- Gerry Adams
name = Gerry Adams
office= President of
term_start = 1983
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
constituency_AM2 = Belfast West
assembly2 = Northern Ireland
term_start2 = 25 June 1998
predecessor2 = "new assembly"
term_start3 = 1 May 1997
majority3 = 19,315 (55.9%)
term_start4 = 9 June 1983
term_end4 = 9 April 1992
birth_date = Birth date and age|1948|10|6|df=yes
nationality = Irish
spouse = Collette McArdle
website = [http://sinnfein.ie/elections/candidate/53 Sinn Féin - Gerry Adams]
Gerry Adams, MLA, MP ( _ga. Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh [ [http://www.sinnfein.ie/gaelic/news/detail/3041 Cairt Chearta do Chách] Sinn Féin press release, 26 January 2004.] ; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist
Westminster Member of Parliamentfor Belfast West. He is the president of Sinn Féin, which is the second largest political party in Northern Irelandand fourth largest party in the Republic of Ireland.
Adams is credited with having played an important role in helping to end
the Troublesin Northern Ireland. [cite web | title = Nick Stadlen | author = | url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2007/sep/12/gerryadams | publisher = " The Guardian" | date = 12 September 2007 | accessdate = 2008-03-17] His leadership and ability to communicate and negotiate with both paramilitary forces and also politicians such as John Humeand John Majorwas the catalyst that brought about the Good Friday Agreement.
From the late 1980s, Adams was an important figure in the
Northern Ireland peace process, initially following contact by the then Social Democratic and Labour Party(SDLP) leader John Humeand subsequently with the Irish and British governments and then other parties. In 2005, the IRA indicated that its armed campaign was over and that it is now exclusively committed to democratic politics. [cite web | title = Full text: IRA statement | author = | url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,1537996,00.html | publisher = "The Guardian" | date = 28 July 2005 | accessdate = 2007-03-17] Under Adams, Sinn Féin changed its traditional policy of abstentionism towards Oireachtas Éireann, the parliament of the Republic of Ireland, in 1986 and later took seats in the power-sharing Northern Ireland Assembly. However, Sinn Féin retains a policy of abstentionism towards the Westminster Parliament.
Gerry Sr. and Annie came from strong republican backgrounds. Adams' grandfather, also called Gerry Adams, had been a member of the
Irish Republican Brotherhood(IRB) during the Irish War of Independence. Two of Adams' uncles, Dominic and Patrick Adams, had been interned by the governments in Belfast and Dublin. Although it is reported that his uncle Dominic was a one-time IRA chief of staff, J. Bowyer Bell, in his widely respected book, "The Secret Army: The IRA 1916" (Irish Academy Press), states that Dominic Adams was a senior figure in the IRA of the mid-1940s. Gerry Sr. joined the IRA aged sixteen; in 1942 he participated in an IRA ambush on a Royal Ulster Constabulary(RUC) patrol but was himself shot, arrested and sentenced to eight years imprisonment.
Adams' maternal great-grandfather, Michael Hannaway, was a member of the
Feniansduring their dynamiting campaign in England in the 1860s and 1870s. Michael's son, Billy, was election agent for Éamon de Valerain 1918 in West Belfast but refused to follow de Valera into democratic and constitutional politics upon the formation of Fianna Fáil. Annie Hannaway was a member of Cumann na mBan, the women's branch of the IRA. Three of her brothers (Alfie, Liam and Tommy) were known IRA members.
Because of rampant prejudice against Catholics in the North, Adams' family (along with the majority of Catholic families) had trouble finding work and faced potential internment without trial. In addition, the republican cause was not supported by the larger Irish community until the 1960s, when the civil rights campaign first began in the North on a large scale, so Adams' family did not find many that shared their political views when Adams was a young child.
St Finian's Primary Schoolon the Falls Road where he was taught by De La Salle brothers. He then attended St Mary's Christian Brothers Grammar Schoolafter passing the eleven-plusexam in 1960. He left St. Mary's with six O-levels, and became a bartender, but became increasingly involved in the Irish republican movement, joining Sinn Féin and Fianna Éireannin 1964, after being radicalised by the Divis Street riots during the general election campaign.cite book | last=Lalor | first=Brian (ed) | year=2003 |title=The Encyclopaedia of Ireland | publisher=Gill & Macmillan | location=Dublin, Ireland | isbn=0-7171-3000-2 | pages=p 7-8]
Third Way Magazineasked Adams whether he was a Christian he said: 'I like the sense of there being a God, and I do take succour now from the collective comfort of being at a Mass or another religious event where you can be anonymous and individual – just a sense of community at prayer and of paying attention to that spiritual dimension which is in all of us; and I also take some succour in a private, solitary way from being able to reflect on those things.' [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20060925204750/http://www.thirdway.org.uk/past/showpage.asp?page=87 Thirdway - Talking of Peace - Interview with Gerry Adams] (via Wayback Machine)]
Early political career
In the late 1960s, a civil rights campaign developed in Northern Ireland. Adams was an active supporter and joined the
Northern Ireland Civil Rights Associationin 1967. However, the civil rights movement was met with protests from loyalist counter-demonstrators, and Northern Irish government forces. This culminated in August 1969, when Northern Ireland cities like Belfast and Derryerupted in major rioting and British troops were called in at the request of the Government of Northern Ireland (see 1969 Northern Ireland Riots).
Adams was active in Sinn Féin at this time. In August 1971,
internmentwas introduced in Northern Ireland under the Special Powers Act. Adams was interned in March 1972, on HMS "Maidstone", but was released in June to take part in secret, but abortive talks in London. The IRA negotiated a short-lived truce with the British and an IRA delegation met with the British Home Secretary, William Whitelaw. The delegation included Sean Mac Stiofain(Chief of Staff), Daithi O'Conaill, Seamus Twomey, Ivor Bell, Martin McGuinnessand Gerry Adamscitation, and Myles Shevlin, a solicitor. The IRA insisted Adams be included in the meeting and he was released from internment to participate. Following the failure of the talks he played a central role in planning the bomb blitz on Belfast known as Bloody Friday. He was re-arrested in July 1973 and interned at Long Kesh internment camp. After taking part in an IRA-organised escape attempt he was sentenced to a period of imprisonment.
During the Hunger Strikes of 1981, Adams played an important policy-making role, which saw the emergence of his party as a political force. In 1983 he was elected president of Sinn Féin and became the first Sinn Féin MP elected to the
British House of Commonssince Phil Clarke and Tom Mitchel were elected in the mid-1950s. Following his election as MP for Belfast West the British government lifted a ban on him travelling to Britain. In line with Sinn Féin policy, he refused to sit in the House of Commons.
On 14 March 1984, Adams was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt when several
Ulster Freedom Fighters(UFF) gunmen fired about twenty shots into the car in which he was travelling. After the shooting, under-cover plain clothes police officers seized three suspects who were later convicted and sentenced. [cite web | title = 1984: Sinn Féin leader shot in street attack | author = | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/14/newsid_2543000/2543503.stm | publisher = " BBC" | date = | accessdate = 2007-03-22] One of the three was John Gregg. Adams claimed that the British armyhad prior knowledge of the attack and allowed it to go ahead. [cite web | title = Adams wants 1984 shooting probe | author = Kevin Maguire | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/6179789.stm | publisher = " BBC" | date = 14 December 2006 | accessdate = 2007-03-22]
Allegations of IRA membership
Adams has stated repeatedly that he has never been a member of the
Provisional Irish Republican Army(IRA). [cite web | title = Adams denies IRA links as book calls him a genius | author = Rosie Cowan | url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,802084,00.html | publisher = " The Guardian" | date = 1 October 2002 | accessdate = 2007-03-22] However, noted scholars such as Ed Moloney, Richard English, Peter Taylor and Mark Urban have all named Adams to be part of the IRA leadership since the 1970s. [cite book | last = Moloney | first = Ed | authorlink = Ed Moloney | title = A Secret History of the IRA | publisher = Penguin Books| date = 2002 | pages = p. 140 | doi = | isbn = 0-141-01041-X] [cite book | last = Taylor | first = Peter | authorlink = Peter Taylor (Journalist) | title = Provos The IRA & Sinn Féin | publisher = Bloomsbury Publishing| date = 1997 | pages = p. 140 | doi = | isbn = 0-7475-3818-2 ] [cite book | last = English | first = Richard | authorlink = Richard English | title = Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA | publisher = Pan Books| date = 2003 | pages = p. 110 | doi = | isbn = 0-330-49388-4 ] [cite book | last = Urban | first = Mark | authorlink = | title = Big Boys' Rules: SAS and the Secret Struggle Against the IRA | publisher = Faber and Faber| date = 1993 | pages = p. 26 | doi = | isbn = 0-571-16809-4] Adams has denied Moloney's claims, calling them "libellous," [" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/2288775.stm Adams denies IRA book allegations] ." BBC News. 12 September 2002] however he has not taken legal action against Moloney.
President of Sinn Féin
In 1978, Gerry Adams became joint-vice-president of Sinn Féin and he became a key figure in directing a challenge to the Sinn Féin leadership of President
Ruairí Ó Brádaighand joint-Vice President Dáithí Ó Conaill.
The 1975 IRA-British truce is often viewed as the event that began the challenge to the original Provisional Sinn Féin leadership, which was said to be Southern-based and dominated by southerners like Ó Brádaigh and Ó Conaill. However, the Chief of Staff of the IRA at the time,
Seamus Twomey, was a senior figure from Belfast. Others in the leadership were also Northern based, including Billy McKeefrom Belfast. Adams (allegedly) rose to become the most senior figure in the IRA Northern Commandon the basis of his absolute rejection of anything but military action, but this conflicts with the fact that during his time in prison Adams came to reassess his approach and became more political. It is alleged that "provisional" republicanism was founded on its opposition to the communist-inspired "broad front" politics of the Cathal Goulding-led Official IRA, but this too is disputed.
One of the core reasons that the Provisional IRA and provisional Sinn Féin were founded, in December 1969 and January 1970, respectively, was that people like Ó Brádaigh and O'Connell, and Billy McKee, opposed participation in constitutional politics, the other was the failure of the Goulding leadership to provide for the defence of nationalist areas. When, at the December 1969 IRA convention and the January 1970 Sinn Féin Ard Fheis the delegates voted to participate in the Dublin (Leinster House), Belfast (Stormont) and London (Westminster) parliaments, the organizations split. Gerry Adams, who had joined the Republican Movement in the early 1960s, did not go with the Provisionals until later in 1970.
In Long Kesh in the mid-1970s, and writing under the pseudonym Brownie in "
Republican News", Adams called for increased political activity, especially at a local level, by Republicans. [citation|title=Sinn Féin: where does the money come from?|publisher=Irish Independent|date=19 June 2004|url=http://www.unison.ie/irish_independent/stories.php3?ca=36&si=1201596&issue_id=11029] The call resonated with younger Northern people, many of whom had been active in the Provisional IRA but had not necessarily been highly active in Sinn Féin. In 1977, Adams and Danny Morrison drafted the address of Jimmy Drumm at the Annual Wolfe ToneCommemoration at Bodenstown. The Address was viewed as watershed in that Drumm acknowledged that the war would be a long one and that success depended on political activity that would complement the IRA's armed campaign. For some, this wedding of politics and armed struggle culminated in Danny Morrison's statement at the 1981 Sinn Féin Ard Fheis in which he asked "Who here really believes we can win the war through the Ballot box? But will anyone here object if, with a ballot paper in one hand and the armalitein the other, we take power in Ireland". For others, however, the call to link political activity with armed struggle had been clearly defined in Sinn Féin policy and in the Presidential Addresses of Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, but it had not resonated with the young Northerners (It can be argued that Sinn Féin had been trying to link political activity with military activity since at least the late 1950s). [Robert White, Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, The Life and Politics of an Irish Revolutionary, pp. 258-59.]
Ironically, while Adams was advocating that the Republican Movement needed more involvement in politics, he was one of the key opponents of Sinn Féin putting forward a candidate for the first election to the
European Parliament, in 1979. Even after the election of Bobby Sandsas MP for Fermanagh/South Tyrone, a part of the mass mobilization associated with the 1981 Irish Hunger Strikeby republican prisoners in the "H blocks" of the Maze prison (known as Long Keshby Republicans), Adams was cautious about political involvement by Sinn Féin. Charles Haughey, the Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, called an election for June 1981. At an Ard Chomhairle meeting Adams recommended that they contest only four constituencies. Instead, H-Block/Armagh Candidates contested nine constituencies and elected two TDs. This, along with the election of Bobby Sands, was precursor to the a big electoral breakthrough in elections in 1982 to the Northern Ireland Assembly. Adams, Danny Morrison, Martin McGuinness, Jim McAllister, and Owen Carronwere elected as abstentionists. The SDLP had announced before the election that it would not take any seats and so its 14 elected representatives also abstained from participating in the Assembly and it was a failure. The 1982 election was followed by the 1983 Westminster election, in which Sinn Féin's vote increased and Gerry Adams was elected, as an abstentionist, as MP for West Belfast. It was in 1983 that Ruairí Ó Brádaigh resigned as President of Sinn Féin and was succeeded by Gerry Adams.
Republicans had long claimed that the only legitimate Irish state was the
Irish Republicdeclared in the Proclamation of the Republic of 1916, which they considered to be still in existence. In their view, the legitimate government was the IRA Army Council, which had been vested with the authority of that Republic in 1938 (prior to the Second World War) by the last remaining anti-Treaty deputies of the Second Dáil. Adams continued to adhere to this claim of republican political legitimacy until quite recently - however in his 2005 speech to the Sinn Féin Ard Fheishe explicitly rejected it.
As a result of this non-recognition, Sinn Féin had abstained from taking any of the seats they won in the British or Irish parliaments. At its 1986 Ard Fheis, Sinn Féin delegates passed a resolution to amend the rules and constitution that would allow its members to sit in the Dublin parliament (Leinster House/Dáil Éireann). At this
Ruairí Ó Brádaighled a small walkout, [Taylor, p. 291.] [cite book | last = Anderson | first = Brendan | authorlink = | title = Joe Cahill: A Life in the IRA | publisher = O'Brien Press | date = 2002 | pages = p. 340 | doi = | isbn = 0-86278-836-6] [cite book | last = O'Brien | first = Brendan | authorlink = Brendan O'Brien (Irish journalist) | title = The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin | publisher = O'Brien Press |date=1999 | pages = p. 130 | doi = | isbn = 0-86278-606-1] [cite book | last = Bishop, Patrick & Mallie, Eamonn | first = | authorlink = | title = The Provisional IRA | publisher = Corgi Books | date = 1987 | pages = p. 448 | doi = | isbn = 0-552-13337-X] just as he and Sean Mac Stiofain had done sixteen years earlier with the creation of Provisional Sinn Féin. This minority, which rejected dropping the policy of abstentionism, now nominally distinguishes itself from Provisional Sinn Féin by using the name Republican Sinn Féin(or Sinn Féin Poblachtach), and maintains that they are the true Sinn Féin republicans.
Adams' leadership of Sinn Féin was supported by a Northern-based cadre that included people like Danny Morrison and
Martin McGuinness. Adams and others, over time, pointed to Republican electoral successes in the early and mid-1980s, when hunger strikers Bobby Sandsand Kieran Dohertywere elected to the British House of Commonsand Dáil Éireannrespectively, and they advocated that Sinn Féin become increasingly political and base its influence on electoral politics rather than paramilitarism. The electoral effects of this strategy were shown later by the election of Adams and McGuinness to the House of Commons.
Adams's prominence as an Irish Republican leader was increased by the ban on the media broadcast of his voice (the ban actually covered eleven republican and loyalist organisations [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4409447.stm The 'broadcast ban' on Sinn Fein] , "BBC News Online", 5 April 2005] , but in practice Adams was the only one prominent enough to appear regularly on TV). This ban was imposed by the then prime minister
Margaret Thatcheron 19 October 1988, the reason given being to "deny terrorists the oxygen of publicity" after the BBC interviewed Martin McGuinness. [ [http://staff.stir.ac.uk/david.miller/news/IrishTimes-94.html Dubbing SF voices becomes the stuff of history] , By Michael Foley " The Irish Times", 17 September 1994]
A similar ban, known as Section 31, had been law in the Republic of Ireland since the 1970s. However media outlets soon found ways around the ban, initially by the use of subtitles, but later and more commonly by the use of an actor reading his words over the images of him speaking. The actor who most regularly voiced Gerry Adams during this time was
This ban was lampooned in cartoons and satirical TV shows, such as "
Spitting Image", and in " The Day Today" and was criticised by freedom of speechorganisations and British media personalities, including BBC Director General John Birtand BBC foreign editor John Simpson. The ban was lifted by British Prime Minister John Majoron 17 September 1994.
Moving into mainstream politics
Sinn Féin continued its policy of refusing to sit in the
Westminsterparliament even after Adams won the Belfast West constituency. He lost his seat to Joe Hendronof the Social Democratic and Labour Party(SDLP) in the 1992 general election. However, he easily regained it at the next election in May 1997.
Under Adams, Sinn Féin appeared to move away from being a political voice of the Provisional IRA to becoming a professionally organised political party in both
Northern Irelandand the Republic of Ireland.
John Hume, MP, identified the possibility that a negotiated settlement might be possible and began secret talks with Adams in 1988. These discussions led to unofficial contacts with the British Northern Ireland Officeunder the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Peter Brooke, and with the government of the Republic under Charles Haughey– although both governments maintained in public that they would not negotiate with "terrorists" .
These talks provided the groundwork for what was later to be the
Belfast Agreement, as well as the milestone Downing Street Declarationand the Joint Framework Document.
These negotiations led to the IRA ceasefire in August 1994. Irish
Taoiseach Albert Reynolds(who had replaced Haughey) and who had played a key role in the Hume/Adams dialogue through his Special Advisor Martin Mansergh, regarded the ceasefire as permanent. However the slow pace of developments, contributed in part to the (wider) political difficulties of the British government of John Majorand consequent reliance on Ulster Unionist Partyvotes in the House of Commons, led the IRA to end its ceasefire and resume the campaign.
A restituted ceasefire later followed, as part of the negotiations strategy, which saw teams from the British and Irish governments, the
Ulster Unionist Party, the SDLP, Sinn Féinand representatives of loyalist paramilitary organizations, under the chairmanship of former United StatesSenator George Mitchell, produced the Belfast Agreement(also called the "Good Friday Agreement" as it was signed on Good Friday, 1998). Under the agreement, structures were created reflecting the Irish and British identities of the people of Ireland, with a British-Irish Counciland a Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly created.
Articles 2 and 3 of the Republic's constitution, "
Bunreacht na hÉireann", which claimed sovereignty over all of Ireland, were reworded, and a power-sharing Executive Committee was provided for. As part of their deal Sinn Féin agreed to abandon its abstentionist policy regarding a "six-county parliament", as a result taking seats in the new Stormont-based Assembly and running the education and health and social services ministries in the power-sharing government.
Opponents in Republican Sinn Féin accused Sinn Féin of "selling out" by agreeing to participate in what it called "partitionist assemblies" in the Republic and Northern Ireland. However Gerry Adams insisted that the Belfast Agreement provided a mechanism to deliver a united Ireland by non-violent and constitutional means, much as Michael Collins had said of the
Anglo-Irish Treatynearly 80 years earlier.
When Sinn Féin came to nominate its two ministers to the Northern Ireland Executive, the party, like the SDLP and the
Democratic Unionist Party(DUP) chose for tactical reasons not to include its leader among its ministers. (When later the SDLP chose a new leader, it selected one of its ministers, Mark Durkan, who then opted to remain in the Committee.)
Adams remains the President of Sinn Féin, with
Caoimhghín Ó Caoláinserving as Sinn Féin parliamentary leader in Dáil Éireann, and Daithí McKayis head of the Sinn Féin group in the Northern Ireland Assembly. Adams son, Gearoid is a primary school teacher and has represented Co. Antrim in gaelic football.
Adams was re-elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly on 8 March 2007, [ [http://newsmax.com/archives/articles/2007/3/8/112807.shtml Sinn Fein's Gerry Adams Wins In Northern Ireland] .
Associated Press, 8 March 2007.] and on 26 March 2007 he met with DUP leader Ian Paisleyface-to-face for the first time, and the two came to an agreement regarding the return of the power-sharing executive in Northern Ireland. [cite web | title = May date for return to devolution | author = | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/6494599.stm | publisher = " BBC" | date = 26 March 2007 | accessdate = 2007-03-26]
*"Falls Memories", 1982
*"The Politics of Irish Freedom", 1986
*"A Pathway to Peace", 1988
*"An Irish Voice"
*"Cage Eleven", 1990
*"The Street and Other Stories", 1992
*"Free Ireland: Towards a Lasting Peace", 1995
*"Before the Dawn", 1996, Brandon Books, ISBN 0-434-00341-7
*"Who Fears to Speak...?", 2001(Original Edition 1991), Beyond the Pale Publications, ISBN 1-90096-013-3
*"An Irish Journal", 2001, Brandon Books, ISBN 0-86322-282-X
*"Hope and History", 2003, Brandon Books, ISBN 0-86322-330-3
*"A Farther Shore", 2005, Random House
*"An Irish Eye", 2007, Brandon Books
IRA Army Council
Provisional Irish Republican Army
History of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland peace process
*J. Bowyer Bell. "The Secret Army: The IRA 1916 -". Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1979.
*Colm Keena. "A Biography of Gerry Adams". Cork, Ireland: Mercier Press, 1990.
*Robert W. White. "Ruairi O Bradaigh, the Life and Politics of an Irish Revolutionary". Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.
*Anthony McIntyre. [http://indiamond6.ulib.iupui.edu:81/am11115g.html Gerry Adams Man Of War and Man Of Peace?] , academic lecture examining Gerry Adams' role in the Republican Movement
* [http://sinnfein.ie/elections/candidate/53 Sinn Féin - Gerry Adams] official profile
* [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/person/0,9290,-17,00.html Guardian Politics Ask Aristotle - Gerry Adams]
* [http://www.theyworkforyou.com/mp/gerry_adams/belfast_west TheyWorkForYou.com - Gerry Adams MP]
* [http://www.publicwhip.org.uk/mp.php?firstname=Gerry&lastname=Adams&constituency=Belfast+West The Public Whip - Gerry Adams] voting record
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