Budget theory is the academic study of political and social motivations behind government and civil society
budgeting. Classic theorists include Henry Adams, William F. Willoughby, V. O. Key, Jr., and, more recently, Aaron Wildavsky. Notable recent theorists include Baumgartner and Jones-- Frank R. Baumgartnerand Bryan D. Jones, Richard Fenno, Allen Schick, Dennis Ippolito, Naomi Caiden, Irene Rubin, James D. Savage, Thomas Greitensand Gary Wamsley. Budget theory was a central topic during the Progressive Eraand was much discussed in municipal bureausand other academic and quasi-academic facilities of that time such as the nascent Brookings Institution.
executive budgetwas a financial innovation designed to empower city mayors and city managers with the capacity to implement needed policy reforms in the Progressive Era. Since that time, the executive budget has become a tool by which the president of the United States has been able to substantively shape policy and draw power to the president from Congress, which was originally charged with "holding the purse"(and still is constitutionally, as there is no federal-legislative authority to change the constitution outside the amendment process or for congress to legislate away their authority). This has resulted in an ever increasing role and power base for what is now called the Office of Management and Budget.
In many respects, the budget process has become theatrical and artificial even while it remains highly politicized.
Canadian federal budget
Federal Accountability Act(Canada)
Government Accountability Office
Government Accountability Office investigations of the Department of Defense
Government financial reports
United States budget process
*Henry C. Adams. The Theory of Public Expenditures (1985), American Economic Association.
*John R. Bartle. Evolving Theories of Public Budgeting (2001), JAI Press.
*Aman Khan, W. Bartley Hildreth. Budget Theory in the Public Sector (2002), Quorum BooksAman Khan, W. Bartley Hildreth.
*Frank R. Baumgartner, Bryan D. Jones, A Model of Choice for Public Policy (2005)
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