County Board of Supervisors
The Board of Supervisors is the body governing
countiesin the U.S. states of Arizona, California, Iowa, Mississippi, Virginia, and Wisconsin. In other states it may be called the " County Council" or " County Commission." In Nebraska, some counties are governed by a board of supervisors while other counties are governed by a county commission. In New York, counties are governed by a county legislature, a board of representatives, or a board of supervisors. Similar to a city council, a board of supervisors has legislative, executive, and quasi-judicial powers. The important difference is that a county is an administrative division of a state, whereas a city is a municipal corporation; thus, counties implement and, as necessary, refine the local application of state law and public policy, while cities produce and implement their own local laws and public policy (subject to the overriding authority of state law).
Under a board's legislative powers, the supervisors have the ability to pass and repeal laws, generally called "ordinances", as in cities. Depending on the state, and the subject matter of the law, these laws may apply to the entire county or only to
unincorporated areas not under jurisdiction by a city. The board is also responsible for approving the county budget. County governments frequently collect state taxes and, in some states, they or their citizens are allowed to set certain tax rates. However, because they are ultimately organs of state law and policy, it is unusual for counties to have power to establish their own taxes - they, or their citizens, merely adjust the rates of tax measures created by the state government. Cities, by countrast, typically have power to create their own taxes. Detroit, for example, has its own income tax, and New York has its own sales tax, on top of the New York State sales tax.
In some states, including
Michigan, and in some New Yorkcounties until recently, county governing boards were composed of township (Michigan) or town (New York) 'supervisors'. These were the chief elected officials of each civil township (called 'town' in New York) in a county - hence, the term "Board of Supervisors", because they were originally composed of the various town/township supervisors from across the county. This system gave every township one vote on the county board regardless of its population, resulting in (usually rural) townships with few people having influence in decision-making that was disproportionate to their populations. A township with fewer than 1,000 people had the same clout as a city with more than 1,000,000 people.
Both Michigan and New York changed how they elected county boards by dividing counties into single member districts, drawn so that each district has more or less the same sized population. In Michigan, the new board model was implemented in 1968. The name 'Board of Supervisors' was changed to 'Board of Commissioners' in 1970, however, to avoid confusion with township government (where the term 'Supervisor' was still used). In New York, the new boards were called "county legislatures" (and their members, "county legislators"), but not every county has adopted this system. Those which retained the old boards of supervisors after the 1960s assigned each member a proportional vote based on the population represented.
Under a board's "executive" powers, the board controls county departments. Generally this is done under the aegis of a
chief administrative officeror county executive. The power of the CAO or county executive to act independently depends on the composition of the board. Generally, like most city managers, the CAO or county executive has authority over the day to day operations of the county's departments. Many boards independently appoint department heads, while other boards may delegate that authority to the CAO or chief executive. Some department heads, like the sheriffor district attorney, may be elected separately by the electorate; however, the board still exerts some power over these department's budget. Despite the presence of a CAO or chief executive, it is not uncommon for an individual supervisor to meddle in the affairs of individual departments, like setting priorities for projects in one's district or independently requesting investigations of problems in a department. In some counties, the county executive is elected.
In the City and County of San Francisco, which, as the legal name indicates, has a
consolidated city-countygovernment, the Board of Supervisors does double duty as a county board of control and a city council, while the mayor, likewise, is simultaneously city head of state and county executive. Or to put in cross-comparative terms, San Francisco is the only city in California with a county Board of Supervisors instead of a city council; and it is the only "county" in California with a mayor instead of a county executive.
Under a board's "quasi-judicial" capacity, the board is the final arbiter of decisions made by commissions underneath a board. This generally involves
land use planningissues.
Board of Chosen Freeholders
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors — The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five member non partisan governing board of Los Angeles County, California. Members of the board of supervisors are elected by district, the current members as of May 2008 are: *District 1:… … Wikipedia
Orange County Board of Supervisors — The Orange County Board of Supervisors is the five member governing body of Orange County, California. Contents 1 Membership 2 Functions … Wikipedia
Marin County Board of Supervisors — The Marin County Board of Supervisors is the governing body for the unincorporated areas of Marin County, California in the San Francisco Bay Area s North Bay region. The current board members are Susan Adams (District 1), Harold Brown… … Wikipedia
Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors — The Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors is the legislative branch of the government of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, United States. Supervisors are elected to the board in nonpartisan elections. There are 19 supervisors. The county board has… … Wikipedia
Sacramento County Board of Supervisors — The Sacramento County Board of Supervisors [http://www.bos.saccounty.net] is the five member governing board of Sacramento County, California.Like all other counties in California, with the exception of San Francisco County, Sacramento is split… … Wikipedia
Contra Costa County Board of Supervisors — The Contra Costa County Board of Supervisors is the governing body for the unincorporated areas of Contra Costa County, California in the San Francisco Bay Area s East Bay region. These are divided into five districts. The current board… … Wikipedia
Butte County Board of Supervisors — The governing body of Butte County, California. The board consists of five members elected by district for four year terms. As of December 23, 2007, the board of supervisors consisted of Bill Connely, Jane Dolan, Maureen Kirk, Curt Joiassen, and… … Wikipedia
Board of Supervisors — The Board of Supervisors is the body that supervises the operation of county government in all counties in Arizona, California, Iowa, Mississippi, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Sussex County, New Jersey as well as a handful of counties in New York.… … Wikipedia
County board — This article is about government. For the regional board in the Gaelic Athletic Association, see Gaelic Athletic Association county. A county board is a common form of county legislature, particular of counties in the United States. Related forms … Wikipedia
board of supervisors — The county board, sometimes called the county court; the governing body of a county … Ballentine's law dictionary