valley Lawmaker Kicked Out of State Capitol] SFGate.com (San Francisco Chronicle)] )
In a direct response to the conflict of interest inherent in legislative redistricting and the legislature's repeated failures to meet constitutionally required budget deadlines, and after numerous failures of the legislature to present to the voters an amendment the California Constitution, in 2008 the voters will decide on "Proposition 11" [ [http://ballotpedia.org/wiki/index.php?title=California_Proposition_11_(2008) Proposition 11] (Ballotpedia.org),] an "
Initiative". The initiative process, introduced to California in the "trustbusting" reforms of 1911, allows the circulation of petitions to amend the constitution, which if appropriately written (e.g., concerning only a single subject) and receiving the signatures of a sufficient number of registered voters, directs the measure to be placed before the voters. Proposition 11 was largely formatted under the guidence of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Originally written to include congressional districts these were removed from the proposition at the behest of the the dominant political parties. Although process is "intended" to allow the citizens to bypass the legislature it is frequently employed by financially powerful interests in attempts to obtain laws that would be unable to pass the legislature, and aspects of passed initiatives are frequently challenged in court actions.
Many leading members of Congress are from California. Among the Democrats are:
Nancy Pelosifrom the 8th District (Speaker of the House)
2. Rep. George Miller from the 7th district (Chairman of the Committee on Education and Labor)
Henry Waxmanfrom the 30th district (Chairman of the Committee on Oversight and Gov't Reform)
Bob Filnerfrom the 51st district (Chairman of the Committee on Veterans Affairs)
Howard Bermanfrom the 28th district (Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs)
Barbara Boxer(Chairwoman of the Committee on Environment and Public Works)
Dianne Feinstein(Chairwoman of the Committee on Rules and Administration)
Among the Republicans are:
1. Rep. Buck McKeon from the 25th district (Ranking Member of the Committee on Education and Labor)
David Drierfrom the 26th district (Ranking Member of the Committee on Rules)
3. Rep. Jerry Lewis from the 41st district (Ranking Member of the Committee on Appropriations)
Duncan Hunterfrom the 52nd district (Ranking Member of the Committee on Armed Services)
The two major political parties in California that currently have representation in the State Legislature and U.S. Congress are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. There are four other parties that qualify for official ballot status:
American Independent Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, and Peace & Freedom Party. [http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/elections_f.htm]
Of the 15,712,753 California voters registered for the February 5, 2008 primary election,
* 43.0% were Democrats,
* 33.3% were Republicans,
* 4.3% were affiliated with other political parties, and
* 19.4% were non-partisan ("Decline to State") voters. [cite web|url=http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/ror/15day_presprim_08/hist_reg_stats.pdf|title=15 Day Report of Registration|accessdate=2008-02-07]
Only the Democratic Party and Republican Party currently have representation in the State Legislature. However, for a brief period around the turn of the 21st century, the Green Party elected a member of the State Assembly from the eastern
San Francisco Bay Area.
California currently uses the
Plurality voting system("First-past-the-post") in its elections, but some municipalities such as San Franciscoand Berkeley have opted to use a system of preferential voting, currently used in Australia and Ireland, more popularly known in the United States as instant runoff votingor ranked choice voting.
Local elections in California at the county and city level are officially non-partisan and political party affiliations are not included on local election ballots.
Government of California
Elections in California
California ballot proposition
U.S. presidential election, 2004, in California
California special election, 2005
Politics of California to 1899
Electoral reform in California
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