Psychoactive toad is a name used for toads from which psychoactive substances from the family of bufotoxins can be derived. The skin and poison of Bufo alvarius (Colorado River toad or Sonoran Desert toad) contain 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin. Other species contain only bufotenin. 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin both belong to the family of hallucinogenic tryptamines. Due to these substances the skin or poison of the toads may produce psychoactive effects when ingested.
Cultivation and uses
To obtain the psychoactive substances the toxin of psychoactive toads is commonly milked from the toad's poison glands. The milking procedure does not harm the toad — it consists of stroking it under its chin to initiate the defensive poison response. Once the liquid toxin has been collected and dried, it can be used for its psychedelic effects. The toad takes about a month to refill its poison glands following the milking procedure, during which time the toad will not produce poison. Some vendors sell dried toad skins, even though it is possible to harvest the poison without harming the toad. The poison is often used for recreational purposes.
Rumors dating from the 1970s claimed that groups of "hippies" or teenagers were licking the psychoactive toads to get high. One version of the story has hippies in the hills of California chasing toads through the woods to get high.[page needed]
Albert Most, founder of the Church of the Toad of Light and a proponent of recreational use of Bufo alvarius poison, published a booklet titled Bufo alvarius: The Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert in 1983 which explained how to extract and smoke the secretions.
There have been deaths reported as the result of people attempting to get high from cane toad venom. Reportedly, some dogs in Australia, where the toads have become a major pest, have learned to lick the toads for pleasure.
- Poisonous Amphibians
- Poison frog
- Phyllomedusa bicolor
- Let's Go to the Hop - An episode of Family Guy in which toad licking is the central plot device.
- ^ Schultes, Evans and Raffauf, Vine of the Soul: Medicine Men, Their Plants and Rituals in the Colombian Amazonia. Oracle, AZ: Synergetic, 1992
- ^ Hendershot, Don (1 November 2006). "How ‘bout them toad suckers? Ain’t they clods?". Smoky Mountain News. http://www.smokymountainnews.com/issues/11_06/11_01_06/out_naturalist.html. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- ^ "Cane toad lickers may get cure for overdose soon". ABC News. 11 July 2008. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/07/11/2301133.htm.
- ^ Susan Chenery (17 May 2011). "People cop a caning in toad hall of fame". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/arts/people-cop-a-caning-in-toad-hall-of-fame/story-e6frg8n6-1226057014298. "Indeed, smarter or more hedonistic dogs than Wally have learned that by licking the toad they can get a very nice high. "That is a very real phenomenon. That is not a bad thing, that would give a dog a slightly more exciting life than what it normally has.""
- Davis, Wade. "Smoking Toad". The Clouded Leopard: Travels to Landscapes of Spirit and Desire. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 1998, 171-198.
- Ksir, Charles, Carl L. Hart, Oakley Ray. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. Boston: McGraw, 2005. 363.
Toxins (enterotoxin/neurotoxin/hemotoxin/cardiotoxin/phototoxin) Bacterial toxinsGram positiveCocciGram negative MycotoxinsAflatoxin · Amatoxin (alpha-amanitin, beta-amanitin, gamma-amanitin, epsilon-amanitin) · Citrinin · Cytochalasin · Ergotamine · Fumonisin (Fumonisin B1, Fumonisin B2) · Gliotoxin · Ibotenic acid · Muscimol · Ochratoxin · Patulin · Phalloidin · Sterigmatocystin · Trichothecene · Vomitoxin · Zeranol · Zearalenone Invertebrates Vertebratesreptile/snake venom: Bungarotoxin (Alpha-Bungarotoxin, Beta-Bungarotoxin) · Calciseptine · Taicatoxin · Calcicludine · Cardiotoxin IIInote: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species
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