Meerut

Meerut

मेरठ
میرٹھ

The Sports Capital of India
—  metropolitan city  —
Meerut
Location of Meerut
in Uttar Pradesh and India
Coordinates 28°59′N 77°42′E / 28.99°N 77.70°E / 28.99; 77.70Coordinates: 28°59′N 77°42′E / 28.99°N 77.70°E / 28.99; 77.70
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
Division Meerut
District(s) Meerut district
Mayor Smt. Madhu Gurjar
Population

Density
Metro

1,451,983[1] (2001)

8,123 /km2 (21,038 /sq mi)
2,086,194 (16) (2009)

Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation

272 square kilometres (105 sq mi)

224.659 metres (737.07 ft)

Website meerut.nic.in

Meerut About this sound pronunciation (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) is a metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.[2] It is an ancient city located 70 km (43 mi) northeast of the national capital New Delhi, and 453 km (281 mi) northwest of the state capital, Lucknow.[3] It is a part of the National Capital Region of India.[4][5] It is the second Largest city of National Capital Region of India after Delhi, the 16th largest metropolitan area in India and the 17th largest city in India.[6] It ranked 292 in 2006 and 242 in 2010 in the list of largest cities and urban areas in the world[7] and is the second fastest developing city in Uttar Pradesh (after Noida). It covers an area of about 172 km2 (66 sq mi). The total metropolitan area is 198 km2 (76 sq mi), which is the third largest in Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow and Kanpur. It has the 2nd largest army cantonment in the country. [8]

Contents

Etymology

The city may have derived its name from Maya Rashtra, the capital of the kingdom of Mandodari's father and Ravana's father-in-law, Mayasura. This name may have mutated to Mairashtra, Mai-dant-ka-khera, Mairaath and eventually Meerut.[9]

According to another version Maya, a distinguished architect, got from king Yudhishther the land on which the city of Meerut now stands and he called this place Mayrashtra, a name which in course of time became shortened to Meerut. Tradition are so has it that the district formed part of the dominions of Mahipal, Gujjar king of Indraprashta and the word Meerut is associated with his name.[9] It is also said that there was a group of maratha troops group in meerut, so the city was called maarath, which has now turned into meerut.[citation needed]

History

After the archaeological excavations at ‘Vidura-ka-tila’, a collection of several mounds, in 1950–52, a site 37 km (23 miles) north-east of Meerut, it was concluded to be remains of the ancient city of Hastinapur, the capital of Kauravas and Pandavas of Mahabharata, which was washed away by Ganges floods.[10][11]

Fragment of the 6th Ashoka Pillar in sandstone, with inscription or Edicts of Ashoka, in Brahmi, originally from Meerut, now at British Museum.

However, even before the vedic period, Meerut contained a Harappan settlement known as Alamgirpur. It was also the Easternmost settlement of the Indus valley civilisation. Meerut had been a centre of Buddhism in the period of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (r. 273 BC to 232 BC.), and remains of Buddhist structures were found near the Jama Masjid in the present day city.[12] The Ashoka Pillar, at Delhi ridge, next to the ‘Bara Hindu Rao Hospital’, near Delhi University, was carried to Delhi from Meerut, by Firuz Shah Tughluq (r. 1351–1388),[11][13] it was later damaged in a 1713 explosion, and restored in 1867.[14][15]

In the eleventh century AD, the south-west part of the district was ruled by Har Dat, the Dor Raja of Bulandshahr who built a fort, which was long known for its strength and finds mention in Ain-i-Akbari.[16] He was later defeated by Mahmud Ghazni in 1018. A prominent local landmark, the jama Masjid, dates from this period and is said to have been built by Mahmud's vizir. Shortly after its capture the city was regained by the local Hindu Raja and part of his fortifications, built for the city’s defence, survived until recent times. Though, the first big invasion on the city came later in 1192 AD, from Mohammad Ghori, when his general Qutb-ud-din Aybak attacked the city, and converted all the Hindu temples into mosques.[11] However, a much worse fate lay ahead for the district, which came with the invasion of Timur in 1398, during which the Rajputs offered a tough resistance at the fort of Loni, where he fought the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad Tughlaq. But, eventually they were all defeated and all the 1,00,000 prisoners his army had taken in since his invasion of India were massacred, according to Timur’s own accounts in Tuzk-e-Taimuri.[17] Thereafter he went on to attack Delhi, where he again massacred the local population, and returned to attack Meerut town, then ruled by an Afghan chief, Ilias, and took the city in two days, leading to widespread devastation, before heading North once again.[11]

The United Provinces, in 1903

After that Meerut ruled by Jats & then Marathas. Finally British take meerut from Marathas. During the rule of Mughal Emperor, Akbar the Great (r. 1556–1605), there was a mint for copper coins here.[12]

1857 Mutineers' Mosque

Meerut is famously associated with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British East India Company.[18] The famous slogan "Dilli Chalo" ("Let's march to Delhi!") was first raised here. Meerut cantonment is the place where the rebellion started when Hindu and Muslim soldiers were given rifle cartridges rumoured to have a coating made of animal fat.

Statue of Indian freedom fighter Kotwal Dhan Singh Gurjar at Meerut Chowk.

The bullet wrapping was to be opened by mouth before use, which affected the religious sensibilities of both Muslims and Hindus as the fat used was alleged to be derived from lard and tallow; cows are held sacred by Hindus and Muslims consider the pig unclean. Meerut soldiers set fire to the bungalows of English.

During this revolt, Meerut leapt into international prominence, when on 24 April 1857 eighty-five of the ninety troopers of the third cavalry refused to touch the cartridges and after court-martial were sentenced to ten years imprisonment. On Sunday, 10 May 1857, these soldiers, supported by other soldiers, escaped the prison and declared themselves free, attacked and killed several British authorities to take the city in their control. This marked the beginning of a widespread revolt across northern India as these soldiers marched towards Delhi. 10 May is still celebrated as a local holiday in Meerut.[19]

Meerut was also the venue of the controversial Meerut Conspiracy Case in March 1929, in which several trade unionists, including three Englishmen, were arrested for organising Indian-rail strike. This immediately caught attention back in England, inspired the 1932 play titled Meerut Prisoners, by Manchester street theatre group, the 'Red Megaphones', highlighting the detrimental effects of colonisation and industrialisation[20] In the 1940s, Meerut cinemas had a "Don't Move" policy during playing of the British national anthem.[citation needed]

The city and district also suffered from communal (Hindu-Sikh) riots in 1984[21] and (Hindu-Muslim) riots in 1982[22] and in 1987, during which the Hashimpura massacre took place, in May 1987, when personnel of the Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC) allegedly shot dead 42 Muslims, the trial of the case is still pending.[23][24] In 2006, a fire at a consumer electronics "Brand India" fair in Victoria Park Stadium killed over 50 (official counting) people. But, according to some unofficial sources, the number of affected people is pegged at more than 200.

Mythology

  • Ravana's wife Mandodari (in Ramayana) hailed from Meerut. Thus the city is also known as 'Ravan Ki Sasural' literally meaning Ravana's wife's home.
  • In the Ramayana, Shravan Kumar carried his feeble parents on his shoulders to all the pilgrimage sites in India, but it is believed that when he passed through Meerut, he put down his parents for a while to get rest and water. It was here that Lord Rama's father, King Dasharatha, mistook Shravan Kumar for a deer and shot him with an arrow by accident. Shravan Kumar's parents declared that the king's own first son would abandon him when he needed him the most.

Climate

Meerut
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
20
 
20
8
 
 
25
 
24
11
 
 
25
 
30
16
 
 
10
 
37
21
 
 
41
 
40
26
 
 
97
 
38
28
 
 
190
 
35
27
 
 
207
 
34
27
 
 
134
 
34
25
 
 
12
 
33
19
 
 
4
 
28
13
 
 
10
 
23
8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Service

Meerut has a monsoon influenced humid subtropical climate characterised by very hot summers and cool winters. Summers last from early April to late June during and are extremely hot, with temperatures reaching 43 °C (109 °F).[2] The monsoon arrives in late June and continues till the middle of September. Temperatures drop slightly, with plenty of cloud cover but with higher humidity. Temperatures rise again in October and the city then has a mild, dry winter season from late October to the middle of March[2] Lowest temperature recorded is 0.5 °C (32.9 °F).[citation needed] Rainfall is about 80 cm to 100 cm per annum, which is suitable for growing crops. Most of the rainfall is received during the monsoon. Humidity varies from 30 to 100%.[2] The city receives no snow.

Climate data for Meerut
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29
(84)
32
(90)
39
(102)
43
(109)
45
(113)
46
(115)
44
(111)
40
(104)
39
(102)
38
(100)
34
(93)
30
(86)
46
(115)
Average high °C (°F) 25
(77)
29
(84)
35
(95)
40
(104)
43
(109)
43
(109)
39
(102)
36
(97)
36
(97)
35
(95)
32
(90)
27
(81)
43
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
4
(39)
9
(48)
14
(57)
19
(66)
21
(70)
22
(72)
22
(72)
20
(68)
13
(55)
7
(45)
3
(37)
3
Record low °C (°F) 0
(32)
0
(32)
5
(41)
8
(46)
15
(59)
17
(63)
16
(61)
19
(66)
15
(59)
10
(50)
1
(34)
0
(32)
0
(32)
Rainfall mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
10
(0.39)
5
(0.2)
15
(0.59)
54
(2.13)
248
(9.76)
332
(13.07)
138
(5.43)
42
(1.65)
3
(0.12)
8
(0.31)
897
(35.31)
humidity 79 70 59 42 41 58 80 84 77 68 67 75 66.7
Avg. rainy days 2 1 1 0 1 3 9 11 4 1 0 0 33
Source: Department of Meteorology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India[25]

Geography

Meerut lies between 28°57’ to 29°02’N latitude and 77°40’ to 77°45’E longitude in the Indo-Gangetic plains of India.[2] It is bound on the north by Muzaffarnagar, in the south by Bulandshahr while Ghaziabad and Baghpat districts form the southern and western limits.[3] The river Ganga forms the eastern boundary and separates the district from Moradabad and Bijnor.[3] The Hindon forms the western boundary and separates the district from Baghpat.[3] The ground is not rocky and there are no mountains. The soil is composed of pleistocene and sub-recent alluvial sediments transported and deposited by river action from the Himalayan region.[2] These alluvial deposits are unconsolidated.[2] Lithologically, sediments consist of clay, silt and fine to coarse sand.[2] Land is very fertile for growing crops, especially wheat, sugarcane and vegetables.[2] The city lies between the plains of Ganga and Yamuna.

Meerut Cantonment

Mall Road

Meerut Cantonment is the 2nd largest cantonment of India both in land area and population. It was established in 1803 by English East India Company.[26] Meerut Cantonment was the place from where the revolt of 1857 started.[3][26] The cantonment surrounds the city from 3 sides, from Pallavpuram to Sainik Vihar to Ganga Nagar.[3]

Soldiers from the cantonment have actively participated in the Battle of Ypres[disambiguation needed ], El Alamien[disambiguation needed ], France, Burma Campaign, the Indo-Pak Wars, Bangladesh Liberation War and Kargil War. Its battalions and officers have shown great courage and have got many honours.[citation needed]

It has been the regimental centre of Punjab Regiment and Corps of Signals in the past.

It is the cleanest part of city and a beautiful sight at night. and a very peaceful Dogra Temple is situated here. The Mall road is one of the oldest and most beautiful roads of Meerut, the most splendid sight of the cantonment and surrounded with clean footpaths, statues and trees. A tank of Pakistan army is standing as an exception in cantonment. One of the most convenient clubs of the city, Wheelers Club, is situated in the cantonment. A Race course, Golf course and RVC center are also situated in the cantonment.[citation needed]

Development

Atop an under-construction overpass

Meerut is the 63rd-fastest-growing urban area in the world.[27] It is the 14th fastest developing city in India. A new report by U.S. financial services firm Morgan Stanley, “AlphaWise City Vibrancy Index: A Guide to India’s Urbanization,” gave Meerut the 5th spot on the “vibrancy” index, ahead of Delhi and Mumbai. Meerut ranked second on both the financial penetration index, which measures things like the presence of ATMs and bank branches, and on the consumption index, indicating the city’s transformation into an urban town. While the city ranked in the bottom 10 in job creations, the report suggests that overall there are plenty of signs of “potential for urbanisation,” including future employment opportunities.[28] The infrastructure segment of Meerut is currently going through a boom phase with many new projects coming up in and around the city.[29][30] There are many new buildings, shopping complexes, malls, roads, flyovers and apartments coming up.

About 100 builders have poured into the city for building townships, IT parks, malls, hospitals etc.[citation needed] Major developers include Supertech Group, MSX Developers, Era Group, Antriksh, Majestic Properties, Ansal Housing & Construction, Parsvnath, DLF.[30] and Godwin Builders.

Delhi-Meerut expressway is expected to be completed by 2013. Upper Ganges canal expressway is also under development. GAIL is also establishing its plant in Meerut and Muradnagar to supply cooking gas within the city. A five star hotel, in Greenwood City, at Baghpat road bypass crossing and a three star hotel at Delhi road near Rithani are under construction.

Shopping malls

Melange Mall at Pallavpuram

Many malls have recently[when?] been built by major developers of the country. These include Shopprix Mall at Delhi Road by Supertech Ltd. and Melange at Pallav Puram by Majestic Properties, PVS Mall at Shastri Nagar, Rap Magnum Mall and Era Mall at Delhi Road. Many more malls are under construction, namely Ansal Plaza, MCP Mall (Grand Savy Mall) at EK Road, MSX mall and TDI mall at Mawana road and Alpha One mall at Modipuram. Meerut presently has nine malls and by 2012 there will be 20 malls surrounding the city.[citation needed]

Economy

Industry

Meerut is one of the important industrial towns of western Uttar Pradesh.[2] It is a rich agricultural area with such pockets of land that do not fit in for crop purpose. Being in the proximity of Delhi, it is ideal for industry. It is famous for handloom works and scissors industry from olden age.[3] Meerut is home to 520 micro, small and medium scale industries.[31] As of August 2006, Meerut has about 23,471 industrial units including 15,510 small scale units and 7,922 cottage industries.[3]

Existing industries: Textile, Transformer, Sugar, Distillery, Chemical, Engineering, Paper, Sports Goods Manufacture[3][31]

Prospective Industries: IT, ITES.[3]

Uttar Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation (UPSIDC) already has two industrial estates in Meerut, namely Partapur and Udyog Puram.[32][33] Mohkampur industrial area is a private initiative. Paschimanchal Vidyut Vitran Nigam Ltd has unrestricted power at Partapur, Udyogpuram and Mohkampur industrial areas. Bhur Baral industrial area is under development.

Another industrial area has been identified by UPSIDC at Gagol road adjacent to Delhi road. 1200 hectares of land is available for industrial development. Identified industrial areas are at Shatabdi nagar, Delhi road, Baghpat road, Roorkee road, Mawana road, Parikshitgarh (Kila) road, Garh road and Hapur road. Further 2000 hectares land is being proposed for industrial development near Delhi–Meerut expressway. Nipro Glass from Japan has set up a large glass plant for medical use. Investment from outside Meerut has started pouring in as Delhi–Mumbai freight corridor and east freight corridor will be intersecting very near to Meerut, making it a cost effective destination for setting up industries.

GAIL Gas Ltd is laying infrastructure for piped CNG throughout the city for industrial, domestic and transport use. Meerut is also home to some prominent regional pharmaceuticals companies like Perk Pharmaceuticals Limited, Mankind Pharma & Bestochem.[34] Meerut is one of the major manufacturing regions for sports goods in India.[3][34][35] The city is especially famous for the manufacture of cricket goods with SG being the largest Indian cricket goods manufacturer and exporter operating in Meerut.[36] Meerut is also the largest manufacturer of musical instruments in India.[3][34]

Retail

Meerut is home to showrooms of several internationally known clothing and sports brands such as Telebrands India, Adidas, Reebok, Nike, Inc., Puma AG, Killer, Levi's, Spykar, Pepe Jeans, United Colours of Benetton, Cotton County, Koutons, Peter England and many more. Meerut has innumerable hotels. Hotel Mukut Mahal, Hotel Ajanta, Hotel Naveen Deluxe, Hotel Crystal Palace and Hotel Samrat Heavens are the biggest hotels in the city, while, Hotel Mayur Deluxe and Hotel Yadu Residency are other hotels. Popular restaurants include the Blue Lagoon in Hotel Crystal Palace, Delhi Darbar at Hapur Road, Al Kareem restaurant at Ghanta Ghar, Alfa, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Domino's, Nirula's, Cafe Coffee Day, Barista Coffee, Coffee Delight, Bikanerwala, and Maanchow with KFC on its way. Famous bars of Meerut are Cellar in Hotel Crystal palace (boundary road), Bottoms Up (Hotel Mukut Mahal – Delhi Road), Indiana (near mall road), Rajmahal (Abu lane). The city also boasts of many clubs, like Wheeler's club, Alexender club etc.

The car market in Meerut is developing day by day and there are a number of car showrooms including Nissan, Volkswagen, Skoda, Maruti Suzuki, Hyundai, Mahindra, Honda, Tata, Fiat, Chevrolet, Toyota, and Ford with Mercedes coming soon. The gold market of Meerut is one of Asia’s largest; it employs over 25,000 skilled craftsmen and around 60 kilograms of the precious metal is processed here every day. The city has over 40 BIS Hallmark showrooms.

According to statistics compiled by the Income Tax department, Meerut contributed a handsome Rs.10,089 crore to the national treasury in 2007/08, outperforming Lucknow, Jaipur, Bhopal, Kochi and Bhubaneshwar.[37]

Civic Administration

Meerut is administered by Meerut Municipal Corporation. It is responsible for performing civic administrative functions. Infrastructure development of the city is looked after by the Meerut Development Authority(MDA).

Meerut it is the headquarter of NCR Zone and upwest zone A of Police. An ADG and a secretary level IAS officer cover west U.P.zone. Both the officers look after the legal and developmental condition and system of Western Uttar Pradesh from Meerut for 6 Division of western Uttar Pradesh, namely Meerut, Agra, Bareily Moradabad, Saharanpur and Aligarh under West Zone, and Meerut Division with Saharanpur is in NCR Zone. A DIG looks after Meerut for legal condition and law, Commissioner also looks for 6 district of Meerut Division.

The office of the Chief Commissioner, Customs & Central Excise, Meerut Zone, functioning w.e.f. 01.11.2002 has jurisdiction over 13 districts of Uttrakhand and 14 districts of Uttar Pradesh. This jurisdiction was carved out of the Lucknow Zone. It comprises the erstwhile Customs & Central Excise Commissionerates of Meerut & Noida. The Meerut Commissionerate was bifurcated into two Commissionerates, namely, ‘Meerut-I and Ghaziabad’ and the Noida Commissionerate was bifurcated into ‘Noida and Meerut-II’. In addition, jurisdiction of Central Excise Division Bareilly was included in the jurisdiction of Meerut-II Commissionerate.

Transport

Air

The nearest airport is the Indira Gandhi International Airport which is about 80 km away. An international airport is proposed by the state government in the city to reduce pressure on Delhi airport.[38]

Road

By road Meerut is well-connected to major cities like Delhi, Noida, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Haridwar, etc. A large number of people commute to Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad and Gurgaon every day for work. Three national highways (NH-58, NH-119 & NH-235) pass through Meerut. Upper Ganga Canal Expressway which passes through outskirts of the city is under development.

There are 2 main bus terminals, namely Bhainsali bus terminal and Sohrab Gate bus terminal from where Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation(UPSRTC) buses ply to cities all over the state and all nearby cities.

As Meerut has been declared a metropolitan city in 2007, JNNURM scheme has been put in place and many low floor city buses now run on the city roads.[3] Low Floor City Buses, Normal City Buses, auto rickshaws and rickshaws are convenient public transport options to commute within the city. Many new transport infrastructure projects like inner ring road, outer ring road and construction of new flyovers are proposed.

An 8 lane expressway from Ghaziabad to Meerut is proposed under the NCR Transport Plan 2021 which will decrease travel time to Delhi by 60 minutes.[39]

Railways

Meerut has seven railway stations- Meerut City, Meerut Cantt, Partapur, Sakoti Tanda, Daurala,Mohiuddinnpur and Pabli Khas. Meerut City station is the busiest station in the city. Meerut Cantt station was founded in 1865 and serves as a secondary railway station. Meerut lies on Delhi – Saharanpur railway line. The electrification of railway line from Meerut to Ghaziabad has been started.

About twenty thousand passengers travel daily to Delhi and back. Around 27 pairs of trains run between Meerut and Delhi, and four between Meerut and Khurja. Two trains are available for Lucknow daily, namely Nauchandi Express and Rajya Rani Express. A weekly train goes to Chennai and Kuchuvelli. Ahemdabad Mail connects the city to Gujrat, and Chattisgarh Express to Chattisgarh state.

A rapid rail transit system has been proposed for operation between Meerut and Anand Vihar.[40] The proposed system is to have dedicated trains between Anand Vihar and Meerut which stop nowhere in between, and also trains which stop at stations to be constructed after a gap of 4–5 km.[40] Anand Vihar, Sahibabad, Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad, Guldhar, Duhai, Moradnagar, Modi Nagar, Meerut South, Shatabdi Nagar, Meerut Centre, Begum Bridge, Meerut North and Pallavpuram are the proposed halts.[41] The High Speed Train project under Rapid Rail Transit system in Delhi(NCR) will start with the Delhi-Meerut line. On 14 December 2010 the NCR Planning Board, Meerut Development Authority(MDA) and Nagar Nigam Meerut approved this rapid rail transit system.[42]

Demographics

Meerut District population Charts.png
Proportion of Meerut district in population of Uttar Pradesh.png

Meerut City is the headquarters of Meerut district which, according to the 2011 census, has a population of around 3.4 million.

District Information (2011 census)[43][44]
District Male Female Total
Population 18,29,192 16,18,213 34,47,405
Literacy 82.91% 65.69% 74.80%

There was an increase of 15.01% in the population since 2001. In the 2001 census, Meerut District recorded a population increase of 24.06% compared to 1991.

The initial provisional data suggests a density of 1,342 in 2011 compared to 1,167 of 2001. Total area under Meerut district is of about 2,569 km2.

Average literacy rate of Meerut in 2011 was 74.80% compared to 64.79% in 2001. Male and female literacy were 82.91% and 65.69% respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 75.00% and 53.12% in Meerut District. Total literate in Meerut District were 2,213,483 of which male and female were 12,97,767 and 9,15,716 respectively. In 2001, Meerut District had 16,06,469 in its total region.

The sex ratio stood at 885 per 1000 male compared to 2001 census figure of 872. The average national sex ratio in India is 940 as per latest reports of Census 2011 Directorate.

In census enumeration, data regarding child under 0–6 age were also collected for all districts including Meerut. There were total 4,88,271 children under age of 0–6 against 5,17,960 of 2001 census. Of total 4,88,271 male and female were 2,63,961 and 2,24,310 respectively. Child Sex Ratio as per census 2011 was 857 compared to 857 of census 2001. In 2011, Children under 0–6 formed 14.16 percent of Meerut District compared to 17.28 percent of 2001. There was net change of −3.12 percent in this compared to the previous census.

Meerut District population constituted 1.73 percent of total Uttar Pradesh population. In 2001 census, this figure for Meerut District was at 1.73 percent of Uttar Pradesh population.

According to the 2001 census, the city ranks 6th in terms of population density[45] in Uttar Pradesh. The city also ranks 2nd in terms of population in NCR.[46] Males constitute 53.43% of the population and females 46.56%.[47] The city has an average literacy rate of 65.96%, higher than the national average of 64.8% and the state average of 57.36%.[48][49][50] Male literacy is 76.31%, and female literacy is 54.12%.[51] 16.66% of the population is under 6 years of age.[51] Meerut has one of the largest Muslim populations among the cities of India (close to 32.5%).[47] It is the largest Muslim city in Uttar pradesh (more than Lucknow). The city has a sex ratio of 871, lower than the state average of 898 and the national average of 933. [52][53] As of 2009, Meerut has a crime rate of 208.6, higher than the state average of 88.4 and the national average of 181.4.[54]

District Population (2001 census)[1][47][48][51]
District Male Female Total
Urban 774,670 677,313 1,451,983
Rural 826,908 718,470 1,545,378
Total 1,601,578 1,395,783 2,997,361
Literacy 76.31% 54.12% 65.96%

According to the 1991 census, Meerut district consisted of 1,025 villages[citation needed] with a population of around 2.4 million.[55] This does not include the population of Baghpat district which was formed in 1998.[55]

District population (1991 census)[48][55][56][citation needed]
District Male Female Total
Urban NA NA 849,799
Rural NA NA 1,567,714
Total 1,301,137 1,116,376 2,417,513
Literacy 64.88% 37.67% 52.41%

Education

Meerut is an education hub of Western Uttar Pradesh having a total of 4 universities, 32 engineering colleges, 23 management colleges, 7 pharmacy colleges, 4 colleges offering hotel management, 1 college offering fashion design, over 150 academic colleges and over 50 schools. The city is home to Chaudhary Charan Singh University (formerly Meerut University), Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University and Shobhit University. The city has one government-run engineering college "Sir Chhotu Ram Institute of Engineering and Technology", which is a constituent college of Chaudhary Charan Singh University.

'Indian Film and Television Institute' is located at the western bypass of the city. The city has two medical colleges, namely Subharti Medical College' and 'Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College'. The city has many Madarsas which provide religious education as well as modern education with computer learning. The city also has various coaching institutions for preparing students for various entrance exams of engineering and medical fields. By the attempts of local jewellers and Zila Udyog Kendra, a Jewel and Jem training centre will soon be established in the city.[citation needed]

Media

Meerut is becoming an important media center, as journalists from all over Uttar Pradesh and other Indian states are working in Meerut. As media centres are situated in Meerut, the city is getting a good amount of publicity on the national platform. The law and order situation has improved a lot in the recent past and media has had an important role to play in it. Radio stations shared with Delhi are Radio City 91.1 MHz, Big FM 92.7 MHz, Red FM 93.5 MHz, Radio One 94.3 MHz, Hit 95(95 MHz), Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz, AIR FM Rainbow 102.6 MHz, Meow FM 104.8 MHz, AIR FM Gold 106.4 MHz. Radio IIMT(90.4 MHz)[57] is the only radio station located in the city.

Tourist destinations

St. John's Church
Augarnath Temple at 2nd Navratri night
An entrance to Gandhi Bagh
Basilica of Our Lady of Graces, Sardhana

Meerut has a well-developed tourism sector. The notable tourist destinations include:

  • Jain temples of Hastinapur – According to Jain tradition, Hastinapur was one of the earliest Indian cities like Ayodhya and Kashi and came into existence during the time of Rishabhadeva (the first tirthankara) whose grandson, Somaprabha, was the first ruler of the place. It is also said to be the birth place of three Jain tirthankars, Shantinatha, Kunthnnath and Arahanatha.[58]
  • Jain Temple at Mohalla Teergaran – It is the oldest Jain temple of Meerut amongst 40 Jain temples. Its main statue is of Jain tirthanker Shantinath, which was built at the same time when the main statue of Jain Temple, Hastinapur was built. This temple is preserved by the Indian government for its old art work. The Digumber statues in the temple are really fascinating. Its full name is 'Shri Shantinath Digamber Jain Madir – Teergaran (Meerut)'.
  • St. John's Church – This church was established by Chaplin Reverend Henry Fisher on behalf of the East India Company in 1819 in the cantonment area and was completed in 1822.[59] It is considered one of the oldest churches in North India. The Church was dedicated to the people by Bishop Wilson. It has a seating capacity of 10,000 people. During the war of 1857, this church was the scene of heavy fighting between Indians and the British forces.[60]
  • Augarnath Temple – This grand temple(also known as Kalipaltan Mandir locally) is located at the site where the soldiers of the war of 1857 planned their operations. The temple also houses a memorial built to honour the martyrs of the revolt of 1857. The old temple has been replaced by a modern version.[61]
  • The Jama Masjid was built by Hasan Mahdi, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi's Wazir (chief minister) in 1019 AD (older than the Qutb Minar). That makes it the first Masjid in North India. And although it was restored by Humayun, it is one of the oldest Muslim mosques in India. Qutb-ud-din Aybak is believed[by whom?] to have built the Maqbara of Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud (Baley Miyan). There are other mausoleams and mosques indicating the strong Muslim presence in Meerut.
  • Martyr's Memorial (Shaheed Smarak)
  • Gandhi Bagh – This centrally located garden has a very beautiful and serene environment. Locally known as "Company Garden", it has been present since before independence, when it got renamed to its current name. It runs a musical fountain show every evening. Earlier, the garden used to have multiple entrances like the one shown on the right, which were always kept open, and there was no entry fee. But now, only one entrance is kept open and a ticketing system with nominal charges has been put in place.
  • Suraj Kund[10]
  • Chandi Devi Temple, Built by great holkar queen Devi Ahiliyabai Holkar[10]
  • Mansa Devi Temple[10]
  • Kali Temple in Sadar Bazar.
  • Bale Miyan ki Dargah[10]
  • Shahpeer Sahab ki Dargah – The Tomb of Shah Pir was erected by the empress Nur Jahan in honour of a local Muslim Hazrat Shahpeer. Shahpeer gate was built in 1829 by a local Jagirdar "Raja Ji". The tomb is adorned by intricate nakashi(stone painting). There is no roof on the main tomb. It is said[by whom?] that rain does not fall on the main tomb despite the fact that it has no roof. People[who?] say that Shahpeer was the Teacher of Mughal Emperor Jehangir. It is said[by whom?] that the tomb was built in 24 hours before Shahpeer's death and that's why it is incomplete. The tomb is listed by the Archaeological Survey of India as a national heritage monument.[62]
  • Shahi Eid Gaah – It was built by Nasir ud din Mahmud, the youngest son of Iltutmish, and the eighth Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. It is about six hundred years old and has a capacity of about one lac people to offer prayers(Namaz) on Eid. There is Nakkashi on the walls of Eidgah which reflect the Sulatani Gulam era.
  • Basilica of Our Lady of Graces, Sardhana (Sardhana Church)[10]
  • Parikshitgarh – The place is associated with and derives its name from King Parikshit of Hastinapur (the grandson of Arjuna). The fort was built by Parikshit and restored by Gurjar King Nain Singh in the eighteenth century.[9][10]
  • Baleni[10]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b [1]. Census of India.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Chapter 3 – Findings: Metro Cities of India" (pdf). Central Pollution Control Board. pp. 63. http://www.cpcb.nic.in/EnvironmetalPlanning/ground/Chapter3.pdf. Retrieved 1 April 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Consultancy Services for preparation of the City Development Plan(CDP) for Meerut in the state of Uttar Pradesh under JNNURM" (pdf). Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. August 2006. pp. 209. http://www.jnnurm.nic.in/nurmudweb/toolkit/CDP_Meerut.pdf. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  4. ^ National Capital Region(U.P) Official Website
  5. ^ NCR | Delhi Live.com
  6. ^ http://www.citymayors.com/gratis/indian_cities.html
  7. ^ http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban_az3mr.html
  8. ^ Meerut City
  9. ^ a b c Homepage Meerut Official website.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Tourist places – Vidura-ka-tila Meerut Official website – Tourist Places
  11. ^ a b c d Meerut District – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 17, p. 254-255.
  12. ^ a b The Hindu temples on the plains near Meerut British Library.
  13. ^ Ashoka Pillar
  14. ^ Ashokan Pillar restoration
  15. ^ Ashokan Pillar Location Wikimapia.
  16. ^ Meerut City The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 17, p. 264.
  17. ^ 4. Preparation for the Conquest of Delhi... Malfuzat-i Timuri, or Tuzak-i Timuri (Autobiography of Timur), by Amir Tîmûr-i-lang, "The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period", by Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson; London, Trubner Company; 1867–1877.
  18. ^ http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Mutiny.html
  19. ^ http://www.meerutdistrict.com/history.htm History of Meerut
  20. ^ Meerut 1932 play, by Manchester street theater group the Red Megaphones Working Class Movement Library.
  21. ^ "The voice of a monologue" The Hindu 18 July 2004
  22. ^ "Looking for justice The Hindu 30 May 2002
  23. ^ "The art of not forgetting"Indian Express 27 February 1998.
  24. ^ "Justice out of sight". Frontline (magazine). Volume 22 – Issue 10, 7 – 20 May 2005. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2210/stories/20050520001504300.htm. 
  25. ^ "India Weather On Web" (XHTML 1.0 Transitional). India Meteorological Department. p. 1. http://www.mausam.gov.in/WEBIMD/ClimatologicalAction.do?function=getStationDetails&actionParam=1&param=2&station=Meerut. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  26. ^ a b "Meerut Cantonment: Historical Background". http://cbmeerut.org.in/index.html. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  27. ^ http://www.citymayors.com/statistics/urban_growth1.html
  28. ^ Sahni, Diksha (15 June 2011). "Why Meerut is More Vibrant Than Mumbai". The Wall Street Journal. http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2011/06/15/why-meerut-is-more-vibrant-than-mumbai/. 
  29. ^ "Realty Boom in Meerut – Credai-NCR". credaincr.org. http://credaincr.org/archive_news_details.php?nid=8631&m=1&y=2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  30. ^ a b "Realty Boom in Meerut". Times of India. India. 8 January 2011. http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Scripting/ArticleWin.asp?From=Archive&Source=Page&Skin=TOINEW&BaseHref=CAP/2011/01/08&PageLabel=53&EntityId=Ar05300&ViewMode=HTML&GZ=T. Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  31. ^ a b "Industrial Directory, District-Meerut" (pdf). Meerut Official Website. p. 29. http://meerut.nic.in/did_260810.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  32. ^ "Industrial Area Description – UPSIDC". UPSIDC. http://upsidc.com/search_action3.php?name=Meerut&ind_area=Udyog+Puram&Submit2=Submit. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  33. ^ "Industrial Area Description – UPSIDC". UPSIDC. http://upsidc.com/search_action3.php?name=Meerut&ind_area=Partapur&Submit2=Submit. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  34. ^ a b c "Report on Identification of Clusters inn and around Meerut City" (pdf). National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council. p. 39. http://nmcc.nic.in/pdf/culster_meerutcity_17January2008.pdf. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  35. ^ "Sporting Goods in Meerut, Meerut Sports Goods, Sporting Goods Manufacture in Meerut". sporting-goods-industry.com. p. 1. http://www.sporting-goods-industry.com/manufacturing-region-india/meerut-spoting-goods-manufacturing.html. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  36. ^ Vivek Kumar (9). "Entrepreneurial Idea around manufacturing Cricket bats". entrepreneurswebsite.com. http://www.entrepreneurswebsite.com/2010/05/09/entrepreneurial-idea-around-manufacturing-cricket-bats/. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  37. ^ "Meerut 9th in top 10 tax-paying cities". The Times of India (India). 1. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2008-07-01/india/27888870_1_direct-tax-collection-revenue-collection-meerut. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  38. ^ Lalit Kumar (23). "UP for Meerut Airport, Greater Noida Realty may skid" (XHTML 1.0 Transitional). Times of India (India): p. 1. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-02-23/delhi/28135312_1_land-rates-greater-noida-airport. Retrieved 30 March 2011. 
  39. ^ "NCR Transport Plan 2021" (pdf). p. 7. http://www.ncrpb.nic.in/pdf_files/10modified_ch06transport.pdf. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  40. ^ a b Soon, Meerut 45 mins away on rapid transit Pragya Kaushika The Indian Express 15 September 2010 – retrieved on 13 December 2010
  41. ^ Anand Vihar to Meerut RTS: 7 of 14 stations likely to be in Ghaziabad Pragya Kaushika The Indian Express 20 November 2010 – retrieved on 13 December 2010
  42. ^ high speed train route gets approval Hindustan Times 14 December 2010 – retrieved on 15 December 2010
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ [3]
  45. ^ Ranking of districts by population density
  46. ^ Census of India 2001
  47. ^ a b c census of India 2001
  48. ^ a b c "Census-2001: Literacy Rates by sex for State and Districts". Government of Uttar Pradesh. http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/census01/cen01-5.htm. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  49. ^ "CENSUS-2001". Government of Uttar Pradesh. p. 1. http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/census01/cen01-4.htm. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  50. ^ Census of India 2001
  51. ^ a b c Census of India 2001
  52. ^ "Census of India – India at a glance : Sex Ratio". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. p. 1. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/fsex.aspx. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  53. ^ "CENSUS-2001". Government of Uttar Pradesh. p. 1. http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/census01/cen01-9.htm. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  54. ^ "Crime in India – 2009 Statistics" (pdf). National Crime Records Bureau. pp. 438. http://ncrb.nic.in/CII-2009-NEW/Statistics2009.pdf. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  55. ^ a b c "Census-2001: Ranking of Districts by population size in 1991 and 2001". Government of Uttar Pradesh. http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/census01/cen01-1.htm. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  56. ^ "Population distribution, percentage decadal growth, sex ratio and Population Density". Government of Uttar Pradesh. http://upgov.nic.in/upinfo/census01/cen01-7.htm. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  57. ^ Radio IIMT
  58. ^ Meerut City Travel Guide
  59. ^ Uttar Pradesh Tourism Official Website
  60. ^ St. John's Church | India9.com
  61. ^ Cantonment Board Meerut Official Website – Heritage Sites
  62. ^ "List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains of Agra". Archaeological Survey of India. p. 1. http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_alphalist_uttarpradesh_agra.asp. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 

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