Embrasure

Inverted keyhole embrasure, allowing both arrow fire (through the arrow slit at the top) and small cannon fire through the circular opening, Château de Caen, France
Pillbox stepped embrasure, Taunton Stop Line, England

In military architecture, an embrasure is the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenel or crenelle. In domestic architecture this refers to the outward splay of a window or arrow slit on the inside.

A loophole, arrow loop or arrow slit passes through a solid wall and was originally for use by archers. The purpose of embrasures is to allow weapons to be fired out from the fortification while the firer remains under cover. The splay of the wall on the inside provides room for the soldier and his equipment, and allows them to get as close to the wall face and arrow slit itself as possible. Excellent examples of deep embrasures with arrow slits are to be seen at Aigues-Mortes and Château de Coucy, both in France.

Contents

History

The etymology of embrasure expresses "widening".

By the 19th century, a distinction was made between embrasures being used for cannon, and loopholes being used for musketry. In both cases, the opening was normally made wider on the inside of the wall than the outside. The outside was made as narrow as possible (slightly wider than the muzzle of the weapon intended to use it) so as to afford the most difficult possible shot to attackers firing back, but the inside had to be wider in order to enable the weapon to be swiveled around so as to aim over a reasonably large arc.

Variations

A distinction was made between vertical and horizontal embrasures or loopholes, depending on the orientation of the slit formed in the outside wall. Vertical loopholes—which are much more common—allow the weapon to be easily raised and lowered in elevation so as to cover a variety of ranges easily. However to sweep from side to side the weapon (and its firer or crew) must bodily move from side to side to pivot around the muzzle, which is effectively fixed by the slit. Horizontal loopholes, on the other hand, facilitate quick sweeping across the arc in front, but make large adjustments in elevation very difficult. They were usually used in circumstances where the range was very restricted anyway, or where rapid cover of a wide field of arc was preferred.

Another variation had both horizontal and vertical slits arranged in the form of a cross, and was called a crosslet loop or an arbalestina since it was principally intended for arbalestiers (crossbowmen). In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, after the crossbow had become obsolete as a military weapon, crosslet loopholes were still sometimes created as a decorative architectural feature with a Christian symbolism.

In more modern contexts, an embrasure may be a feature of a hardened field fortification. A common feature is the stepped embrasure which is a precaution against projectiles richocheting into the opening.

See also

  • Arrowslit

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


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  • embrasure — [ ɑ̃brazyr ] n. f. • 1522; p. ê. de embraser « mettre le feu » 1 ♦ Ouverture pratiquée dans un parapet pour pointer et tirer le canon. ⇒ créneau. Les embrasures d un bastion. 2 ♦ Ouverture pratiquée dans l épaisseur d un mur pour recevoir une… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • embrasure — EMBRASURE. subst. f. Ouverture qu on pratique dans les batteries, dans les bastions, ou sur les murailles des Places fortes, pour tirer le canon. Les embrasures d un bastion, d une muraille, etc. [b]f♛/b] Il signifie aussi L espace qui est en… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • Embrasure — Em*bra sure (277), n. [F., fr. embraser, perh. equiv. to [ e]braser to widen an opening; of unknown origin.] 1. (Arch.) A splay of a door or window. [1913 Webster] Apart, in the twilight gloom of a window s embrasure, Sat the lovers. Longfellow.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • embrasure — 1702, from Fr. embrasure (16c.), from O.Fr. embraser to cut at a slant, make a groove or furrow in a door or window, from en in (see EN (Cf. en ) (1)) + braser to cut at a slant …   Etymology dictionary

  • Embrasure — Em*bra sure (?; 135), n. [See {Embrace}.] An embrace. [Obs.] Our locked embrasures. Shak. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Embrasure — (fr., spr. Angbraführ), 1) Schießscharte; 2) Fenstervertiefung …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • embrasure — Embrasure, est l esvasure que le masson donne en cueillant les fenestrages et huisseries, tant par dehors que par dedans le logis pour accueillir plus d air et de clarté au dedans, et donner aisée ouverture aux huis et portes, et aux volets des… …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • embrasure — [em brā′zhər, imbrā′zhər] n. [Fr < obs. embraser, to widen an opening, earlier ébraser < ?] 1. an opening (for a door, window, etc.), esp. one with the sides slanted so that it is wider on the inside than on the outside 2. an opening (in a… …   English World dictionary

  • Embrasure — Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Embrasure », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) Embrasure militaire Une embrasure est une ouverture faite sur toute l épaisseur d un …   Wikipédia en Français

  • embrasure — I. Embrasure. s. f. Ouverture qu on pratique dans les espaulements des batteries, dans les bastions, ou sur les murailles des places fortes, pour tirer commodément le canon. Les embrasures d un bastion, d une muraille &c. Il signifie aussi, L… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française


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