Polish cuisine (Polish: Kuchnia Polska) is a style of cooking and food preparation originating from Poland. It has evolved over the centuries due to historical circumstances. Polish national cuisine shares some similarities with other Central European  and Eastern European traditions as well as French and Italian similarities. It is rich in meat, especially beef, chicken and pork, and winter vegetables (cabbage in the dish bigos), and spices. It is also characteristic in its use of various kinds of noodles the most notable of which are the kluski as well as cereals such as kasha (from the Polish word Kasza). Generally speaking, Polish cuisine is hearty and uses a lot of cream and eggs. The traditional dishes are often demanding in preparation. Many Poles allow themselves a generous amount of time to serve and enjoy their festive meals especially Christmas eve dinner (Wigilia) or Easter breakfast which could take a number of days to prepare in their entirety.
Traditionally, the main meal is eaten about 2 p.m. or later, and is usually composed of three courses, starting with a soup, such as popular rosół and tomato soup or more festive barszcz (beet borscht) or żurek (sour rye meal mash), followed perhaps in a restaurant by an appetizer of herring (prepared in either cream, oil, or vinegar). Other popular appetizers are various cured meats, vegetables or fish in aspic. The main course is usually meaty including a roast or kotlet schabowy (breaded pork cutlet). Vegetables, currently replaced by leaf salad, were not very long ago most commonly served as "surówka" - shredded root vegetables with lemon and sugar (carrot, celeriac, beetroot) or sauerkraut (kapusta kiszona). The sides are usually boiled potatoes or more traditionally kasza (cereals). Meals often conclude with a dessert such as makowiec, a poppy seed pastry, or drożdżówka, a type of yeast cake. Other Polish specialities include chłodnik (a chilled beet or fruit soup for hot days), golonka (pork knuckles cooked with vegetables), kołduny (meat dumplings), zrazy (stuffed slices of beef), salceson and flaki (tripe).
- 1 History
- 2 Modern era
- 3 Holiday meals
- 4 Regional cuisine
- 5 Soups
- 6 Bread
- 7 Desserts
- 8 Drinks
- 9 Lists of common Polish dishes found on a national level
- 10 Selected ingredients
- 11 Notes and references
- 12 See also
- 13 External links
The Polish cuisine in the Middle Ages was based on dishes made of agricultural produce (millet, rye, wheat), meats of wild and farm animals, fruits, herbs and local spices. It was known above all from abundant salt using and permanent presence of groats (Kasha). A high calorific value of dishes and drinking the beer as a basic drink (unlike the wine spread in south and west Europe) was typical of Middle Ages Polish cuisine. A beer and a mead were most popular drink for a lot of time.
During the Middle Ages the cuisine of Poland was very heavy and spicy. Two main ingredients were meat (both game and beef) and cereal. The latter consisted initially of proso millet, but already in the Middle Ages other types of cereal became widely used. Average commoners did not use bread and instead consumed cereals in the forms of kasza or various types of flatbread, some of which (like kołacz) are considered traditional recipes even in the 21st century. Apart from cereals, a large portion of a daily diet of mediaeval Poles consisted of beans, mostly broad beans and peas. As the territory of Poland was densely forested, usage of mushrooms, forest berries, nuts and wild honey was also widespread.
Thanks to close trade relations with the East, the price of spices (such as juniper, black pepper and nutmeg) was much lower than in the rest of Europe, and spicy sauces became popular. The usage of two basic sauces (the jucha czerwona and jucha szara, or red and gray blood in Old Polish) remained widespread at least until 18th century.
The daily beverages included milk, liquid whey drink, buttermilk and various herb infusions. Most popular alcoholic beverages were beer and mead, however in the 16th century upper classes began to import Hungarian and Silesian wines. Mead was so widespread that in the 13th century Prince Leszek I the White explained to the Pope that Polish knights could not participate in a crusade as there was no mead in the Holy Land. Also, vodka became popular, possibly among the lower classes first. There is written evidence suggesting that vodka have originated in Poland. The word "vodka" was recorded for the first time ever in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At that time, the word wódka (vodka) referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage was called gorzałka (from the Old Polish gorzeć).
Along with the Italian queen Bona Sforza (second wife of Sigismund I of Poland) many Italian cooks came to Poland after 1518. Although native vegetable foods were an ancient and intrinsic part of the cuisine, this began a period in which vegetables like lettuce, leeks, celeriac and cabbage were more widely used. Even today, some of those vegetables are referred to in Polish as włoszczyzna, a word derived from Włochy, the Polish name of Italy. During this period the use of spices, which arrived in Poland via west Asian trade routes, was common among those who could afford them, and dishes considered elegant could be very spicy. However, the idea that Queen Bona was the first to introduce vegetables to Poland is false. While her southern cooks may have helped elevate and expand the role of various vegetables in royal Polish cuisine, records show that the court of King Jagiello (who died in 1434, over 80 years before her reign) enjoyed a variety of vegetables including lettuce, beets, cabbage, turnip, carrots, peas and cauliflower.
Polish-style pickled cucumber (ogórek kiszony) is a variety developed in the northern parts of Europe. It has been exported worldwide and is found in the cuisines of many countries. It is sour but tends to be seasoned differently. It is usually preserved in wooden barrels. A cucumber only pickled for a few days is different in taste (less sour) than one pickled for a longer time and is called ogórek małosolny, which means "lightly salted cucumber". Another kind of pickled cucumber, popular in Poland, is ogórek konserwowy (preserved cucumber) which is rather sweet and vinegary in taste, due to different composition of the preserving solution. It is kept in wooden barrels.
The only indisputable fact is that the court of Queen Bona was fed in an Italian fashion, because she exclusively employed Italian cooks, some of whom were originally hired to prepare parties for aristocratic families but who were soon serving typical Italian dishes as part of the court's daily menus. Court records show that Queen Bona imported large volumes of eastern and southern fruit such as oranges, lemons, pomegranates, olives, figs, chestnuts, raisins and almonds (including marzipan), along with grain (such as rice), cane sugar and Italian olive oil. The court also imported various herbs and spices including black pepper, fennel, saffron, ginger, nutmeg, cloves and cinnamon, .
Until the Partitions perpetrated by the neighboring empires, Poland was one of the largest countries in the world, encompassing many regions with their own, distinctive culinary traditions. Two consecutive Polish kings, Władysław IV and John II Casimir (Polish: Jan II Kazimierz Waza) married the same French Duchess, Marie Louise Gonzaga (Polish: Ludwika Maria), daughter of Charles I, Duke of Mantua; persecuted by King Louis XIII of France for her affiance to his opponent Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Marie Louise arrived in Warsaw in 1646, was widowed, and married again in 1649. Ludwika brought along with her a court full of Frenchmen including courtiers, secretaries, army officers, physicians, merchants, craftsmen, as well as many cooks. Records show that her visiting guests were entertained with the following fowl: waxwings, fieldfares, snow bunting, hazel grouse, partridges, black grouse, capercaillies and the forest game: loach, trouts, grayling, salmon fresh and smoked, flounders, salted herring, lampreys in vinegar, oysters, snails, and Genoese pâté, not to mention fresh fruit and chestnuts. French and Italian wines were served, as well as mead and local beers. The dishes were made only according to French recipes whilst the traditional Polish meals were considered heavy. The royal court with all its innovations exerted a broad influence over the rest of aristocratic residences and noble palaces across Poland. French cuisine was in fashion and many families willingly employed French cooks and Pâté makers. In mid 18th century on Polish tables appeared the French champagne. Also, among the most influential in that period were Lithuanian, Jewish, German and Hungarian cuisine, not to mention Armenian, which arrived in Poland before the 17th century along with many settlers especially in the south-eastern part of the Republic. Signature dishes of the East reached Polish tables via Armenian trade and cultural exchange with Poland's eastern neighbors. Rare delicacies were brought to royal court as gifts from sultans and royal envoys. The strongest influences were noted in the cities of Lwów, Kraków, Kamieniec Podolski and Zamość due to many Armenians living there permanently. Also, because of the close contact with the Ottoman Empire, coffee (kawa) and Boza became popular.
With the subsequent decline of Poland, and the grain production crisis that followed The Deluge, potatoes began to replace the traditional use of cereal. The first Polish cook-book, Compendium Ferculorum albo zebranie potraw by Stanisław Czerniecki was published in 1682. Under the partitions, the cuisine of Poland became heavily influenced by cuisines of the surrounding empires. This included Russian and German cuisines, but also the culinary traditions of most nations of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The 19th century also saw the creation of the many Polish cook-book, by Jan Szyttler, Anna Ciundziewicka, Wincenta Zawadzka, Lucyna Ćwierczakiewiczowa and others.
After World War II
After the end of World War II, Poland fell under Communist occupation. Restaurants were at first nationalized and then mostly closed down by the authorities. Instead, the communists envisioned a net of lunch rooms for the workers at various companies, and milk bars. The very few restaurants that survived the 1940s and 1950s were state-owned and were mostly unavailable to common people due to high prices. The lunch rooms promoted mostly inexpensive meals, including soups of all kinds and staples such as pierogi. A typical second course consisted of some sort of a ground meat cutlet served with potatoes. The kotlet schabowy is similar to the Austrian Wiener schnitzel.
With time, the shortage economy led to chronic scarcity of meat, eggs, coffee, tea and other basic ingredients of daily use. Many products like chocolate, sugar and meat were rationed, with a specific limit depending on social class and health requirements. Physical workers and pregnant women were generally entitled to more food products. Imports were restricted, so much of the food supply was domestic. Thus no tropical fruits (citrus, banana, pineapple, etc.) were available and fruits and vegetables were mostly seasonal; to be had only in the summer. For most of the year the Poles had to get by with only domestic winter fruit and vegetables: apples, onions, potatoes, cabbage, root vegetables.
This situation led in turn to gradual replacement of traditional Polish cuisine with food prepared from anything available at the moment. Among the popular dishes introduced by the public restaurants was an egg cutlet, a sort of a hamburger made of minced or instant egg and flour. The traditional recipes were mostly preserved during the Wigilia feast (Christmas Eve), for which most families tried to prepare 12 traditional courses.
With the end of communism in Poland in 1989, restaurants started to reopen and basic foodstuffs were once again easily obtainable. This led to a gradual return of traditional Polish cuisine, both in everyday life and in restaurants. In addition, restaurants and supermarkets promoted the use of ingredients typical to other cuisines of the world. Among the most notable foods that started to become common in Poland were cucurbit, zucchini and all kinds of fish. During communist times, these were available mostly in the seaside regions.
Recent years have seen the advent of a slow food movement, and a number of TV programmes devoted to traditional Polish cuisine have gained much popularity. In 2011 a nostalgic cookbook (written in English) combining a child's memories growing up in the Gierek era with traditional Polish recipes was published in London
Fast food is growing more and more popular in Poland, most commonly with the McDonald's chain, KFC and Pizza Hut. Doner kebabs are also gaining popularity. Nonetheless, in most of Poland you can still get traditional Polish fast-food such as zapiekanka. There are also many small-scale, quick-service restaurants which usually serve items such as zapiekanka (baguette with cheese, sometimes meat and/or button mushroom and ketchup), kebab, hamburgers, hot dogs and kielbasa. In Warsaw, Poland's capital city, a 3-course meal in one of Warsaw's top restaurant's costs on average twenty-six GBP.
The Christmas dishes in Poland
Traditional Christmas Eve supper called Wigilia usually consists of borscht with uszka (small dumplings) – a classic Polish Christmas Eve starter, followed by fried carp, carp fillet with potato salad, carp in aspic etc. Carp provides a main component of the Christmas Eve meal across Poland. Other popular dishes include pickled matjas herring, rollmops, pierogi with sauerkraut and forest mushrooms, pierogi filled with white cheese and potatoes, gołąbki (cabbage rolls) with forest mushrooms, fish soup, kiełbasa sausages, hams and bigos (savory stew of cabbage and meat) and vegetable salads. Among popular desserts are various fruits like oranges among others, poppy seed cake makowiec (makówki in Silesia), fruit compote, kluski with poppyseed, kutia sweet grain pudding in the eastern regions, like (Białystok) and ginger bread. Regional dishes include żurek, siemieniotka (in Silesia), and kołduny - mushrooms or meat stuffed dumplings in the eastern regions.
"Tlusty Czwartek" Fat Thursday is a Catholic feast celebrated on the last Thursday before the Lent. Traditionally it is a day when people eat big amounts of sweets and cakes that are afterwards forbidden until Easter. As the date is closely connected with Easter and beginning of the Lent, "Tlusty Czwartek" belongs to moveable feasts. The next Thursday falls already after Ash Wednesday that is the period of the Lent when the Catholics should restrain from overeating.
The most popular sweets during Fat Thursday are paczki (Polish donuts) or faworki called also in some regions of Poland "chrust". The donuts one can fill with marmalade or briar and cover with powdered sugar or sugar-icing.
However, Fat Thursday used to mark the beginning of Fat Week the period of great gluttony during which Polish ancestors would eat loads of lard, bacon and all the kinds of meat consumed with vodka. Nowadays Fat Thursday is associated especially with donuts, therefore on that day confectioneries are besieged by Poles who wish to purchase paczki (Polish donuts) to celebrate the feast. One of the old superstitions says that the one who does not eat any donuts on Fat Thursday will not succeed afterwards. But the Poles do not feel endangered with this superstition an average Pole eats on Fat Thursday 2,5 of donuts while the whole country eats almost 100 million of them altogether.
The first donuts did not remind those that we know nowadays. Those made of the same dough as bread, filled with pork fat and fried on lard were popular until 16th century. Only afterwards they were made in a sweet way. The most important secret is that the confectioneries do not make them in advance every respectful cake shop makes paczki the night before the Poles reach the shops to buy them. Polish paczki are still different than so called donuts or similar sweets made in other countries. Their dough is made of yeast, flour and eggs. Polish paczki are fried in deep oil or lard only for several dozen of seconds so that the fat would not soak inside. They taste the best when still warm. Some people used to fill few of them with almond or nut instead of marmalade while encountering this exquisite filling was supposed to bring good luck.
The Easter Breakfast
A typical Easter Breakfast often consists of cold-cuts served with horseradish sauce and beet salads, breads, bigos, scrambled eggs, smoked or fried salmon or herring, marinated vegetable salads, coffee, tea and cakes, i.e. chocolate cake, mazurek, etc.
Poland has a number of unique regional cuisines with regional differences in preparations and ingredients. For an extensive list of the dishes typical to Galicia, Kresy, Podlaskie, Masovia (including Warsaw), Masuria, Pomerania, Silesia, Lesser Poland, the Tatra mountains and Greater Poland see the List of Polish cuisine dishes
- Zupa pomidorowa - Tomato soup usually served with noddle, potato or rice.
- Kartoflanka - Potato soup.
- Barszcz - Its strictly vegetarian version is the first course during the Christmas Eve feast, served with ravioli-type dumplings called "uszka" (little dumping ears) with mushroom filling (sauerkraut can be used as well, again depending on the family tradition).
- Chłodnik - Cold beet soup made of soured milk, young beet leaves, beets, cucumbers and chopped fresh dill.
- Czernina - Duck blood soup.
- Flaki or Flaczki - Beef or pork tripe stew with marjoram. Common ingredients include beef tripe, beef, bay leaf, parsley, carrot, beef broth, and spices to taste, including salt, black pepper, nutmeg, sweet paprika, and marjoram.
- Rosół - Clear chicken soup served with noodles.
- Zupa grzybowa - Mushroom soup made of various species of mushroom.
- Zupa ogórkowa - Dill pickle Soup of sour, salted cucumbers, often with pork.
- Zupa szczawiowa - Sorrel soup.
- Żur or Żurek - Żur with potatoes, Polish sausage (kielbasa), and egg (jajko). Depending on the part of Poland it came from it may contain mushrooms as well. This dish is also called żurek starowiejski (old village).
- Grochówka - Pea, lentil, potato soup.
- Kapuśniak - Sauerkraut soup with chicken.
- Zupa jarzynowa - Chicken with vegetables boullion base vegetable soup.
Bread (Chleb) and bread rolls (Bułka) makes the Polish cuisine and tradition complete. It has been an essential part of them both for centuries. Today bread remains one of the most important foods in the Polish cuisine. The main ingredient for Polish bread is wheat or rye. Traditional bread has a crunchy crust, is soft but not too soft inside, and has unforgettable aroma. Such bread is made on sourdough which lends it a distinctive taste. It can be stored for a week or so without getting too hard and is not crumbly when cut. Unfortunately these days more and more breads are made in a more "modern" way, which yields cheaper and less tasty, industrial-like product.
In Poland, welcoming with bread and salt ("chlebem i solą") is often associated with the traditional hospitality ("staropolska gościnność") of the Polish nobility (szlachta), who prided themselves on their hospitality. A 17th-century Polish poet, Wespazjan Kochowski, wrote in 1674: "O good bread, when it is given to guests with salt and good will!" Another poet who mentioned the custom was Wacław Potocki. The custom was, however, not limited to the nobility, as Polish people of all classes observed this tradition, reflected in old Polish proverbs.  Nowadays, the tradition is mainly observed on wedding days, when newlyweds are greeted with bread and salt by their parents on returning from the church wedding.
We have told about a certain canon of Polish bread. It would be wrong however to conclude that there's only one type of it which is worth mentioning. Each good bakery makes its bread slightly differently. Breads are made of various cereals (not just wheat or rye), whole grain breads abound and sometimes some traditional extra ingredients are used (e.g. onion, sunflower seed or lard). And, taking a broader view, the variety of bakery products in Poland is truly magnificent.
- Makowiec - Poppy seed-swirl cake, sometimes with raisins and/or nuts.
- Pączek - Closed donut filled with rose marmalade or other fruit conserves.
- Pierniki - Soft gingerbread shapes iced or filled with marmalade of different fruit flavours and covered with chocolate.
- Sernik - Sernik (cheesecake) is one of the most popular desserts in Poland. It is a cake made primarily of twaróg, a type of fresh cheese.
- Chałka - Sweet white wheat bread of Jewish origin.
- Krówki - Polish fudge, soft milk toffee candies.
- Kisiel - Clear, jelly-like fruit liquid.
- Budyń - Pudding, usually comes in many different flavors, such as sweet cream, chocolate, and even cherry.
- Twaróg, A type of fresh cheese.
- Faworki - Light fried pastry covered with powdered sugar.
- Pańska Skórka, Miodek - Kind of hard Taffy sold at cemeteries during Zaduszki and at Stare Miasto (Old city) in Warsaw.
- Kutia - A small square pasta with wheat, poppy seeds, nuts, raisins and honey. Typically served during Christmas in the eastern regions (Białystok).
In Poland, vodka (wódka), has been produced since the 8th century. In the 11th century when they were called gorzalka, originally used as medicines. Poland is known for its production of vodka (wódka). The world's first written mention of the drink was in 1405 in a document from Sandomierz in southeast Poland. Well-known brands are: Spirytus Rektyfikowany, Sobieski, Belvedere, Chopin, Wyborowa, Żubrówka. Pure vodka is drunk as a rule. It is not customary to drink vodka out of tiny glass of brandy, but will be 50 - to 100 - milliliter glass preferred (Shot Glass).
- Biała Dama
- Żołądkowa Gorzka
- Pan Tadeusz
Poland is also a land of beer. Beer (Piwo) is brewed to different types of beer. Almost every major city has its own brewery. There are also traditional breweries, some of which look back on a centuries-old history. Popular brand names include Tyskie, Żywiec, Warka, Lech, Okocim, Łomża, Piast, EB. Almost every brewery in Poland has a summer Beer Festival from the city/town where the brewery is located. According to a 2009 Ernst & Young report, Poland is Europe's third largest beer producer: Germany with 103 million hectolitres, UK with 49.5 million hl, Poland with 36.9 million hl. Following consecutive growth in the home market, Związek Pracodawców Przemysłu Piwowarskiego (Union of the Brewing Industry Employers in Poland), which represents approximately 90% of the Polish beer market, announced during the annual brewing industry conference that consumption of beer in 2008 rose to 94 litres per capita, or 35,624 million hectolitres sold on domestic market. Statistically, a Polish consumer drinks some 92 litres of beer a year, which places it a third behind Germany.
- Dębowe Mocne
- Bracki Koźlak
Wine (Wino), which is recently becoming popular, for many years was rarely consumed in Poland. However, since the Middle Ages it was part of national culture. Past, wine was purchased mainly from Hungary in the 16th century. In the 10th century mead a honey wine was a popular drunk in Poland. In the 13th century Prince Leszek I the White explained to the Pope that Polish knights could not participate in a crusade as there was no mead in the Holy Land.
- Czwórniak - A Polish mead, made using three units of water for each unit of honey.
- Dwójniak - A Polish mead, made using equal amounts of water and honey.
- Półtorak - A Polish great mead, made using two units of honey for each unit of water.
- Trójniak - A Polish mead, made using two units of water for each unit of honey.
In Poland, soft drinks are called (napoje gazowane) which means "carbonated drinks". The term "soft drinks" can also refer to any non-alcoholic drinks (napoje bezalkoholowe) like water, tea, juice or coffee. kompot non-alcoholic beverage made of boiled fruit, optionally also with sugar and spices (clove or cinnamon). Served hot or cold. Can be made of one type of fruit or a mixture, including apples, peaches, pears, strawberries or sour cherries. Susz is type of "kompot" made with dried fruits, most commonly apples, apricots, figs. Traditionally served on Christmas, it has a distinct smell and brown colour.
- Syrop z Cebuli - A cough remedy made of chopped onion and sugar; although it is very tasty, it is still considered a medicine.
- Herbata góralska - Tea with alcohol.
Lists of common Polish dishes found on a national level
- List of common Polish soups
- Common main courses
- Common desserts
- Common beverages
- Common folk medicine
- kapusta kiszona - sauerkraut
- ogórek kiszony - salted sour cucumber, a pickle prepared in a similar way to sauerkraut
- kiełbasa - Polish sausage, comes in a wide variety of versions
- śmietana - a type of sour cream
- Czernina - duck blood soup
Notes and references
- ^ "Poland's cuisine, influenced by its German, Austrian, Hungarian, Russian, and other conquerors over the centuries, is not the most distinctive, varied, or subtle in the world, but it has an earthy character of its own." [in:] Melvil Dewey, Richard Rogers Bowker, L. Pylodet. Library journal: t. 110, 1985; "Polish cuisine displays its German-Austrian history in its sausages, particularly the garlicky kielbasa (or kolbasz), and its smoked meats. Similarly, Transylvania's old. [...] As a result of these enforced alliances, Polish cuisine adopted German-style smoked meats and pastries and learned to produce desserts that rivaled those of the Viennese." [in:] The Ethnic Food Lover's Companion by Eve Zibart, p. 114
- ^ 'Like Ukrainians, Russians and Poles, Belarusians are still fond of borsch with a very large dollop of sour cream (smyetana) and it is particularly warming and nourishing in the depths of winter. " [in:] Belarus, 2nd: The Bradt Travel Guide by Nigel Roberts, 2
- ^ a b c d e f g Jerzy Pasikowski (2011). "Wpływy kuchni innych narodów na kształt kuchni polskiej (Foreign influences in Polish cuisine)". Portal Gastronomiczny NewsGastro. http://newsgastro.pl/jerzy-pasikowski-radzi/88908-wpywy-kuchni-innych-narodow-na-ksztat-kuchni-polskiej.html. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- ^ Polish Meals – Polish Food – Polish Cuisine. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- ^ Kasha, extended definition by Webster's Online Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- ^ "Always home-made, tomato soup is one of the first things a Polish cook learns to prepare." [in:] Marc E. Heine. Poland. 1987
- ^ "Tu się w lasy schroniły wygnane ze zbytkowych stołów, narodowe potrawy, Barszcz, Bigos, Zrazy, Pirogi i Pieczeń" [in:] Jan N. de Bobrowicz. Maxymilian arcyksiąże Austryacki obrany Król polski. 1848. s. 74; "barszcz, rosół, sztuka mięsa, pieczenie huzarskie, bigos, pierogi, kiełbasa z kapustą, przede wszystkim zaś rozmaite kasze" Zbigniew Kuchowicz Obyczaje staropolskie XVII-XVIII wieku. 1975; "pieczeń cielęca pieczona (panierowana), pieczeń cielęca zapiekana w sosie beszamelowym, pieczeń huzarska (=pieczeń wołowa przekładana farszem), pieczeń rzymska (klops), pieczeń rzymska (klops z cielęciny) w sosie śmietanowym, pieczeń rzymska z królika " [in:] Stanisław Berger. Kuchnia polska. 1974.; Polish Holiday Cookery by Robert Strybel.  2003
- ^ (Polish) Wojciech Staszewski (August 2006). "Bycze jądra z grilla". Gazeta Wyborcza. http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/df/1,34467,3558017.html. Retrieved 2006-08-25.
- ^ History of Mead, a favored drink among the Polish-Lithuanian szlachta. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- ^ a b "History of vodka production, at the official page of Polish Spirit Industry Association (KRPS), 2007". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930131416/http://krps.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=27.
- ^ "Kapusta kiszona (sauerkraut) is the basis for Poland's national dish bigos (sauerkraut with a variety of meats), kapuśniak (sauerkraut soup), the Christmas Eve dishes kapusta z grochem and kapusta z grzybami and a common pierogi filling. ..." [in:] Polish Holiday Cookery by Robert Strybel, 2003, p. 14; "Bigos, the national dish of Poland — a hunter's stew of mixed meats and vegetables" [in:] The food lover's companion to Portland by Lisa Shara Hall, Roger J. Porter, 1996
- ^ Jarosław Dumanowski: "Staropolskie książki kucharskie". Mówią Wieki, 12/09 (December 2009), pp. 36–40. ISSN 12304018.
- ^ "Jako zakonnik Święty Jacek działał w Polsce i na Rusi, był także przeorem w Kijowie, a stamtąd właśnie przyszły do nas wigilijne pierogi, knysze, kulebiaki. ..." [in:] Helena Szymanderska. Polska wigilia. 2000
- ^ Rose Petal Jam - Recipes and Stories from a Summer in Poland, by Beata Zatorska and Simon Target, published by Tabula Books 2011
- ^ Rzeczpospolita http://www.rp.pl/artykul/636290.html
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