LASIK or Lasik ("
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis") is a type of refractive laser eye surgeryperformed by ophthalmologists for correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. [ [http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSS/9339/32123.html "LASIK."] Aetna InteliHealth Inc. Accessed October 18, 2006.] The procedure is generally preferred to photorefractive keratectomy, PRK, (also called ASA, Advanced Surface Ablation) because it requires less time for the patient's recovery, and the patient feels less pain, overall; however, there are instances where PRK/ASA is medically indicated as a better alternative to LASIK.Fact|date=July 2008
Many patients choose LASIK as an alternative to wearing corrective
eyeglassesor contact lenses.
The LASIK technique was made possible by the
Colombia-based Spanish ophthalmologist Jose Barraquer, who, around 1950 in his clinic in Bogotá, Colombia, developed the first microkeratome, used to cut thin flaps in the corneaand alter its shape, in a procedure called keratomileusis. Stephan Schaller assisted. Barraquer also provided the knowledge about how much of the cornea had to be left unaltered to provide stable long-term results.
Later technical and procedural developments included the RK (radial keratotomy), started in the '70s in Russia by Svyatoslav Fyodorov , and the development of PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) in the '80s in Germany by Theo Seiler. RK is a procedure where radial corneal cuts are made typically using a micrometer diamond knife, and has nothing to do with LASIK
In 1968, at the Northrup Corporation Research and Technology Center of the
University of California, Mani Lal Bhaumikand a group of other scientists, while working on the development of a carbon-dioxide laser, developed the Excimer laser. This formed the cornerstone for LASIK eye surgery. Dr. Bhaumik announced his discovery in May of 1973 at a meeting of the Denver Optical Society of America in Denver, Colorado. He would later patent it. [http://www.indianlifeandstyle.com/ILS-Sept-Oct05/looking%20glass.htm]
The introduction of Laser in this refractive procedure started with the developments in Laser technology by
Rangaswamy Srinivasan. In 1980, Srinivasan, working at IBM ResearchLab, discovered that an ultraviolet excimer lasercould etch living tissue in a precise manner with no thermal damage to the surrounding area. He named the phenomenon Ablative Photodecomposition (APD). [http://www.aip.org/ca/srinivasan.html] . Dr. Stephen Trokel published a paper in the American Journal of Ophthalmology in 1983, outlining the potential of using the excimer laser in refractive surgeries.
The first patent for LASIK was granted by the US Patent Office to Gholam A. Peyman, MD on June 20, 1989, US Patent #4,840,175, "METHOD FOR MODIFYING CORNEAL CURVATURE", describing the surgical procedure in which a flap is cut in the cornea and pulled back to expose the corneal bed. This exposed surface is then ablated to the desired shape with an excimer laser, following which the flap is replaced.
Using these advances in laser technology and the technical and theoretical developments in refractive surgery made since the 50's, LASIK surgery was developed in 1990 by Lucio Buratto (
Italy) and Ioannis Pallikaris( Greece) as a melding of two prior techniques, keratomileusisand photorefractive keratectomy. It quickly became popular because of its greater precision and lower frequency of complications in comparison with these former two techniques.
Today, faster lasers, larger spot areas, bladeless flap incision, intraoperative pachymetry, and wavefront-optimized and -guided techniques have significantly improved the reliability of the procedure compared to that of 1991. Nonetheless, the fundamental limitations of excimer lasers and undesirable destruction of the eye's nerves have spawned research into many alternatives to "plain" LASIK, including all-femtosecond correction (
Femtosecond Lenticule EXtraction, FLIVC), LASEK, Epi-LASIK, sub-Bowman’s Keratomileusisaka thin-flap LASIK, wavefront-guided PRK, and modern intraocular lenses.
There are several necessary preparations in the preoperative period. The operation itself is made by creating a thin flap on the eye, folding it to enable remodeling of the tissue underneath with laser. The flap is repositioned and the eye is left to heal in the postoperative period.
Patients wearing soft
contact lensesare usually instructed to stop wearing them approximately 5 to 21 days before surgery. One industry body recommends that patients wearing hard contact lenses should stop wearing them for a minimum of six weeks plus another six weeks for every three years the hard contacts have been worn. [http://www.usaeyes.org/faq/subjects/contacts.htm] Before the surgery, the patient's corneas are examined with a pachymeterto determine their thickness, and with a topographer to measure their surface contour. Using low-power lasers, a topographer creates a topographic mapof the cornea. This process also detects astigmatism and other irregularities in the shape of the cornea. Using this information, the surgeon calculates the amount and locations of corneal tissue to be removed during the operation. The patient typically is prescribed an antibiotic to start taking beforehand, to minimize the risk of infection after the procedure.
The operation is performed with the patient awake and mobile; however, the patient is sometimes given a mild
sedative(such as Valium) and anesthetic eye drops.
LASIK is performed in three steps. The first step is to create a flap of corneal tissue. The second step is remodeling of the cornea underneath the flap with the laser. Finally, the flap is repositioned.
A corneal suction ring is applied to the eye, holding the eye in place. This step in the procedure can sometimes cause small blood vessels to burst, resulting in bleeding or
subconjunctival hemorrhageinto the white ( sclera) of the eye, a harmless side effect that resolves within several weeks. Increased suction typically causes a transient dimming of vision in the treated eye. Once the eye is immobilized, the flap is created. This process is achieved with a mechanical microkeratomeusing a metal blade, or a femtosecondlaser microkeratome (procedure known as IntraLASIK) that creates a series of tiny closely arranged bubbles within the cornea. [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/intralase-intralasik.htm] A hinge is left at one end of this flap. The flap is folded back, revealing the stroma, the middle section of the cornea. The process of lifting and folding back the flap can be uncomfortable.
The second step of the procedure is to use an
excimer laser(193 nm) to remodel the corneal stroma. The laser vaporizes tissue in a finely controlled manner without damaging adjacent stroma. No burning with heat or actual cutting is required to ablate the tissue. The layers of tissue removed are tens of micrometers thick. Performing the laser ablation in the deeper corneal stroma typically provides for more rapid visual recovery and less pain, than the earlier technique photorefractive keratectomy(PRK).
During the second step, the patient's vision will become very blurry once the flap is lifted. He/she will be able to see only white light surrounding the orange light of the laser. This can be disorienting.
Currently manufactured excimer lasers use an eye tracking system that follows the patient's eye position up to 4,000 times per second, redirecting laser pulses for precise placement within the treatment zone. Typical pulses are around 1 mJ of pulse energy in 10 to 20 nanoseconds. [ [http://freepatentsonline.com/5742626.html Patent: ultraviolet solid state laser] ]
Reposition of flap
After the laser has reshaped the stromal layer, the LASIK flap is carefully repositioned over the treatment area by the surgeon and checked for the presence of air bubbles, debris, and proper fit on the eye. The flap remains in position by natural adhesion until healing is completed.
Patients are usually given a course of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory eye drops. These are continued in the weeks following surgery. Patients are usually told to sleep much more and are also given a darkened pair of shields to protect their eyes from bright lights and protective goggles to prevent rubbing of the eyes when asleep and to reduce dry eyes. They also have to moisturize the eyes with preservative free tears and follow directions for prescription drops. Patients should be adequately informed by their surgeons of the importance of proper post-operative care to minimize the risk of post-surgical complications.
aberrationsare visual problems not captured in a traditional eye exam which tests only for acuteness of vision. Severe aberrations can effectively cause significant vision impairment. These aberrations include starbursts, ghosting, halos, double vision, and a number of other post-operative complications listed below.
Concern has long plagued the tendency of refractive surgeries to induce higher-order aberration not correctable by traditional contacts or glasses. The advancement of LASIK technique and technologies has helped reduce the risk of clinically significant visual impairment after the surgery. One of the major discoveries was the correlation between pupil size and aberrations: [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-pupil-size.htm "Lasik Halo and Starburst; Pupil Size Importance"] . USAEyes] Effectively, the larger the pupil size, the greater the risk of aberrations. This correlation is the result of the irregularity between the untouched part of the cornea and the reshaped part. Daytime post-lasik vision is optimal, since the pupil is smaller than the LASIK flap. But at night, the pupil may expand such that light passes through the edge of the LASIK flap into the pupil which gives rise to many aberrations. There are other currently unknown factors in addition to pupil size that also affect higher order aberrations. In extreme cases, where ideal technique was not followed and before key advances, some people could suffer rather debilitating symptoms including serious loss of contrast sensitivity in poor lighting situations.
Over time, most of the attention has been focused on
spherical aberration. LASIK and PRK tend to induce spherical aberration, because of the tendency of the laser to undercorrect as it moves outward from the center of the treatment zone. This is really a significant issue for only large corrections. There is some thought if the lasers were simply programmed to adjust for this tendency, no significant spherical aberration would be induced. Hence, in eyes with little existing higher order aberrations, wavefront-optimized LASIK rather than wavefront-guided LASIK may well be the future.Fact|date=March 2008
In any case, higher order aberrations are measured in µm (micrometers) on the wavescan taken during the pre-op examination, while the smallest beam size of
FDAapproved lasers is about 1000 times larger, at 0.65 mm. Thus imperfections are inherent in the procedure and a reason why patients experience halo, glare, and starburst even with small naturally dilated pupils in dim lighting.
Wavefront-guided LASIK [ [http://www.iroc.ch/wir_publikation.html IROC . Institut für Refraktive und Ophthalmo-Chirurgie ] ] is a variation of LASIK surgery where, rather than applying a simple correction of focusing power to the cornea (as in traditional LASIK), an
ophthalmologistapplies a spatially varying correction, guiding the computer-controlled excimer laser with measurements from a wavefront sensor. The goal is to achieve a more optically perfect eye, though the final result still depends on the physician's success at predicting changes which occur during healing. In older patients though, scatteringfrom microscopic particles plays a major role and may exceed any benefit from wavefront correction. Hence, patients expecting so-called "super vision" from such procedures may be disappointed. However, while unproven, surgeons claim patients are generally more satisfied with this technique than with previous methods, particularly regarding lowered incidence of "halos", the visual artifact caused by spherical aberrationinduced in the eye by earlier methods.
The most common complication from refractive surgery is the incidence "dry eyes". According to an American Journal of Opthamology study of March 2006, the incidence rate of dry eyes from LASIK after the six month post operative healing period was 36.36%. [American Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 141, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 438-445,Cintia S. De Paiva, Zhuo Chen, Douglas D. Koch, M. Bowes Hamill, Francis K. Manuel, Sohela S. Hassan, Kirk R. Wilhelmus, Stephen C. Pflugfelder] . The FDA (Food and Drugs Administration) website states that "dry eyes" may be permanent [http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/lasik/risks.htm] .
The risk for a patient of suffering from disturbing visual side effects such as halos, double vision (ghosting), loss of contrast sensitivity (foggy vision) and glare after LASIK depends on the degree of
ametropiabefore the laser eye surgery and other risk factors.Pop M, Payette Y. [http://home.arcor.de/pinnipedii/poppayette.pdf "Risk factors for night vision complaints after LASIK for myopia."] "Ophthalmology." 2004 Jan;111(1):3-10. PMID 14711706.] For this reason, it is important to take into account the individual risk potential of a patient and not just the average probability for all patients. [ [http://www.operationauge.com/risks-lasik-lasek-prk.html "Individual Risk Factors of Halos, Loss of Contrast Sensitivity, Glare and Starbursts after LASIK"] . operationauge.com] The following are some of the more frequently reported complications of LASIK [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-complications.htm "The most common complications of refractive surgery."] . USAEyes] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16465507&query_hl=35&itool=pubmed_docsum] :
*Overcorrection [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-overcorrection.htm "Lasik Overcorrection - Unexpected, Unwanted, Desired, and Planned."] . USAEyes] or undercorrection
*Halos [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-halo.htm "Night vision halo after Lasik and similar laser assisted refractive surgery."] . USAEyes] or starbursts [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-starburst.htm "Night vision halo after Lasik and similar laser assisted refractive surgery."] . USAEyes] around light sources at night
*Ghost images [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-ghosting.htm "Ghost or double vision after Lasik and similar vision correction surgery."] . USAEyes] or double vision
*Wrinkles in flap (striae) [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-striae.htm "Macro-striae and micro-striae complication of Lasik and All-Laser Lasik.."] . USAEyes]
*Debris or growth under flap
*Thin or buttonhole flap [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-buttonhole-flap.htm "Buttonhole Incomplete Flap in Lasik and All-Laser Lasik"] . USAEyes]
Posterior vitreous detachment]
*Macular holeArevalo JF, Mendoza AJ, Velez-Vazquez W, Rodriguez FJ, Rodriguez A, Rosales-Meneses JL, Yepez JB, Ramirez E, Dessouki A, Chan CK, Mittra RA, Ramsay RC, Garcia RA, Ruiz-Moreno JM. "Full-thickness macular hole after LASIK for the correction of myopia." "Ophthalmology." 2005 Jul;112(7):1207–12. PMID 15921746.]
Complications due to LASIK have been classified as those that occur due to preoperative, intraoperative, early postoperative, or late postoperative sources:Majmudar, PA. [http://www.aao.org/education/focal_points/upload/6202_Mod13.04-2.pdf "LASIK Complications".] "Focal Points: Clinical Modules for Ophthalmologists." American Academy of Ophthalmology. September, 2004.]
*The incidence of flap complications has been estimated to be 0.244%.Carrillo C, Chayet AS, Dougherty PJ, Montes M, Magallanes R, Najman J, Fleitman J, Morales A. "Incidence of complications during flap creation in LASIK using the NIDEK MK-2000 microkeratome in 26,600 cases." "J Refract Surg." 2005 Sep-Oct;21(5 Suppl):S655-7. PMID 16212299.] Flap complications (such as displaced flaps or folds in the flaps that necessitate repositioning, diffuse lamellar keratitis, and epithelial ingrowth) are common in lamellar corneal surgeries [ [http://www.lasikinstitute.org/Intraoperative.html Eye Surgery Education Council ] ] but rarely lead to permanent visual acuity loss; the incidence of these microkeratome-related complications decreases with increased physician experience. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=99153623&dopt=Citation PubMed Result ] ] [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10811084&query_hl=9 Microkeratome complications of laser in situ kerat... [Ophthalmology. 2000 - PubMed Result ] ] According to proponents of such techniques, this risk is further reduced by the use of
IntraLasikand other non-microkeratome related approaches, although this is not proven and carries its own set of risks of complications from the IntraLasikprocedure.
*A slipped flap (a corneal flap that detaches from the rest of the cornea) is one of the most common complications. The chances of this are greatest immediately after surgery, so patients typically are advised to go home and sleep to let the flap heal. Patients are usually given sleep goggles or eye shields to wear for several nights to prevent them from dislodging the flap in their sleep. A faster operation may decrease the chance of this complication, as there is less time for the flap to dry.
*Flap interface particles are another finding whose clinical significance is undetermined.Vesaluoma M, Perez-Santonja J, Petroll WM, Linna T, Alio J, Tervo T. [http://www.iovs.org/cgi/content/full/41/2/369 "Corneal stromal changes induced by myopic LASIK."] "Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci." 2000 Feb;41(2):369-76. PMID 10670464.] A Finnish study found that particles of various sizes and reflectivity were clinically visible in 38.7% of eyes examined via slit lamp biomicroscopy, but apparent in 100% of eyes using
Early postoperative complications
*The incidence of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-intralasik-dlk.htm] , also known as the Sands of Sahara syndrome, has been estimated at 2.3%.Sun L, Liu G, Ren Y, Li J, Hao J, Liu X, Zhang Y. "Efficacy and safety of LASIK in 10,052 eyes of 5081 myopic Chinese patients." "J Refract Surg." 2005 Sep-Oct;21(5 Suppl):S633-5. PMID 16212294.] When diagnosed and appropriately treated, DLK resolves with no lasting vision limitation.
*The incidence of infection responsive to treatment has been estimated at 0.4%.
Infectionunder the corneal flap is possible. It is also possible that a patient has the genetic condition keratoconusthat causes the cornea to thin after surgery. Although this condition is screened in the preoperative exam, it is possible in rare cases (about 1 in 5,000) for the condition to remain dormant until later in life (the mid-40s). If this occurs, the patient may need rigid gas permeable contact lenses, Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments (Intacs), [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/faq/subjects/intacs.htm Intacs for Mild Nearsighted Vision Correction and Keratoconus ] ] Corneal Collagen Crosslinking with Riboflavin [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/c3-r.htm C3-R Corneal Collagen Crosslinking with Riboflavin ] ] or a corneal transplant.
*The incidence of persistent dry eye has been estimated to be as high as 28% in Asian eyes and 5% in Caucasian eyes.Albietz JM, Lenton LM, McLennan SG. [http://www.optometrists.asn.au/gui/files/ceo882089.pdf "Dry eye after LASIK: comparison of outcomes for Asian and Caucasian eyes." "Clin Exp Optom." 2005 Mar;88(2):89–96.] Nerve fibers in the cornea are important for stimulating tear production. A year after LASIK, subbasal nerve fiber bundles remain reduced by more than half.Lee BH, McLaren JW, Erie JC, Hodge DO, Bourne WM. [http://www.iovs.org/cgi/content/full/43/12/3660 "Reinnervation in the cornea after LASIK."] "Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci." 2002 Dec;43(12):3660–4. PMID 12454033.] Some patients experience reactive tearing, in part to compensate for chronic decreased basal wetting tear production.
*The incidence of subconjunctival hemorrhage has been estimated at 10.5% (according to a study undertaken in China; thus results may not be generally applicable due to racial and geographic factors).
Late postoperative complications
*The incidence of epithelial ingrowth has been estimated at 0.1%.
*Glare is another commonly reported complication of those who have had LASIK.Tahzib NG, Bootsma SJ, Eggink FA, Nabar VA, Nuijts RM. "Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction after laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of myopia." "J Cataract Refract Surg." 2005 Oct;31(10):1943–51. PMID 16338565.]
*Halos or starbursts around bright lights at night are caused by the irregularity between the lasered part and the untouched part. It is not practical to perform the surgery so that it covers the width of the pupil at full dilation at night, and the pupil may expand so that light passes through the edge of the flap into the pupil. [ [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-pupil-size.htm Pupil and Lasik Night Vision Halo - Starburst ] ] In daytime, the pupil is smaller than the edge. Modern equipment is better suited to treat those with large pupils, and responsible physicians will check for them during examination.
*Late traumatic flap dislocations have been reported 1–7 years post-LASIK. [ [http://www.journalofrefractivesurgery.com/showAbst.asp?thing=12869 Late Traumatic Flap Dislocations After LASIK ] ]
Lasik and other forms of laser refractive surgery (i.e. PRK, LASEK and Epi-LASEK) change the dynamics of the cornea. These changes make it difficult for your optometrist and ophthalmologist to accurately measure your intraocular pressure, essential in
glaucomascreening and treatment. The changes also affect the calculations used to select the correct intraocular lens implant when you have cataract surgery. This is known to ophthalmologists as "refractive surprise." The correct intraocular pressure and intraocular lens power can be calculated if you can provide your eye care professional with your preoperative, operative and postoperative eye measurements.
Although there have been improvements in LASIK technology [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16552654&query_hl=27&itool=pubmed_docsum [Correction and induction of high-order aberration... [Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 2006 - PubMed Result ] ] [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16378639&query_hl=27&itool=pubmed_docsum Wavefront-guided versus standard LASIK enhancement... [Ophthalmology. 2006 - PubMed Result ] ] [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16329381&query_hl=27&itool=pubmed_docsum Conventional vs wavefront-guided LASIK using the L... [J Refract Surg. 2005 Nov-Dec - PubMed Result ] ] , a large body of conclusive evidence on the chances of long-term complications is not yet established. Also, there is a small chance of complications, such as haziness, halo, or glare, some of which may be irreversible because the LASIK eye surgery procedure is irreversible.
The incidence of macular hole has been estimated at 0.2 percent to 0.3 percent.Ruiz-Moreno JM, Alio JL. "Incidence of retinal disease following refractive surgery in 9,239 eyes." "J Refract Surg." 2003 Sep-Oct;19(5):534-47. PMID 14518742.] The incidence of
retinal detachmenthas been estimated at 0.36 percent. The incidence of choroidal neovascularizationhas been estimated at 0.33 percent. The incidence of uveitishas been estimated at 0.18 percentSuarez E, Torres F, Vieira JC, Ramirez E, Arevalo JF. "Anterior uveitis after laser in situ keratomileusis." "J Cataract Refract Surg." 2002 Oct;28(10):1793–8. PMID 12388030.]
Although the cornea usually is thinner after LASIK, because of the removal of part of the stroma, refractive surgeons strive to maintain a minimum thickness to avoid structurally weakening the cornea. Decreased atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes has not been demonstrated as extremely dangerous to the eyes of LASIK patients. However, some
mountain climbers have experienced a myopic shift at extreme altitudes. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11738908&query_hl=3 Effect of high-altitude exposure on myopic laser i... [J Cataract Refract Surg. 2001 - PubMed Result ] ] [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12553606&query_hl=3 The ascent of Mount Everest following laser in sit... [J Refract Surg. 2003 Jan-Feb - PubMed Result ] ] There are no published reports documenting scuba diving-related complications after LASIK. [ [http://www.scuba-doc.com/diveye.htm Diving and the Eye ] ]
In situ keratomileusis effected at a later age increases the incidence of corneal higher-order wavefront aberrations.Yamane N, Miyata K, Samejima T, Hiraoka T, Kiuchi T, Okamoto F, Hirohara Y, Mihashi T, Oshika T. [http://www.iovs.org/cgi/content/full/45/11/3986 "Ocular higher-order aberrations and contrast sensitivity after conventional laser in situ keratomileusis."] "Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci." 2004 Nov;45(11):3986–90. PMID 15505046.] Oshika T, Miyata K, Tokunaga T, Samejima T, Amano S, Tanaka S, Hirohara Y, Mihashi T, Maeda N, Fujikado T. "Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis." "Ophthalmology." 2002 Jun;109(6):1154–8. PMID 12045059.] Conventional eyeglasses do not correct higher order aberrations.
Blepharitis, or inflammation of the eyelids with crusting of the eyelashes, may increase the risk of infection or inflammation of the cornea after LASIK. [http://www.eyesurgeryusa.com/lasik-corrective-eye-surgery-procedures.htm What is Lasik and what are some of the risk factors] ]
Myopic (nearsighted) people who are close to the age (mid- to late-forties) when they will require either reading glasses or bifocal eyeglasses may find that they still require reading glasses despite having undergone refractive LASIK surgery. Myopic people generally require reading glasses or bifocal eyeglasses at a later age than people who are emmetropic (those who see without eyeglasses), but this benefit is lost if they undergo LASIK. This is not a complication but an expected result of the physical laws of optics. Although there is currently no method to completely eradicate the need for reading glasses in this group, it may be minimized by performing a variation of the LASIK procedure called "slight
monovision." In this procedure, which is performed exactly like distance-vision-correction LASIK, the dominant eye is set for distance vision, while the non-dominant eye is set to the prescription of the patient's reading glasses. This allows the patient to achieve a similar effect as wearing bifocals. The majority of patients tolerate this procedure very well and do not notice any shift between near and distance viewing, although a small portion of the population has trouble adjusting to the monovision effect. This can be tested for several days prior to surgery by wearing contact lenses that mimic the monovision effect.
Factors affecting surgery
Typically, the cornea is avascular because it must be transparent to function normally, and its cells absorb
oxygenfrom the tear film. Thus, low-oxygen-permeable contact lenses reduce the cornea's oxygen absorption, sometimes resulting in corneal neovascularization—the growth of blood vessels into the cornea. This causes a slight lengthening of inflammation duration and healing time and some pain during surgery, because of greater bleeding.
Although some contact lenses (notably modern RGP and soft silicone hydrogel lenses) are made of materials with greater oxygen permeability that help reduce the risk of corneal neovascularization, patients considering LASIK are warned to avoid over-wearing their contact lenses. Usually, it is recommended that they discontinue wearing contact lenses days or weeks before the LASIK eye surgery.
2004 Wake Forest Universitystudy established that heat and humidity affect LASIK surgery results, both during the procedure and in the two weeks before the surgery. [Walter KA, Stevenson AW. "Effect of environmental factors on myopic LASIK enhancement rates." "J Cataract Refract Surg." 2004 Apr;30(4):798–803. PMID 15093641.]
New advances in eyesight corrective surgery are providing consumers greater choices. Patients in their 40s or 50s who are considering LASIK surgery to improve their vision might want to consider to be evaluated for implantable lenses as well. "Early signs of a cataract might argue for surgery and implantation of multifocal lenses instead." [ The Cataracts and Gone - and so is the Need for Glasses, by Matthew Shulman. US News and World Report December 17, 2007, page 64. ]
The FDA has approved LASIK for age 18 and over [http://www.usaeyes.org/lasik/faq/lasik-age.htm] . More importantly the person's eye needs to be stable for two years prior to surgery.
The surveys determining patient satisfaction with LASIK have found most patients satisfied, with satisfaction range being 92–98 percent.Saragoussi D, Saragoussi JJ. " [Lasik, PRK and quality of vision: a study of prognostic factors and a satisfaction survey.] " "J Fr Ophtalmol." 2004 Sep;27(7):755-64. PMID 15499272.] Bailey MD, Mitchell GL, Dhaliwal DK, Boxer Wachler BS, Zadnik K. "Patient satisfaction and visual symptoms after laser in situ keratomileusis." "Ophthalmology." 2003 Jul;110(7):1371–8. PMID 12867394.] McGhee CN, Craig JP, Sachdev N, Weed KH, Brown AD. "Functional, psychological, and satisfaction outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis for high myopia." "J Cataract Refract Surg." 2000 Apr;26(4):497–509. PMID 10771222.] A meta-analysis dated March 2008 performed by the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery over 3,000 peer-reviewed articles published over the past 10 years in clinical journals from around the world, including 19 studies comprising 2,200 patients that looked directly at satisfaction, revealed a 95.4 percent patient satisfaction rate among LASIK patients worldwide. [Study On Post-Lasik Quality Of Life http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/103194.php]
Some patients with poor outcomes from LASIK surgical procedures report a significantly reduced quality of life because of vision problems. Patients who have suffered LASIK complications have created websites and discussion forums to educate the public about the risks, where prospective and past patients can discuss the surgery. In 1999, Surgical Eyes [New site details downsides of laser eye surgery http://www.post-gazette.com/healthscience/19991012hlasik4.asp] was founded [http://www.nj.com/healthfit/ledger/index.ssf?/news/ledger/stories/021102lasik.html here] in New York City [http://www.sptimes.com/News/100100/Worldandnation/Seeing_LASIK_s_risks_.shtml] by RK patient [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ron_Link,_refractive_surgery_patient_advocate Ron Link] [http://www.fwweekly.com/content.asp?article=2439] as a resource for patients with complications of LASIK and other refractive surgeries. Other patient-founded websites to assist those with complications are [http://www.lasermyeye.org LaserMyEye] [http://biz.yahoo.com/nytimes/080424/1194768387709.html?.v=4] founded [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2937512.stm] in 2004 and [http://www.visionsurgeryrehab.org Vision Surgery Rehab] [http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/306877] [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/13/fashion/13SKIN.html] in 2005. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/01/AR2006120101546_pf.html] Most experienced and reputable clinics will do a full-dilated medical eye exam prior to surgery and give adequate post-operative patient education care to minimize the risk of a negative outcome.
For best results, Dr. Steven Schallhorn, an ophthalmologist who oversaw the US Navy's refractive surgery program and whose research partly influenced the Navy's decision to allow its aviators to get Lasik, recommends patients seek out what's called "all-laser Lasik" combined with "wavefront-guided" software. [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,352548,00.html] [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5hm4_Y2gN7uuJFU9yGiiiwV0BWDagD908GLF80]
The FDA website on LASIK clearly states: "Before undergoing a refractive procedure, you should carefully weigh the risks and benefits based on your own personal value system, and try to avoid being influenced by friends that have had the procedure or doctors encouraging you to do so." [ [http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/lasik/risks.htm US FDA/CDRH: LASIK - What are the risks and how can I find the right doctor for me? ] ] As such, prospective patients still need to fully understand all the potential issues and complications, as satisfaction is directly related to expectation.
The FDA received 140 "negative reports relating to LASIK" for the time period 1998–2006. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/13/fashion/13SKIN.html?pagewanted=2&ei=5087&em&en=a9b73aafeecaf5d1&ex=1205553600 Lasik Surgery: When the Fine Print Applies to You] by Abby Ellin, The New York Times, March 13, 2008.]
afety and efficacy
The reported figures for safety and efficacy are open to interpretation. In 2003, the Medical Defence Union (MDU), the largest insurer for doctors in the United Kingdom, reported a 166 percent increase in claims involving laser eye surgery; however, the MDU averred that these claims resulted primarily from patients' unrealistic expectations of LASIK rather than faulty surgery. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2937512.stm BBC NEWS | Health | Laser eye surgery complaints up ] ] A 2003 study, reported in the medical journal "Ophthalmology", found that nearly 18 percent of treated patients and 12 percent of treated eyes needed retreatment. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12689897&query_hl=5 Incidence and associations of retreatment after LA... [Ophthalmology. 2003 - PubMed Result ] ] The authors concluded that higher initial corrections, astigmatism, and older age are risk factors for LASIK retreatment.
In 2004, the British
National Health Service's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence(NICE) considered a systematic reviewof four randomized controlled trials [http://www.nice.org.uk/pdf/ip/233overview.pdf] [http://www.nice.org.uk/pdf/ip/Finalreport%20010605.pdf] before issuing guidance for the use of LASIK within the NHS. [http://www.nice.org.uk/pdf/2004_51_launchLASIK.pdf] Regarding the procedure's efficacy, NICE reported, "Current evidence on LASIK for the treatment of refractive errors suggests that it is effective in selected patients with mild or moderate short-sightedness," but that "evidence is weaker for its effectiveness in severe short-sightedness and long-sightedness." Regarding the procedure's safety, NICE reported that "there are concerns about the procedure's safety in the long term and current evidence does not appear adequate to support its use within the NHS without special arrangements for consent and for audit or research."
Leading refractive surgeons in the United Kingdom and United States, including at least one author of a study cited in the report, believe NICE relied on information that is severely dated and weakly researched. [ [http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=136786 British LASIK Report Flawed Says Study Author ] ] [ [http://escrs.com/Publications/Eurotimes/05january/pdf/regmatters.pdf Escrs European Society Of Cataract And Refractive Surgeons Home Page ] ]
October 10, 2006, WebMD reported that statistical analysis revealed that contact lens wear infection risk is greater than the infection risk from LASIK. [ [http://www.webmd.com/content/article/128/117072.htm LASIK Surgery: Safer Than Contacts? ] ] Daily contact lens wearers have a 1-in-100 chance of developing a serious, contact lens-related eye infection in 30 years of use, and a 1-in-2,000 chance of suffering significant vision loss as a result of infection. The researchers calculated the risk of significant vision loss consequence of LASIK surgery to be closer to 1-in-10,000 cases.
February 21, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration(FDA) issued a Class I recallof the LADAR-6000 surgical laser, manufactured by Alcon. [ [http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/recalls/recall-022107.html Class 1 Recall: Alcon Refractive Horizons, Inc. LADAR6000 Excimer Laser System ] ] [ [http://blogs.webmd.com/eye-on-vision/ Eye On Vision ] ] The recall was because the algorithmused to calculate the laser treatment left some patients with inaccurate surgical outcomes that could not be re-treated with additional surgery.
Council for Refractive Surgery Quality Assurance(USAEyes)
LASEK(Laser-Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy) or PRK ( Photorefractive keratectomy)
* [http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/lasik/ FDA information page on LASIK] Includes detailed animation of the procedure
* [http://www.agingeye.net/lasik/lasik.php University of Illinois page on LASIK] Educational videos and full-text peer-reviewed journal articles on LASIK
* [http://www.visionsurgeryrehab.org Vision Surgery Rehab Network] Support site for people with complications from LASIK and other eye surgeries.
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/lasik/htm/index.htm U.S. National library of medicine]
* [http://www.eyesurgeryeducation.com/FAQ.html Eye surgery education council] LASIK faqs
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LASIK — La technique du Lasik (LAser in Situ Keratomileusis) est une intervention chirurgicale de l œil. Son principe consiste à découper une fine lamelle dans l épaisseur de la cornée (qui est la partie transparente de la surface de l oeil) afin de… … Wikipédia en Français
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