- Katharine Bushnell
Katharine Bushnell (born Sophia Caroline Bushnell) (
February 5, 1856- January 26, 1946) was a Christian writer, physician, medical missionaryto China, and Bible scholar skilled in both Hebrew and Greek, and social activist. Of particular interest to her was the status of women in the Bible, believing it had been mistranslated and misinterpreted. She was a forerunner of feminist theology. Her lifelong quest was for biblical affirmation of the integrity and equality of women.
Katherine Bushnell was born February 5, 1856, in Peru,
Illinois. She attended Northwestern Universityfor pre-medicalstudies and medical school at ChicagoWomen's Medical College where she specialized in nerve disorders. She established a pediatrics hospital in Shanghaiwhile a missionary sponsored by the Woman's Mission Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church. There she was influenced by translations of the Bible into Chinese which she thought were dishonestly done to subjugate women. She began comparing the English translation to the original Greek New Testamentand found similar patterns of what she considered intentionally biased mistranslations. That motivated her to study Hebrew on her long sea travels.
In 1885 she joined the
Woman's Christian Temperance Unionas the National Evangelist of the Department of Social Purity. She helped found the Anchorage Mission in Chicago which sheltered homeless women. She appeared before the Wisconsin Legislatureto expose white slaveryin a lumber camp, although the state of Wisconsin denied its existence. She was first defamed for allegedly creating "cruel lies" which later were proved to be factual. In 1887, Wisconsin passed Senate Bill 46 to address white slavery.
Bushnell then traveled with Elizabeth Andrew to
Indiawhere the government of India had denied allegations that its soldiers were frequenting Indian prostitutes. The government was proved wrong by Bushnell and Andrew’s wealth of evidence, as well as corroborating results from an independent investigation. The women's efforts led to a reprimand for Lord Roberts, the Commander-in-Chief, India. They coauthored two books about their experiences, "The Queen’s Daughters in India", and "Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers". The British government subsequently commissioned her to look into the opium trade between India and China.
She died January 26, 1946.
God's Word to Women
Throughout the nineteenth century, women struggled with "oppressive interpretations of the Bible that deprived them of their power and dignity."Kroeger, Catherine C. "The Legacy of Katherine Bushnell: a Hermeneutic for Women of Faith." "Priscilla Papers," Fall 1995. Available through
Christians for Biblical Equality] Bushnell has been called the most prominent voice declaring the Bible as liberating of women.
Her book, "God's Word to Women",Katharine Bushnell, "God's Word to Women" (Piedmont, California: Published via reprint, ed. Ray Munson, Box 52, North Collins, N.Y., 1976), cited by paragraph, 794.] is a culmination of her life's work. It was compiled from a correspondence course of the same name. In it, she works through every biblical portion interpreted to mean that women are inferior to men. This included the topics of women not being allowed to preach, required subordination to their husbands,
polygamy, and head coverings. She wrote that male-biased mistranslations of the Bible, instead of "hasting the coming of the day of God, are hindering the preparation for that coming."
"God's Word to Women" did not have mass appeal when first published because of its scholarly content and the few scholars interested in the topic. It relies on translation of ancient Hebrew and
Koine Greekand ancient Hebrew culture. However, the book is now valued highly by Christian egalitarian scholars. Originally published in 1921, it is now in public domain and is available online both electronically and in print.
* [http://www.godswordtowomen.org/studies/articles/bushnell.htm Brief biography]
* [http://etd.nd.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-09212004-131917/ Kristin Kobes Du Mez, "The Forgotten Woman's Bible," Ph.D. dissertation on Bushnell and women-centered Protestantism in America] Includes a biography (In PDF format; restricted to campus access.)
* cite book
last = Bushnell
first = Katharine
year = 1921
title = God's Word to Women
id = ISBN 0-9743031-0-0
url = http://godswordtowomen.org/resources/onlinebooks/gwtw.htm
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