Plzeň


Plzeň

Geobox | Settlement
name = Plzeň
native_name =
other_name =
category = City


image_caption = View at center with St. Bartholomew Cathedral



flag_border = 1
symbol = Plzen_CoA_small.gif
etymology =
official_name =
motto = In hoc signo vinces
nickname =
country = Czech Republic
country_

state =
region = Plzeň
region_type = Region
district = Plzeň-City
district_type = District
municipality =
part = Plzeň 1
part1 = Plzeň 2-Slovany
part2 = Plzeň 3
part3 = Plzeň 4-Doubravka
part4 = Plzeň 5-Křimice
part5 = Plzeň 6-Litice
part6 = Plzeň 7-Radčice
part7 = Plzeň 8-Černice
part8 = Plzeň 9-Malesice
part9 = Plzeň 10-Lhota
river = Mže
river1 = Radbuza
river2 = Úhlava
river3 = Úslava
river4 = Berounka
location = Náměstí Republiky
elevation = 310
lat_d = 49
lat_m = 44
lat_s = 51
lat_NS = N
long_d = 13
long_m = 22
long_s = 39
long_EW = E
highest =
highest_elevation = 452
highest_lat_d =
highest_long_d =
lowest = Berounka River
lowest_location = NE edge of the city
lowest_elevation = 293
lowest_lat_d =
lowest_long_d =
area = 137.65
area_round = 2
population = 163362
population_date = 2006
population_density = auto
established = 976
established_type = First documented
mayor = Pavel Rödl
timezone =
timezone_DST =
postal_code = 301 00 – 326 00
area_code =
code =
free =



map_background = Czechia - background map.png map_caption = Location in the Czech Republic
map_locator = Czechia
commons = Plzeň
statistics =
website = [http://info.plzen-city.cz/Default.asp?lang1033 www.plzen-city.cz]
footnotes =
part_fold = 1
established1_type =
Geobox Region
name = Plzeň
native_name =
other_name =
other_name1 =
category = Municipality with Extended Competence


image_size =
image_caption =


flag_size =
symbol =
symbol_size =
country = Czech Republic
state =
region = Plzeň
district =
capital =
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capital_lat_s =
capital_lat_NS =
capital_long_d =
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capital_long_s =
capital_long_E =
capital_elevation =
part_type =
part_label = Municipalities with Commissioned Local Authority
part_count = 2
part = Plzeň
part1 = Starý Plzenec
area = 261.47
area_round = 2
highest =
highest location =
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lowest_long_d =
lowest_long_m =
lowest_long_s =
lowest_long_EW =
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population_as_of = 2005-31-12
population = 178064
population_density = auto
established_type =
established =
leader =
timezone =
utc_offset =
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code_type =
code =
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free1 =



map_size =
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map_locator =
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website =
footnotes =
Geobox Region | geobox_width = 270
name = Plzeň
native_name =
other_name =
other_name1 =
category = Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority


image_size =
image_caption =


flag_size =
symbol =
symbol_size =
country = Czech Republic
state =
region = Plzeň
district = Plzeň
district_type = Little District
district_label = Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority
capital =
capital_lat_d =
capital_lat_m =
capital_lat_s =
capital_lat_NS =
capital_long_d =
capital_long_m =
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capital_long_E =
capital_elevation =
part_type = Municipalities
part_label =
part_count = 4
part = Dýšina
part1 = Chrást
part2 = Kyšice
part3 = Plzeň
area = 164.94
area_round = 2
highest =
highest location =
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population_as_of = 2005-12-31
population = 166717
population_density = auto
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timezone =
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Plzeň (IPAudio|Cs-Plzen.ogg| [ˈpl̩.zɛɲ] ; _de. Pilsen) is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic. It is the capital of the Plzeň Region and the fourth most populous city in the Czech Republic. It is located about 90 km west of Prague at the confluence of four rivers (Radbuza, Mže, Úhlava, and Úslava) which form the Berounka River.

Plzeň is also the seat of the Municipality with Extended Competence and Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority. The city is known world wide for the Pilsener beer.

History

Plzeň was first mentioned as a castle in 976, as the scene of a battle between Duke Boleslaus II of Bohemia and Emperor Otto II. It became a town in 1295 when King Wenceslaus II granted Plzeň its civic charter and established a new town site, located some 10 km away from the original settlement, which is the current town of Starý Plzenec. It quickly became an important town on trade routes leading to Nuremberg and Regensburg; in the 14th century, it was the third-largest town in Bohemia after Prague and Kutná Hora. During the Hussite Wars, it was the centre of Catholic resistance to the Hussites: Prokop the Great unsuccessfully besieged it three times, and it joined the league of Romanist nobles against King George of Podebrady. In 1468, the town acquired a printing press; the "Troyan Chronicle", the first book published in Bohemia, was printed on it.

Emperor Rudolf II made Plzeň his seat from 1599-1600. During the Thirty Years' War the town was taken by Mansfeld in 1618 after the Siege of Plzeň and it was not recaptured by the Imperial troops until 1621. Wallenstein made it his winter-quarters in 1633. The town was unsuccessfully besieged by the Swedes in 1637 and 1648.

At the end of the 17th century, the architecture of Plzeň began to be influenced by the Baroque style. The historic city center has been under historic preservation since 1989.

On May 6, 1945, at the very end of World War II, Plzeň was liberated from Nazi Germany by the 16th Armored Division of General Patton's 3rd Army. Also participating in the liberation of the city were elements of the 97th and 2nd Infantry Divisions. Other Third Army units liberated major portions of Western Bohemia. The rest of Czechoslovakia was liberated from German control by the Soviet Red Army. Elements of Third Army remained in Plzen until late November 1945 assisting the Czechs with re-building from the war. After seizing power in 1948, the Communists undertook a systematic campaign to suppress all acknowledgement of the U.S. Army's role in liberating the city and Western Bohemia. This effort continued until 1989 when the Communists were removed from power. Since 1990, the city of Plzen has organized annual Liberation Festival taking place in May, which has already become a local tradition, and has been attended by many American and Allied veterans.

After the Communist takeover of February 1948, the totalitarian, Soviet-oriented Czechoslovak government launched a currency reform in 1953. This decision caused a wave of discontent throughout the society, while the events in Plzeň were more intense.

Education and economy

Plzeň is a centre of academic, business, and cultural life for the western part of the Czech Republic. The University of West Bohemia in Plzeň is well known for its School of Law, School of Mechanical Engineering and School of Applied Science in particular.

Since the second half of the 1990s the city has experienced high growth in foreign investments.

Plzeň produces approximately two-thirds of the Plzeň Region GDP, even though it contains only 29.8% of its population. [http://www.kr-plzensky.cz/article.asp?sec=245] Based on these figures, the city of Plzeň has a total GDP of approximately $7.2 billion, and a per-capita GDP of $44,000. While part of this is explained by commuters (people who work in the city, but live elsewhere) it is one of the most prosperous cities in the Czech Republic.

The Škoda company, established in Plzeň in 1859, has been an important part of the Austro-Hungarian, Czechoslovak and Czech engineering. The company's production had been directed to the needs of the Eastern Bloc, and after the Velvet Revolution, it consequently ran into selling problems and debts. After huge restructuring process it has just two principal subsidiaries: Škoda Transportation (locomotives, tube-trains or trams, since sold to Portland, Tacoma, Seattle and Sardinia) and Škoda Power (turbines).

Many foreign companies now own manufacturing bases in Plzeň including Daikin and Panasonic. There has been much discussion of redeveloping those large areas of the Škoda plant which the company no longer uses.

Plzeň also has the biggest brewery (Pilsner Urquell) and the biggest distillery (Stock) in the Czech Republic.

Tourism

The most prominent sights of Plzeň are the Gothic St. Bartholomew's Cathedral, founded in the late 13th century, the tower of which (102.26 m / 335 ft) is the highest in the Czech Republic, the Renaissance Town Hall, and the Moorish Revival Great Synagogue in Pilsen, the second largest synagogue in Europe, after the Dohány Street Synagogue in Budapest. There is also a 20km historic underground tunnel/cellar network, among the longest in Central Europe. Part of this network is open to the public for tours of approximately 750 metres in length and up to a depth of 12 metres.

Plzeň is also well-known for the Pilsner Urquell (since 1842) and Gambrinus (since 1869) breweries, currently owned by South African Breweries. A popular tourist attraction is the Plzeňský Prazdroj brewery tour where visitors can discover the history of beer. The pilsener style of beer was developed in Plzeň in the 19th century.

Transport

The Plzeň metropolitan area is largely served by a network of trams and buses. Like other continental European cities, tickets bought from vending machines or small shops are valid for any transportation ran by the city of Plzeň. For residents of the city, a Plzeň Card can be purchased and through a system of "topping up" be used on any public transport with no limitations, as long as it is paid up and valid.

port

*FC Viktoria Plzeň and HC Lasselsberger Plzeň

Famous people

* Petr Čech (born 1982), football goalkeeper
* Kateřina Emmons (born 1983) Olympic sports shooter
* Josef Finger (1841-1925), physicists and mathematician ()
* Gertrud Fussenegger (born 1912), writer ()
* Karel Gott (born 1939), singer
* Peter Grünberg (born 1939), German physicist and 2007 Nobel prize winner
* Miroslav Holub (1923-1998), poet
* Rudolf Karel (1880-1945), composer
* František Křižík (1847-1941), inventor
* Emil Lederer (1882-1939), economist and sociologist
* Ota Šik (1919-2004), economist
* Josef Skupa (1892-1957), puppeteer
* Bedřich Smetana (1824-1884), composer
* Emil Škoda (1839-1900), engineer and industrialist
* Růžena Šlemrová (1886-1962), actress
* Tomáš Šmíd (born 1956), tennis player
* Anna Steimarová (1889-1962), actress
* Martin Straka (born 1972), ice hockey player
* Petr Sykora (born 1976), ice hockey player
* Jiří Trnka (1912-1969), artist

Twin cities

Plzeň is twinned with the following cities:
* Santo André, Brazil
* Takasaki, Japan
* Yekaterinburg, Russia
* Izmir, Turkey
* Birmingham, United States
* Regensburg, Germany
* Winterthur, Switzerland
* Liège, Belgium
* Hengelo, The Netherlands

Notes

External links

* [http://info.plzen-city.cz/Default.asp?lang=1033 Information Server of the Municipality of the City of Plzeň]
* [http://www.czech.cz/en/culture/most-beautiful-sights-and-places-of-interest/towns/other-remarkable-czech-towns/plzen/ Plzeň at the official website of the Czech Republic]
* [http://www.sumava.com/rec_gemeente_plaats.php?l=en&dis=p_pm&pla=plzen Description of Plzeň]
* [http://www.zcu.cz/index-en.html University of West Bohemia]
* [http://www.pilsnerpubs.net/?langugage=en Pilsner Pubs] - restaurant and gastronomy guide to the city
* [http://www.plzenska.com/ Plzenska.com] - articles about Plzeň
* [http://plzen.okamzite.eu/ WebCams from Plzeň]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Plzen — Plzeň …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Plzeň — Plzeň …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Plzeň — Héraldique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Plzeň — [ pl̩zɛnj]: tschechische Form von ↑ Pilsen. * * * Plzeň   [ plzɛnj], Stadt in der Tschechischen Republik, Pilsen. * * * Plzeň [ pl̩zɛnj]: tschechische Form von ↑Pilsen …   Universal-Lexikon

  • PLZEN — PLZE face= EU Caron ウ, all. PILSE Grand centre industriel de la Bohême occidentale, en République tchèque, Plze face= EU Caron ゴ comptait 173 000 habitants en 1991. Fondée au XIIIe siècle, la ville se développe surtout à partir du XIXe siècle. Sa …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Plzeñ — Plzeñ, tschech. Name für Pilsen (s. d.) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Plzeň — [ pɪlzɛn ] (Hauptstadt des Westböhmischen Kreises; vgl. Pilsen) …   Die deutsche Rechtschreibung

  • Plzeň — [pul′zen yə] city in W Czech Republic: pop. 172,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Plzen — Pilsen Pilsen Héraldique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Plzen — /pl zen yeu/, n. a city in Bohemia, in the W Czech Republic. 175,000. German, Pilsen. * * * ▪ Czech Republic German  Pilsen        city, western Czech Republic. It lies in the fertile Plzeň basin, where several tributaries gather to form the… …   Universalium


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