Red ochre and yellow ochre (pronounced /IPA|'əʊk.ə/, from the Greek ὄχρος, yellow) are
pigments made from naturally tinted clay. It has been used worldwide since prehistoric times. Chemically, it is hydrated iron (III) oxide.
To manufacture ground ochre, ochre clay is first mined from the ground. It is then washed in order to separate sand from ochre, which can be done by hand. The remaining ochre is then dried in the sun and sometimes burned to enhance the natural colour.
Prehistoric and Early Historic Period
Ochre was one of the first pigments to be used by human beings. Pieces of
haematite, worn down as though they had been used as crayons, have been found at 300,000 year old " Homo heidelbergensis" sites in Franceand Czechoslovakia. Neanderthalburial sites sometimes include ochre as a grave good. The oldest evidence of miningactivity, at the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland, is a 43,000 year old ochre mine. In Germanic rune lore, red ochre was often used in place of blood to redden, or tint, the runes and thereby instilling the spirit of life into the rune, enabling it to be used for magical purposes.
The clay used to produce red ochre is thought to be the "red earth" from which the Hebrew's God created Adam in the Book of Genesis. In fact, the name "Adam," meaning "man," is related to the Hebrew word for "red"Fact|date=December 2007 Red ochre can be found in great quantities in the mountains rimming the river basin where archaeologists place the biblical
Garden of EdenFact|date=December 2007, now in modern day IraqFact|date=December 2007. For the early writers of the Christian Bible, one can imagine the vibrant red colour of this natural clay evoking the colour of human bloodFact|date=December 2007.
Ochre was commonly used as a pigment by many a number of native peoples. In Newfoundland [Red ochre in Newfoundland [http://www.fisheriesheritage.ca/redOchre.asp] ] its use is most often associated with the
Beothukwhereby they were referred to as the Red Indians by the first Europeans to Newfoundland. It was also used by the Maritime Archaicas evidenced by its discovery in the graves of over 100 individuals during an archaeological excavation at Port au Choix. California Native Americans such as the Chumashwere known to use red ochre as body paint. [ [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18353 C. Michael Hogan, "Los Osos Back Bay", Megalithic Portal, editor A. Burnham (2008)] ]
Ochre was a popular colouring in France during the time of the French Empire, and many French citizens living in foreign colonies would import a great deal of ochre clay from France to make their new lands feel like home. As a result, after the period of French colonization ended ochre became associated with repression and fell out of favour. With the advent of
synthetic dyes, ochre mining nearly stopped altogether. Recently, however, natural ochre paint has seen something of a comeback as an upscale house paint option.
In ancient Egypt red Ochre was used as a rouge, or lip gloss for women.
. The dry ingredient, ochre, was mixed with some type of liquid raw material to create a rough paint. The liquid material was usually seal oil or
cod liver oilin Newfoundland and Labrador, while Scandinavian recipes sometimes called for linseed oil. Red ochre paint was sometimes prepared months in advance and allowed to sit, and the smell of ochre paint being prepared is still remembered by many today.
Variations in local recipes, shades of ore, and type of oil used resulted in regional variations in colour. Because of this, it is difficult to pinpoint an exact shade or hue or red that would be considered the traditional “
fishing stagered.” Oral traditionin the Bonavista Bayarea maintains that seal oil would give a purer red colour, while cod liver oilwould give a “foxy” colour, browner in hue.
Tincture in heraldry
Red ochre makes an innovative appearance in heraldry in the new national arms of
Clay earth pigment
Goethite, or brown ochre
List of colors
Red Lady of Paviland
* [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/redochre.html Red Ochre] and [http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/yellowochre.html Yellow ochre] , from "Pigments through the ages".
* [http://web2.jns.fi/punamult/english/redtext.htm A recipe] for red ochre paint from Finland.
* Fuller, Carl; "Natural Colored Iron Oxide Pigments", pp. 281-6. In: Pigment Handbook, 2nd Edition. Lewis, P. (ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988.
* Thomas, Anne Wall. "Colors From the Earth", New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.
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red ochre, GB — marso raudonasis statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Raudonas pigmentas, kurio pagrindinis komponentas Fe₂O₃. atitikmenys: angl. burnt sienna; Indian red; mars red; mineral red; Persian Gulf oxide; red earth; red ocher, US; red ochre, GB;… … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
red ochre, GB — geležies(III) oksidas statusas T sritis chemija formulė Fe₂O₃ atitikmenys: angl. colcothar; ferric oxide; iron minium; iron sesquioxide; ironic oxide; iron(III) oxide; Prussian red; red iron oxide; red ocher, US; red ochre, GB; Spanish oxide rus … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
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