Infobox Military Conflict
440 BC– 439 BC
casus=The Samians "were ordered to break off their war against the Milesians, (but) they were not complying"
Athenianvictory; Samian surrender
The Samian War (440-439 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict between
Athensand Samos. The war was initiated by Athens' intervention in a dispute between Samos and Miletus. When the Samians refused to break off their attacks on Miletus as ordered, the Athenians easily drove out the oligarchic government of Samos and installed a garrison in the city, but the oligarchs soon returned, with Persian support.
A larger Athenian fleet was dispatched to suppress this agitation. This fleet initially defeated the Samians and blockaded the city, but
Pericles, in command, was then forced to lead a substantial portion of the fleet away upon learning that the Persian fleet was approaching from the south. Although the Persians turned back before the two fleets met, the absence of most of the Athenian fleet allowed the Samians to drive off the remaining blockaders and, for two weeks, control the sea around their island; upon Pericles' return, however, the Athenians again blockaded and besieged Samos; the city surrendered nine months later. Under the terms of the surrender, the Samians tore down their walls, gave up hostages, surrendered their fleet, and agreed to pay Athens a war indemnity over the next 26 years.
During the course of the war, the Samians had apparently appealed to
Spartafor assistance; the Spartans were initially inclined to grant this request, and were prevented from doing so primarily by Corinth's unwillingness to participate in a war against Athens at the time. In 433 BC, when Corcyrarequested Athenian assistance against Corinth, the Corinthians would remind the Athenians of the good will they had shown at this time.
Prelude and dispute
440 BCSamos was at war with Miletusabout Priene, an ancient city of Ioniaon the foot-hills of Mycale. [Unless otherwise noted, all details of the rebellion and war are drawn from Thucydides, "The Peloponnesian War", ] Worsted in the war, the Milesians came to Athens with loud complaints against the Samians. Miletus was militarily weak, having been compelled to disarm and pay tribute after rebelling from Athens twice, once in the 450s and again in 446 BC; Samos, meanwhile, was one of only three remaining fully independent states in the Delian League. [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 170] The Athenians, for reasons that scholars continue to disagree over—some believe that the Athenians were influenced by a desire to protect the Milesian democracy against the Samian oligarchs, [Meiggs, "The Athenian Empire", 190] while others believe that they were concerned for the credibility of their rule if they failed to protect a state that they themselves had disarmed [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 170] —intervened on behalf of Miletus. A fleet of forty triremes, commanded by Pericles, was dispatched to Samos; Pericles established a democracy, and then, after taking 100 hostages to the island of Lemnosand leaving a garrison at Samos, returned home. [Plutarch, "Pericles", ] This had all been achieved with remarkable ease, and this, in comparison with the stiff resistance that the Samians put up later, suggests that they had not expected such a harsh response from the Athenians. [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 172]
The settlement thus imposed did not last long, however. A group of oligarchs fled to the mainland, secured the support of
Pissuthnes, the Persian satrapof Lydia, who provided them with mercenaries and also rescued their hostages from Lemnos. [Plutarch, "Pericles", ] With their hands thus freed, the oligarchs, collaborating with allies in the city, invaded with 700 mercenaries, defeated the democrats, and handed all the Athenians in the city over to Pissuthnes. Athens now found itself facing a serious crisis in the open revolt of a powerful subject state, and the situation was made more severe by simultaneous revolts in other parts of the empire, the most critical of which occurred in Byzantium; the powerful city of Mytilene, meanwhile, stood ready to revolt upon receiving a promise of Spartan support. [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 172] The Athenians immediately dispatched 60 ships to deal with the situation in the Aegean. 16 of these ships were sent on various independent missions, leaving only 44 to face the Samian fleet of 50 triremes and 20 transports. In a battle off the island of Tragia, the Athenians were victorious, and the Samians soon found themselves blockaded by land and sea. The Athenians constructed walls around the city of Samos, and meanwhile were reinforced by 65 more ships from Athens, Chios, and Lesbos.
At this point, with the rebellion seemingly well in hand, Pericles received word that the Persian fleet was on its way to attack him, and, taking 60 ships with him, he sailed off to
Cariato meet it. In his absence the Samians made a sally and drove the Athenians off. For 14 days they ruled the sea and brought in supplies, but at the end of that period Pericles returned and reestablished the blockade. The siege lasted 9 months, at the end of which the Samians surrendered, tore down their walls, converted their government to a democracy, gave up their fleet, and agreed to pay Athens a war indemnity of 1,300 talents over a period of 26 years. [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 176] The end of the revolts elsewhere in the empire followed rapidly on this success. [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 176-7]
Although Athens did succeed in restoring order to the empire, the situation in 440 BC was very severe, particularly because of the threat of Spartan intervention. [Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 173] Thucydides reports that in 433 BC, when
Corinthian and Corcyraean ambassadors were making their cases at Athens regarding Corcyra's request for assistance against Corinth, the Corinthians stated that in 440, "when the rest of the Peloponnesian powers were equally divided on the question whether they should assist [the Samians] ,...we told them to their face that every power has a right to punish its own allies." [Thucydides, "The Peloponnesian War", ] Modern scholars have generally regarded this as an accurate report, and have taken it to mean that Sparta was willing to go to war against Athens, but that the Corinthians, whose powerful navy would have been necessary for the Peloponnesians to participate effectively in such a war, derailed the plan with their opposition. [See Kagan, "Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War", 173-5, Meiggs, "The Athenian Empire", 190, and de Ste. Croix, "Origins of the Peloponnesian War", 200-203.]
*de Ste. Croix, G.E.M., "The Origins of the Peloponnesian War", (Duckworth and Co., 1972) ISBN 0-7156-0640-9
Diodorus Siculus, " [http://perseus.uchicago.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0084 Library] "
*Kagan, Donald. "The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War" (Cornell, 1969). ISBN 0-8014-9556-3
*Meiggs, Russell. "Athenian Empire" (Oxford University Press, 1972) ISBN 0-19-814843-7
*cite wikisource|History of the Peloponnesian War|
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