Federal districts of Russia


Federal districts of Russia

: "This article is about an administrative division of the federal government of Russia. See federal subjects of Russia for the federation's constituent units.

[

1. Central Federal District
2. Southern Federal District

3. Northwestern Federal District
4. Far Eastern Federal District
5. Siberian Federal District
6. Urals Federal District
7. Volga Federal District]

The federal districts ( _ru. федера́льные округа́ "federalnyye okruga") are a level of administration for the convenience of the federal government of the Russian Federation. They are "not" the constituent units of Russia (which are the federal subjects), but are mentioned more than the federal subjects in news and government. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative). The official task of the Plenipotentiary Representative is simply to oversee the work of federal agencies in the regions, although in practice this oversight is extensive and of considerable consequence.

Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws. For economic and statistical purposes the federal subjects are grouped into twelve economic regions. _ru. "Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов" (ОК 024–95) введённый 1 января 1997 г., в ред. Изменения № 05/2001. Секция II. Экономические районы ("Russian Classificaton of Economic Regions" (OK 024–95) of January 1, 1997 as amended by the Amendments #1/1998 through #5/2001. Section II. Economic Regions)] Economic regions and their parts sharing common economic trends are in turn grouped into economic zones and macrozones.

Description

Creation

The federal districts were created in May 2000 by Vladimir Putin as a part of a wider program designed to reassert federal authority. This wider program of reform included the Federation Council becoming indirectly elected, the scrutinizing of republican constitutions and regional charters, and the President gaining the right to dissolve subjects' parliaments and dismiss subjects' governments if they disobey federal law.

Function

The Plenipotentiary Representatives and their staff ascertain the extent of a subjects' violation of federal laws and norms. They also oversee the process of correction at a closer level than can the federal institutions in Moscow. They are therefore central to Putin's reassertion of federal authority. The creation of the federal districts has assisted in restricting laws and practices of the subjects which contravene federal law, for instance, the curtailment of citizens rights, the authoritarian practices of subjects' governors (or, in case of republics, their presidents), the manipulation of police and the control of the judiciary by subjects' governments, the strict control of journalism, and the manipulation of elections.

Federal agencies, particularly in the justice system, had been "captured" by subjects' governments during the segmented federalism of the Yeltsin period. This process is being forestalled as Plenipotentiary Representatives ensure that agencies do the work for which they are intended rather than being brought under the influence of powerful local elites with vested interests.

The Plenipotentiary Representatives are overseeing a system of rotation of federal employees throughout the regions in order to avoid them becoming dependent on local leaders.

The federal districts coincide exactly with the Interior Ministry forces' military regions, and coincide closely with the Defense Ministry regions. This allows the Plenipotentiary Representatives to have direct access to the command structure of the military and security apparatus. This sends a clear message to the subjects that they must cooperate with the federal government, and is very useful for the Plenipotentiary Representatives.

Presidential plenipotentiary envoys

*Central Federal District
**Georgy Poltavchenko (since May 18,2000)

*Southern Federal District
**Viktor Kazantsev (May 18,2000, – March 9,2004)
**Vladimir Yakovlev (March 9September 13,2004)
**Dmitry Kozak (September 13,2004 - September 24,2007)
**Grigory Rapota (October 9, 2007 - May 12, 2008)
**Vladimir Ustinov (since May 12, 2008)

*Northwestern Federal District
**Viktor Cherkesov (May 18,2000, – March 11,2003)
**Valentina Matviyenko (March 11,2003, – October 15,2003)
**Ilya Klebanov (since November 1,2003)

*Far Eastern Federal District
**Konstantin Pulikovsky (May 18,2000, – November 14,2005)
**Kamil Iskhakov (November 14,2005 - October 2, 2007)
**Oleg Safonov (Since November 30,2007)

*Siberian Federal District
**Leonid Drachevskiy (May 18,2000, – September 9,2004)
**Anatoly Kvashnin (since September 9,2004)

*Urals Federal District
**Pyotr Latyshev (since May 18,2000)

*Volga Federal District
**Sergei Kiriyenko (May 18,2000, – November 14,2005)
**Alexandr Konovalov (November 14,2005 - May 12, 2008)
**Grigory Rapota (since May 12, 2008)

List of federal districts of Russia

References

ee also

*Federal subjects of Russia

External links

* [http://www.russiaprofile.org/resources/structure/envoys/ Presidential Envoys to the Federal Districts]


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