10th Mountain Division (United States)

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=10th Mountain Division


caption=10th Mountain Division shoulder sleeve insignia
country=United States of America
allegiance=
type=
branch=Regular Army United States Army
dates=1943-1945 1948-1958 1985-present
specialization=Light Infantry
command_structure=XVIII Airborne Corps
size=Division
current_commander=MG Micheal L. Oates
garrison=Fort Drum, NY
ceremonial_chief=
nickname=
motto="Climb to Glory"
colors=
march=
mascot=
battles=World War II *Kiska *Italian Campaign Korean War War in Southwest Asia Armed Forces Expeditions - Somalia Afghanistan Campaign Iraq Campaign
notable_commanders=
anniversaries=
US Infantry
previous=9th Infantry Division ("Inactive")
next=11th Airborne Division ("Inactive")
The 10th Mountain Division is a modular division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. The unit's specialty involves fighting effectively in harsh conditions. Like the rest of the corps, it is designed for rapid deployment anywhere in the world. The division is currently based at Fort Drum, New York.

History

The World War II 10th Mountain

The 10th Mountain Division was first activated on July 15, 1943. It was one of the last U.S. divisions to enter combat, not starting to fight together as a unit until January 1945.

The development of a specialized unit began before the United States entered World War II. In 1940 the War Department began working with the American Alpine Club and the National Ski Patrol Committee of the National Ski Association to develop equipment and training for winter and mountain warfare. The 87th Mountain Infantry Regiment was activated at Fort Lewis, Washington on November 15, 1941, drawing its initial members from men already in the Army who had previous ski and mountaineering experience. Thereafter the National Ski Patrol recruited volunteers for the unit, under a contract with the War Department. In 1942 and 1943 additional regiments that became part of the division were activated. The 87th Regiment participated in the assault landing on Kiska, August 15–August 17, 1943. The attackers found the island completely deserted by the Japanese, but suffered some casualties from friendly fire and booby traps.

The division was activated on July 15, 1943 at Camp Hale, Colorado as the 10th Light Division (Alpine). It was renamed the 10th Mountain Division on November 6, 1944. The unit saw its first actual combat in Italy. Elements of the division began arriving in Italy in late December 1944, and after a brief training period entered combat, January 8, 1945, near Cutigliano and Orsigna. Preliminary defensive actions were followed on February 19, 1945 by Operation Encore in conjunction with troops of a Brazilian Expeditionary Force [R.Brooks, "The War North of Rome", p.354 to 359] . The unit made concerted attacks on the Monte Della Torraccia-Mount Belvedere sector and the peaks were cleared after several days of heavy fighting [Moraes, "The Brazilian Expeditionary Force By Its Commander"] . In early March the division fought its way north of Canolle and moving to within convert|15|mi|km of Bologna. Maintaining defensive positions for the next three weeks, the division jumped off again in April, captured Mongiorgio, April 20, and entered the Po Valley, seizing the strategic points Pradalbino and Bomporto. The 10th crossed the Po River on April 23, reaching Verona April 25, and ran into heavy opposition at Torbole and Nago. After an amphibious crossing of Lake Garda, it secured Gargnano and Porto di Tremosine, April 30, as German resistance in Italy ended. After the German surrender in Italy, May 2, 1945, the division went on security duty, receiving the surrender of various German units and screening the areas of occupation.

The division was deactivated on November 30, 1945. However, it was reactivated on July 1, 1948, after being redesignated as the 10th Infantry Division. Ten years later, on June 14, 1958, it was deactivated.

The modern 10th Mountain

It was not until the Reagan buildup of the 1980s that the 10th Mountain Division returned to the order of battle of the U.S. Army. On September 11, 1984, the U.S. Army announced that Fort Drum, New York would be the new home of the reactivated 10th Light Infantry Division. The unit was officially activated on February 13, 1985 with the official designation changed to 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry). At that time the new division was to have 2 infantry brigades, with 1 each artillery, support, and aviation brigades. To bring it up to the normal configuration of other Army divisions it was also to have a "roundout" brigade from the national guard. During the 1990s this brigade was the 27th Infantry Brigade of the New York Army National Guard.

The modern 10th Mountain's first deployment came in 1990 when division units were deployed to support Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. After Hurricane Andrew devastated Florida in August 1992, the division deployed to assist in the recovery effort. 10th Mountain troops set up relief camps, distributed food, clothing, medical necessities and building supplies as well as helping to rebuild homes and clear debris. During 1993, the 10th Mountain Division was deployed to Somalia as part of Operation Restore Hope. When Task Force Ranger and the SAR team were pinned down during a raid in what later became known as the Battle of Mogadishu, 10th Mountain units provided infantry for the UN quick reaction force sent to rescue them. The 10th had 2 soldiers KIA in the fighting. The 10th Mountain Division later was deployed to Haiti and Bosnia in the 1990s. Because of the number of deployments, 10th Mountain gained the reputation as the most deployed division in the army.

During the 2000 presidential campaign, the readiness of the 10th Mountain Division became a political issue when then candidate George W. Bush asserted that the division was "not ready for duty". The division's low readiness was attributed on the recent redeployment of division units which had not had the time to refit for future missions.

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, elite 10th Mountain units have deployed at an even greater frequency. Division units have played significant roles in Afghanistan and Iraq. Amongst these have been the famous rescue of downed Navy SEALs during "Operation Anaconda" in Afghanistan in 2002. However, according to retired U.S. Army Colonel David Hackworth, despite its name, the 10th Mountain Division was not a mountain-warfare capable unit at its deployment to Afghanistan and during Operation Anaconda. One division sergeant was quoted as saying: "We don't do mountains". [http://www.military.com/Resources/ResourceFileView?file=Hackworth_070302.htm]

The division has also been credited with the successful maintenance of security of Western Baghdad including the exceedingly violent Abu Ghraib neighborhood during the first democratic Iraqi elections of 2004. During this last operation the 2nd Brigade Combat team allowed no successful suicide bomber attacks at polling sites. They have also deployed on a smaller scale to numerous other countries and regions including the Sinai, Bosnia, Kuwait, and Kosovo.

As part of the Army's modular transformation, the divisional structure saw much change during 2004 and 2005. Division Support Command; 3rd Battalion, 62nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment; 110th Military Intelligence Battalion; 10th Signal Battalion; 41st Engineer Battalion; 10th Forward Support Battalion and 710th Main Support Battalion were all deactivated September 2004. The remaining units were reorganized and two new brigade combat teams (BCTs) were added to the division. The 3rd BCT was activated at Ft. Drum in late 2004. The 4th BCT was activated at Fort Polk, LA on January 19 2005. The Army hopes to move the 4th BCT to Fort Drum from Fort Polk between FY 2010 and 2011, if housing is available for the members of the brigade.

Notable veterans

*Elvis Presley, Entertainer
*Bob Dole, Former Senate Majority Leader and Presidential candidate
*Hugh W. Evans, Former Colorado School of Mines trustee
*David R. Brower, Former Executive Director and Sierra Club leader
*Bill Bowerman, Former American track and field coach and co-founder of Nike
*Les AuCoin, Former Congressman
*Pete Seibert, Founder of VAIL Ski Resort
*Fred W. (Bill) Sweitzer, Founder of Williams, Sweitzer, and Barnum Inc.
*Paul Petzoldt, Founder of Colorado Outward Bound (COBS), NOLS (National Outdoor Leadership School), and The Wilderness Education Association (WEA)
*John D. Magrath, Congressional Medal of Honor recipient
*Gino Hollander, Painter
*Toni Matt, US downhill ski champion
*Chummy Broomhall, United States Ski Team member and Black Mountain of Maine resort co-founder
*Werner von Trapp, member of the famous von Trapp family singers
*Page Smith, Historian and author
*Francis E. Low, Theoretical physicist
*Montgomery Atwater, Avalanche research/forecasting pioneer
*Morley Nelson, Falconer and educator
* Franz Alt, Mathematician
*H. Adams Carter, Former United States Ski Team member World War II civilian mountaineer trainer
*Fritz Wiessner, World War II civilian technical adviser
*Johannes Schneider, World War II civilian ski instructor and division trainer
*Charles Minot Dole, Founder of the National Ski Patrol
*Thomas John Sullivan, Mechanic and humanitarian
*William Lowell Putnam, President of the American Alpine Club

General information

* Commanding General: MG Michael L. Oates
* Deputy Commanding General (Operations): BG Jeffrey Buchanan
* Deputy Commanding General (Support): BG Jeffrey A. Smith
* Divisional Command Sergeant Major: CSM James W. Redmore
* Chief of Staff: COL Joseph Dichairo

Organizational structure

World War II Division

"Note": Regiments were typically organized by companies, not battalions. Dates following the name of the unit refer to the period it was part of the division; non-divisional units attached at various times during the life of the division (from a few days to several months) are omitted for simplicity.
* Headquarters and headquarters company, 10th Mountain Division
* 85th Mountain Infantry Regiment (15 May 1943-26 November 1945)
* 86th Mountain Infantry Regiment (20 December 1942-23 November 1945)
* 87th Mountain Infantry Regiment (15 May 1943-20 October 1945)
* 90th Mountain Infantry Regiment (15 May 1943-22 February 1944)
* 10th Mountain Division Artillery
** 604th Field Artillery Battalion (Pack)
** 605th Field Artillery Battalion (Pack)
** 616th Field Artillery Battalion (Pack)
* 10th Mountain Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop (mounted, later motorized)
* 10th Mountain Infantry Antitank Battalion
** 727th AAA MG Battalion
** 576th Antitank Battery
* 10th Mountain Medical battalion
** Light and 680th Medical Collection Companies
* 10th Mountain Quartermaster Battalion
** 255th, 256th, and 257 Quartermaster Pack
** 137th Truck
* 126th Mountain Engineer Battalion
** 226th and 299th Engineer Combat Pack Companies
* 710th Mountain Ordinance Company
* 110th Mountain Signal Company
* 10th Mountain Military Police Platoon
* Headquarters Special Troops, 10th Mountain Division

:"Source": "National Roster: 2007" (Bala Cynwyd: National Association of the 10th Mountain Division), p. 20.

Current Structure

10th Mountain Division:
*Special Troops Battalion
*1st Brigade Combat Team "Warrior"
**1st Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment
**2nd Battalion, 22nd Infantry Regiment
**1st Squadron, 71st Cavalry Regiment (RSTA)
**3rd Battalion, 6th Field Artillery Regiment (Strike)
**10th Brigade Support Battalion
**1st Brigade Special Troops Battalion
*2nd Brigade Combat Team "Commandos"
**2nd Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment (United States)
**4th Battalion, 31st Infantry Regiment
**1st Squadron, 89th Cavalry Regiment(RSTA)
**2nd Battalion, 15th Field Artillery Regiment(Strike)
**210th Brigade Support Battalion
**2nd Brigade Special Troops Battalion
*3rd Brigade Combat Team "Spartans"
**1st Battalion, 32d Infantry Regiment
**2nd Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment
**3rd Squadron, 71st Cavalry Regiment(RSTA)
**4th Battalion, 25th Field Artillery Regiment (Strike)
**710th Brigade Support Battalion
**3rd Brigade Special Troops Battalion
*4th Brigade Combat Team "Patriots"
**2nd Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment
**2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment "Wild Boars"
**3rd Squadron, 89th Cavalry Regiment (RSTA)
**5th Battalion, 25th Field Artillery Regiment (Strike)
**94th Brigade Support Battalion
**4th Brigade Special Troops Battalion
* Combat Aviation Brigade "Falcons"
** Headquarters and Headquarters Company
** 2nd Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment (Assault)
** 3nd Battalion, 10th Aviation Regiment (General Support)
** 6th Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment (Attack)
** 3rd Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment (Attack)
** 277th Aviation Support Battalion (AVIM)
* Division Special Troops Battalion
** HHC 10th Mountain Division
** HHC DSTB
** B Company
** Network Support Company
** 10th Mountain Division Band

* 10th Sustainment Brigade (attached)
**Sustainment Brigade Special Troops Battalion
**548th Combat Sustainment Support Battalion
**10th Soldier Support Battalion
**7th Engineer Battalion
**91st Military Police Battalion

The 256th Infantry Brigade was attached to the 10th Mountain Division during combat operations in Iraq 2004-2005. Many members of the 256th Infantry wear the 10th Mountain patch on their right shoulder as a combat patch.

Past commanders

Taken from [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/matrix/10MD/10MD-Cdrs.htm 10th Mountain Division past commanders]
*MG Lloyd E. Jones Jul 1943 - Nov 1944
*MG George P. Hays Nov 1944 - Nov 1945
*MG Lester T. Whitlock Aug 1948 - Oct 1950
*MG James Edward Moore Nov 1950 - May 1951
*BG Marcus B. Bell May 1951 - Nov 1951
*MG George D. Shea Nov 1951 - Jan 1953
*MG Thomas L. Harrold Feb 1953 - Jun 1954
*MG Phillip Dew. Ginder Jun 1954 - Mar 1955
*MG George Martin Apr 1955 - Mar 1956
*MG Barksdale Hamlett Apr 1956 - Jun 1957
*MG Walter B. Yaeger Jul 1957 - Apr 1958
*MG Miller O. Perry May 1958 - Jun 1958
*MG William S. Carpenter, Jr. Feb 1985 - Apr 1988
*MG Peter J. Boylan Apr 1988 - Sep 1990
*MG James R. Ellis Sep 1990 - Sep 1991
*MG S. L. Arnold Sep 1991 - Aug 1993
*MG David C. Meade Aug 1993 - Jul 1995
*MG Thomas N. Burnette, Jr. Jul 1995 - Jun 1997
*MG Lawson W. Magruder III Jun 1997 - Mar 1999
*MG James L. Campbell Mar 1999 - Aug 2001
*MG Franklin L. Hagenbeck Aug 2001 - August 2003
*MG Lloyd Austin Sep 2003 - Aug 2005
*MG Benjamin C. Freakley Aug 2005 - Apr 2007
*MG Michael Oates Apr 2007 - Present

Popular culture

In the movie Manticore(2005) 10th Mountain division is the unit featured in the movie."During Operation Iraqi Freedom, a US Army Squad is sent to a small Iraqi town to locate a missing news crew, only to find the residents of the town dead and a living Weapon of Mass Destruction, a Manticore, awaken from its long slumber by a terrorist leader wanting to rid his land of the American invaders at any price"

Bibliography

*cite book | first=Thomas| last=R.Brooks | title=The War North of Rome (June 1944-May 1945)| publisher=Da Capo Press| year=2003 | isbn=978-0306812569
*cite book | authorlink=Mascarenhas de Moraes|first=Mascarenhas| last=Moraes| title=The Brazilian Expeditionary Force By Its Commander| publisher=US Government Printing Office|date=1966|id=ASIN: B000PIBXCG

ee also

*Mountain warfare
*Military of the United States
*Military unit
*Paratroopers
*Ski warfare
*Black Hawk Down

References

*"Fire on the Mountain". (Video) Produced and directed by Beth and George Gage. First Run Features, 1995.

Slideshows of 10th Mountain Division:

http://watertowndailytimes.com/section/multimedia?objdir=drum_homecoming&objw=620&objh=503

http://watertowndailytimes.com/section/multimedia?objdir=climbtoglory&objw=620&objh=503

External links

* [http://www.drum.army.mil Fort Drum and the 10th Mountain Division Home Page] - official site.
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/army/10mtn.htm GlobalSecurity.org: 10th Mountain Division]
* [http://www.10thmtndivassoc.org/ 10th Mountain Division Association, Inc.] - Veterans organization and historical site
* [http://www.taskforcemountain.com/ 10th Mountain Division in Iraq]
* [http://www.wildsnow.com/articles/trooper_traverse/intro_article.html Trooper Traverse] - Article about famed winter ski trip Troops took from Camp Hale to Aspen.
* [http://www.greenwood.com/books/BookDetail.asp?dept_id=1&sku=C7784&imprintID=I1 "Packs On" memoirs of the 10th Mountain Division WWII]
* [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/lineage/branches/div/010md.htm Lineage and Honors of the 10th Mountain Division]
* [http://www.TenthMountain.org 10th Mountain Division Living History site] - WW2 History
* [http://www.coloradohistory.org/exhibits/Soldiers/Soldiers.htm Colorado History Museum Exhibit] - Tenth Mountain Resource Center
* [http://www.commandosof2bct.blogspot.com 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division] - 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (LI) Blog
* [http://www.jrtc-polk.army.mil/4-10/homepage.html 4th Brigade Combat Team Website] - 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (LI)

Syracuse basketball team at Fort Drum:
* http://watertowndailytimes.com/section/multimedia?objdir=syracusebasictraining&objw=620&objh=533


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