List of vegetable oils

Plant oils
Olive oil from Oneglia.jpg
Olive oil
Types
Vegetable fats (list)
Macerated (list)
Uses
Drying oil - Oil paint
Cooking oil
Fuel - Biodiesel
Components
Saturated fat
Monounsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat
Trans fat

There are three methods for extracting vegetable oils from plants. The relevant part of the plant may be placed under pressure to "extract" the oil, giving an expressed oil. Oils may also be extracted from plants by dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent. The solution may be separated from the plant material and concentrated, giving an extracted or leached oil. The mixture may also be separated by distilling the oil away from the plant material. Oils extracted by this latter method are called essential oils. Essential oils often have different properties and uses than pressed or leached vegetable oils. Macerated oils are made by infusing parts of plants in a base oil—a process called maceration.

The term "oil" is normally reserved for fats that are liquid at room temperature. A few entries do not satisfy this definition, but are included because they are comparable to the other oils listed here in most other respects.

Although most plants contain some oil, only the oil from certain major oil crops[1] complemented by a few dozen minor oil crops[2] is widely used and traded. These oils are one of several types of plant oils.

Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways, for example:

  • By source: most, but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or seeds of plants, and the oils may be classified by grouping oils from similar plants, such as "nut oils".
  • By use: oils from plants are used in cooking, for fuel, for cosmetics, for medical purposes, and for other industrial purposes.

The vegetable oils are grouped below in common classes of use.

Contents

Edible oils

Major oils

Sunflowers, the seeds of which are the source of Sunflower oil.

These oils account for a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils.

Nut oils

Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel, used to make Hazelnut oil.

Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. Most are quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.

Citrus oils

A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. Some, like lemon and orange oil, are used as essential oils, which is uncommon for pressed oils. The seeds of many if not most members of the citrus family yield usable oils.[27][28][29]

  • Grapefruit seed oil, extracted from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi). Grapefruit seed oil was extracted experimentally in 1930 and was shown to be suitable for making soap.[30]
  • Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. One of a small number of cold pressed essential oils.[31] Used as a flavoring agent[32] and in aromatherapy.[33]
  • Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled.[34] Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.[35]
    The fruit of the sea-buckthorn

Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Watermelon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris, is used in cooking in West Africa.

Members of the cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food.[36]

Food supplements

A number of oils are used as food supplements (or "nutraceuticals"), for their nutrient content or purported medicinal effect. Borage seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, and evening primrose oil all have a significant amount of gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA) (about 23%, 15–20% and 7–10%, respectively), and it is this that has drawn the interest of researchers.

Other edible oils

Carob seed pods, used to make carob pod oil.
Coriander seeds are the source of an edible pressed oil, Coriander seed oil.
Poppy seeds, used to make poppyseed oil
Shea nuts, from which shea butter is pressed

Oils used for biofuel

A flask of biodiesel
Sunflower kernels
Jojoba fruit

A number of oils are used for biofuel (biodiesel and Straight Vegetable Oil) in addition to having other uses. Other oils are used only as biofuel.[139][140]

Although diesel engines were invented, in part, with vegetable oil in mind,[141] diesel fuel is almost exclusively petroleum-based. Vegetable oils are evaluated for use as a biofuel based on:

  1. Suitability as a fuel, based on flash point, energy content, viscosity, combustion products and other factors
  2. Cost, based in part on yield, effort required to grow and harvest, and post-harvest processing cost

Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel

The oils listed immediately below are all (primarily) used for other purposes – all but tung oil are edible – but have been considered for use as biofuel.

Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel

These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated solely for producing oil-based biofuel.[159] These, plus the major oils described above, have received much more attention as fuel oils than other plant oils.

Drying oils

Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry to a hard finish at normal room temperature. Such oils are used as the basis of oil paints, and in other paint and wood finishing applications. In addition to the oils listed here, walnut, sunflower and safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils.[170]

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Other oils

A number of pressed vegetable oils are either not edible, or not used as an edible oil.

The fruit of the amur cork tree
Castor beans are the source of castor oil

See also

General references

Notes

  1. ^ Economic Research Service (1995-2011). Oil Crops Outlook. United States Department of Agriculture. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1288. Retrieved 2011-11-19.  This publication is available via email subscription.
  2. ^ Axtell, B.L. from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/X5043E00.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  3. ^ Miller, Frederic P.; Vandome, Agnes F. (July 31, 2010). Coconut Oil. ISBN 6130648731. http://books.google.com/?id=crRwcAAACAAJ&dq=coconut+oil. 
  4. ^ "Food Fats and Oils". Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils. 2006. p. 27. http://www.iseo.org/FoodFatsOils2006.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  5. ^ "Twenty Facts about Cottonseed Oil". National Cottonseed Producers Association. http://www.cottonseed.com/publications/facts.asp. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  6. ^ "Difference Between Olive oil and Extra Virgin Olive oil". Difference Between.net. http://www.differencebetween.net/object/difference-between-olive-oil-and-extra-virgin-olive-oil/. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  7. ^ "Palm Oil Facts". Soyatech. http://www.soyatech.com/Palm_Oil_Facts.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  8. ^ "Palm oil". Food dictionary. Epicurious. http://www.epicurious.com/tools/fooddictionary/entry/?id=3772. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  9. ^ "Corporate power: The palm-oil-biodiesel nexus". Seedling (GRAIN). July, 2007. http://www.grain.org/article/entries/611-corporate-power-the-palm-oil-biodiesel-nexus. 
  10. ^ Dean, Lisa L.; Davis, Jack P.; Sanders, Timothy H. (2011). "Groundnut (Peanut) Oil". In Frank Gunstone. Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses. John Wiley & Sons. p. 225. ISBN 1444332686. http://books.google.com/books?id=lnk2tdo8_P4C&lpg=PA322&dq=illipe%20butter&pg=PA226#v=onepage&q=peanut&f=false. 
  11. ^ "Canola Oil - The Myths Debunked". Canola Council of Canada. http://www.canola-council.org/canola_oil_the_truth.aspx. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  12. ^ Boland, Michael (January, 2011). "Safflower". Agriculture Marketing Resource Center. http://www.agmrc.org/commodities__products/grains__oilseeds/safflower.cfm. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  13. ^ Hansen, Ray (August, 2011). "Sesame profile". Agriculture Marketing Resource Center. http://www.agmrc.org/commodities__products/grains__oilseeds/sesame_profile.cfm. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  14. ^ Bennett, David (February 5, 2003). "World soybean consumption quickens". Southeast Farm Press. http://southeastfarmpress.com/mag/farming_world_soybean_consumption/index.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  15. ^ Boland, Michael; Stroade, Jeri (August 2011). "Sunflower profile". Agricultural Marketing Resource Center. http://www.agmrc.org/commodities__products/grains__oilseeds/sunflower_profile.cfm. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  16. ^ Axtell, "I. Individual monographs". http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E0d.htm#I.%20Individual%20monographs. 
  17. ^ Science Service (March 23, 1991). "Cashew oil may conquer cavities". Science News. http://www.highbeam.com/library/docfree.asp?DOCID=1G1:10597226&ctrlInfo=Round19%3AMode19a%3ADocG%3AResult&ao=. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  18. ^ Madhaven N. (2001). "Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract". Int J Toxicol. (20 Suppl 1): 15–20. 
  19. ^ a b c Simmons, Marie (2008). Things Cooks Love. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 295. ISBN 0740769766. http://books.google.com/?id=ox_giy4b-tkC&pg=PA295&dq=pistachio+oil#v=onepage&q=pistachio%20oil&f=false. 
  20. ^ Bafana, Busani (July 2009). "Mongongo–a tough nut worth cracking". New Agriculturist. http://new-ag.info/en/focus/focusItem.php?a=794. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  21. ^ Storey, J. Benton. "Pecans as a health food". Texas AgriLIFE Extension Service. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/fruit/pecanhealth/pecanhealth.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  22. ^ John Shi, Chi-Tang Ho, Fereidoon Shahidi eds., ed (Mary 15, 2010). "Antioxidant Functional Factors in Nuts". Functional Foods of the East. p. 353. ISBN 1420071920. http://books.google.com/books?id=7VENd7fgLIkC&lpg=PA353&dq=pine%20nut%20oil&pg=PA353#v=onepage&q=pine%20nut%20oil&f=false. 
  23. ^ Daley, Regan (2001). In the Sweet Kitchen: The Definitive Baker's Companion. Artisan Books. p. 159. ISBN 1579652085. http://books.google.com/books?id=9hm09yx6RDMC&lpg=PA159&dq=Pine%20seed%20oil&pg=PA159#v=onepage&q=Pine%20seed%20oil&f=false. 
  24. ^ Yu Liangli; Slavin, Margaret (2008). "Nutraceutical Potential of Pine Nut". In Cesarettin Alasalvar, Fereidoon Shahidi. Tree nuts: composition, phytochemicals, and health effects. CRC Press. p. 289. ISBN 0849337356. http://books.google.com/books?id=Uu4nzKx74noC&lpg=PA290&dq=pine%20nut%20oil&pg=PA290#v=onepage&q=pine%20nut%20oil&f=false. 
  25. ^ Powell, William F. (1990). Oil Painting Materials. Walter Foster. p. 43. ISBN 1560100567. 
  26. ^ Gottsegen, Mark. Painter's Handbook. p. 77. ISBN 0823034968. http://thepaintershandbook.com/. 
  27. ^ Ajewole, K; Adeyeye, A (1993). "Characterisation of Nigerian citrus seed oils". Food Chemistry 47 (1): 77–78. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(93)90306-Z. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=4779387. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  28. ^ Habib, M. A.; Hammam, M. A.; Sak, A. A.; Ashoush, Y. A. (1985). "Chemical evaluation of Egyptian citrus seeds as potential sources of vegetable oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 63 (9). http://www.springerlink.com/index/MW71651J48684715.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  29. ^ Filsoof, M; Mehran, M (1976). "Fatty acid composition of Iranian citrus seed oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 53 (10). http://www.springerlink.com/index/0388H86KP1420338.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  30. ^ Jamieson, G. S.; Baughman, W. F.; Gertler, S. I. (1930). "Grapefruit seed oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 7 (5): 181–183. doi:10.1007/BF02564074. http://www.springerlink.com/content/a20nh6v07293329r/. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  31. ^ S. R. J. Robbins, ed (1983). "The Citrus Oils: An Introductory Review". Selected markets for the essential oils of lime, lemon and orange. p. 17. 
  32. ^ Fenaroli, Giovanni (1975). Handbook of flavor ingredients. Taylor & Francis US. p. 577. ISBN 0878195335. 
  33. ^ Rose, Jeanne; Hulburd, John (1993). The aromatherapy book: applications & inhalations. North Atlantic Books. p. 110. ISBN 1556430736. 
  34. ^ Wong, Dominic W. S. (1989). Mechanism and theory in food chemistry. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 0442207530. http://books.google.com/books?id=UHi9LpuuHBMC&lpg=PA253&dq=%22orange%20oil%22%20cold-pressed%20byproduct&pg=PA253#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  35. ^ Ashurst, Philip R. (994). Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages. Springer. p. 81. ISBN 0834212897. http://books.google.com/books?id=ocZhAHR5Ne0C&lpg=PA81&dq=orange%20essential%20oil%20fragrance%20cleaning%20d-limonene&pg=PA81#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  36. ^ Axtell, "Cucurbitaceae
  37. ^ Kohno, H.; Yasui, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Hosokawa, M.; Miyashita, K.; Tanaka, T. (2004). "Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from bitter melon inhibits azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through elevation of colonic PPAR γ expression and alteration of lipid composition". International Journal of Cancer 110 (6): 896–901. doi:10.1002/ijc.20179. 
  38. ^ Axtell, "Bottle gourd"
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  40. ^ Ogrodnick, Joe (Spring 2009). "Butternut Squash Seed Oil Goes to Market". CALS News. http://calsnews.cornell.edu/2009spring/made/buttnernut-squash-oil.html. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  41. ^ Note that "egusi" is the common name of several species of melons, including Citrullus vulgaris cultivars and Lagenaria sicerari.
  42. ^ Kapseu, C.; Kamga, R.; Tchatchueng, J.B. (1993). "Triacylglycerols and fatty acids composition of egusi seed oil (Cucumeropsis Mannii Naudin')". Grasas y Aceites 44 (6): 354. 
  43. ^ Bavec, F.; Grobelnik Mlakar, S.; Rozman, Č.; Bavec, M. (2007). J. Janick and A. Whipkey. ed. "Oil Pumpkins: Niche for Organic Producers". Issues in new crops and new uses (ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.). http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu07/pdfs/bavec185-189.pdf. 
  44. ^ G. J. H. Grubben, ed. "Citrullus". Plant resources of tropical Africa: Vegetables. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. p. 185. ISBN 9057821478. 
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  46. ^ Schauss, Alexander G.; Jensen, Gitte S.; Wu, Xianli. "Açai (Euterpe oleracea)". Flavor and Health Benefits of Small Fruits. pp. 213–223. doi:10.1021/bk-2010-1035.ch013. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-2010-1035.ch013. 
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  48. ^ Jacobson, Hilary (2004). Mother Food for Breastfeeding Mothers. PageFree Publishing, Inc.. p. 364. ISBN 1589612299. http://books.google.com/books?id=3LQ57_4VdkoC&lpg=PA265&dq=%22black%20seed%20oil%22&pg=PA264#v=onepage&q=%22black%20seed%20oil%22&f=false. 
  49. ^ Worku, Mulumabet; Gerald, Carresse (2007). "C. elegans Chemotaxis and Reproduction Following Environmental Exposure". Proceedings of the 2007 National Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. Springer. ISBN 0387884823. http://books.google.com/books?id=RYE6YKPdFDEC&lpg=PA289&dq=%22black%20seed%20oil%22&pg=PA285#v=onepage&q=%22black%20seed%20oil%22&f=false. 
  50. ^ al-Jawzīyah, Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Ibn Qayyim; Al Jauziyah, Imam Ibn Qayyim; Abdullah, Abdul Rahman (2003). second. ed. Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet. Darussalam. p. 261. ISBN 9960892913. http://books.google.com/books?id=prBB0SHtoWYC&lpg=PA262&dq=%22black%20seed%20oil%22&pg=PA261#v=onepage&q=%22black%20seed%20oil%22&f=false. 
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  52. ^ Shahidi, Fereidoon; Miraliakbari, Homan (2005). "Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)". In Paul M. Coates. Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. CRC Press. p. 197. ISBN 0824755049. http://books.google.com/books?id=Sfmc-fRCj10C&lpg=PA197&dq=Evening%20primrose%20Oenothera%20biennis&pg=PA197#v=onepage&q=Evening%20primrose%20Oenothera%20biennis&f=false. 
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  60. ^ The Targanine cooperative was founded by Prof. Zoubida Charrouf in the 1990s to help local poor, widowed and divorced women derive an income from producing and exporting high-quality argan oil. See "Au Pays de l'Huile Argan" (in French). BioInfo: pp. 30–32. http://www.bio-info.be/pages/pdf_telechargeable/BIOinfo_82.pdf. 
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  118. ^ Ju Yi-Hsu; Rayat, C.M.E. (2009). "Biodiesel from Rice Bran Oil". In Ashok Pandey. Handbook of plant-based biofuels. CRC Press. pp. 241–253. ISBN 1560221755. http://books.google.com/?id=7reTmIFGHWAC&pg=PA253&dq=rice+bran+oil#v=onepage&q=rice%20bran%20oil&f=false. 
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  126. ^ Kanya, T.C. Sindhu; Urs, M. Kantaraj (January, 1989). "Studies on taramira (eruca sativa) seed oil and meal". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 66 (1): 139. doi:10.1007/BF02661804. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x330432p0t0l5142/. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
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  130. ^ Parry Jr., John Wynne (2006). Value-adding factors in cold-pressed edible seed oils and flours. ProQuest. ISBN 9780542962370. http://books.google.com/books?id=cEn-kkBcD0cC&lpg=PA111&dq=thistle%20oil&pg=PA112#v=onepage&q=thistle&f=false. , p. 22
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  135. ^ Harborne, p. 104
  136. ^ Eller, F.J.; Moser, J.K.; Kenar, J.A.; Taylor, S.L. (2010). "Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 87 (7): 755–762. doi:10.1007/s11746-010-1563-4. http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=244530. 
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  139. ^ Ethanol and, to a lesser degree, methanol and butanol are the other major types of biofuel.
  140. ^ a b c d "Bio fuels". Castoroil.in. http://www.castoroil.in/reference/plant_oils/uses/fuel/bio_fuels.html. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  141. ^ a b Tebbutt, Jeff. "An outline on Bio-diesel production and the fundamentals of Handling and car conversion". Bio Integrated Organic. p. 3. http://www.suffolkcoastal.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/178BB9C3-16E5-4766-A9CF-9BE8BBFB6202/0/BiodieselPrestentation.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  142. ^ "Castor Oil as Biodiesel & Biofuel". CastorOil.in. http://www.castoroil.in/uses/fuel/castor_oil_fuel.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  143. ^ Cloin, Jan. "Coconut Oil as a Biofuel in Pacific Islands–Challenges & Opportunities". South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. http://www.unesco.org/csi/smis/siv/Forum/CoconutOilFuelPacific_JanCloin.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  144. ^ Kraminska, N.; Teleto, О.. "The as the way to energy safety of the economy of the Ukraine". Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine. http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/bitstream/123456789/8251/1/4.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  145. ^ Morgan, Ben. "Economic Analysis and Feasibility of Cottonseed Oil as a Biodiesel Feedstock". Texas Tech University, Industrial Engineering Department. http://www.cottonseed.com/whatsnew/TTU%20BIODIESEL%20pp1-4.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
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  148. ^ Benhaim, Paul (2003). "Hemp as a Biofueld". H.E.M.P.: Healthy Eating Made Possible. Raw With Life. pp. 76–77. ISBN 1901250644. http://books.google.com/books?id=g-JiO1vo_OQC&lpg=PT77&dq=hemp%20oil&pg=PT77#v=onepage&q=hemp%20oil&f=false. 
  149. ^ Peterson, C.L.; Thompson, J.; Jones, S.; Hollenback, D. (November 2001). "Biodiesel from Yellow Mustard Oil". U.S. Department of Transportation. http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=713388. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  150. ^ Jackson, Wes (Fall 1999). "Clearcutting the Last Wilderness". The Land Report (The Land Institute) (65). http://www.biotech-info.net/clearcut.html. 
  151. ^ Hobbs, Steve. "Bio-diesel, farming for the future". Australian Agronomy Society. http://www.bebioenergy.com/documents/agronomyconfpaper.doc. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  152. ^ Axtell, "Noog abyssinia"
  153. ^ Rachmaniah, Orchidea; Ju Yi-Hsu; Vali, Shaik Ramjan; Tjondronegoro, Ismojowati; and Musfil, A.S. (2004). "A Study on Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification of Crude Rice Bran Oil for Biodiesel Production". World Energy Congress (19). http://www.its.ac.id/personal/files/pub/3296-orchidea-chem-eng-TIE01_200707.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  154. ^ Chef Boy Ari (January 5, 2006). "Safflower Oil in your Tank". The Durango Telegraph. http://www.durangotelegraph.com/index.cfm/archives/2006/january-05-2006/safflower-in-your-tank/. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  155. ^ Dickenson, Marty (July 10, 2008). "The old man who farms with the sea". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/science/environment/la-fi-seafarm10-2008jul10,0,1092501,full.story. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  156. ^ Peterson, Charles L.; Auld, Dick L. (1991). "Technical Overview of Vegetable Oil as a Transportation Fuel". FACT: Solid Fuel Conversion for the Transportation Sector (ASME) 12. http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/19910101_GEN-292.pdf. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  157. ^ "Journey to Forever: Bio-diesel Yield". http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yield.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  158. ^ Farago, Robert (July 15, 2008). "China Builds Tung Tree Oil Biodiesel Plants". The Truth about Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2008/07/china-builds-tung-tree-oil-biodiesel-plants/. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  159. ^ There are some plants that yield a commercial vegetable oil, that are also used to make other sorts of biofuel. Eucalyptus, for example, has been explored as a means of biomass for producing ethanol. These plants are not listed here.
  160. ^ Duke Handbook, "Copaifera langsdorfii Desf."
  161. ^ Ramoo, S.K. (April 6, 2001). "A case for Honge oil as substitute for diesel". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2001/04/06/stories/0406402j.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  162. ^ "Honge Oil proves to be a good biodiesel". Good News India. http://www.goodnewsindia.com/Pages/content/discovery/honge.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  163. ^ "The Jatropha System". http://www.jatropha.org/. Retrieved 2006-07-31. 
  164. ^ Pramanik, K. (February 2003). "Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine". Renewable Energy 28 (2): 239–248. doi:10.1016/S0960-1481(02)00027-7. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148102000277. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  165. ^ Duke Handbook, "Simmondsia chinensis"
  166. ^ Duke Handbook, "Euphorbia tirucalli
  167. ^ Salunkhe, p 522
  168. ^ "Lakshmi Taru tree answer to climate change problems: experts". oneIndia News. April 15, 2007. http://news.oneindia.in/2007/04/15/lakshmi-taru-tree-answer-to-climate-change-problems-experts-1176620662.html. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  169. ^ Duke Handbook, "Pittosporum resiniferum
  170. ^ a b "The Encyclopedia of Painting Materials: Drying oils". http://www.cad-red.com/mt2/oil.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  171. ^ Smyth, Herbert Warington (1906). Mast & Sail in Europe & Asia. p. 416. http://books.google.com/books?id=ATNFAAAAYAAJ&dq=Mast%20%26%20Sail%20in&pg=PA416#v=onepage&q=dammar&f=false. Retrieved 2011-10-19.  (Mentions the use of dammar oil in marine paints)
  172. ^ Database of Oil Yielding Plants
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  174. ^ "Vegetable and Animal Oils and Fats". Definition and Classification of Commodities. FAO. 1992. http://www.fao.org/es/faodef/fdef14e.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  175. ^ Axtell, "Chinese vegetable tallow
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  177. ^ Teynor, T.M. (1992). "Vernonia". Alternative Field Crops Manual. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/vernonia.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  178. ^ Schery, Robert W. (1972). Plants for man. Prentice-Hall. p. 325. ISBN 0136812546. 
  179. ^ Schechter, M.S.; Haller, H.L. (1943). "The insecticidal principle in the fruit of Amur corktree (Phellodendron amurense)". Journal of Organic Chemistry 8 (2): 194–197. doi:10.1021/jo01190a012. 
  180. ^ Miceli, A.; De Leo, P. (September 1996). "Extraction, characterization and utilization of artichoke-seed oil". Bioresource Technology 57 (3): 301–302. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(96)00075-2. 
  181. ^ Kleiman, R. (1990). J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). ed. "Chemistry of new industrial oilseed crops". Advances in new crops (Timber Press, Portland, OR): 196–203. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/v1-196.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  182. ^ Zhang Hong; Yang Jing Yu; Zhou Fan; Wang Li Hui; Zhang Wen; Sha Sha; Wu Chun Fu. "Seed Oil of Brucea javanica Induces Apoptotic Death of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells via Both the Death Receptors and the Mitochondrial-Related Pathways". Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/965016. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/965016/. 
  183. ^ Lou, G.G.; Yao, H.P.; Xie, L.P. (2010). "Brucea javanica oil induces apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cells via upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and inhibition of NF-kappaB and COX-2 expressions". Am J Chin Med 38 (3): 613–24. doi:10.1142/S0192415X10008093. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20503476. 
  184. ^ Duke, James A. (1997). The green pharmacy: new discoveries in herbal remedies for common diseases and conditions from the world's foremost authority on healing herbs. Rodale. ISBN 0875963161. http://books.google.com/books?id=KRx6bcLE3T8C&lpg=PA154&dq=burdock%20oil%20scalp&pg=PA154#v=onepage&q=burdock%20oil%20scalp&f=false. 
  185. ^ Elevitch, Craig R.; Manner, Harley I. (2006). Traditional trees of Pacific Islands: their culture, environment, and use. PAR. p. 53. ISBN 0970254458. http://books.google.com/books?id=RZV5f4EnTf8C&lpg=PA317&dq=Rose%20hip%20seed%20oil&pg=PA317#v=onepage&q=Rose%20hip%20seed%20oil&f=false. 
  186. ^ Carrot seeds are also used to obtain an essential oil with quite different properties than carrot seed pressed oil.
  187. ^ Yu, Lucy Liangli; Zhou, Kevin Kequan; Parry, John (2005). "Antioxidant properties of cold-pressed black caraway, carrot, cranberry, and hemp seed oils". Food chemistry 91 (4): 723–729. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.044. ISSN 0308-8146. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16541373. 
  188. ^ Axtell, "Chaulmoogra"
  189. ^ Felter, Harvey Wickes; Lloyd, John Uri (1898). "Gynocardia—Chaulmoogra". King's American Dispensatory. http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/gynocardia.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  190. ^ Cottle, Wyndham (28). "Chaulmoogra Oil in Leprosy". The British Medical Journal 1 (965): 968–969. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.965.968. JSTOR . 25251370 .. 
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