Music history of the United States (1980s to the present)
The 1980s saw New Wave entering the year as the single biggest mainstream market, with heavy metal,
punk rockand hardcore punk, and hip hop achieving increased crossover success. With the demise of punk rock, a new generation of punk-influenced genres arose, including Gothic rock, post-punk, alternative rock, emo and thrash metal. Hip hop underwent its first diversification, with Miami bass, Chicago hip housesahani rathnayke, Washington DC go go, Detroit ghettotech, Los Angeles electroclash and the golden age of old school hip hopin New York City. House musicdeveloped in Chicago, techno musicdeveloped in Detroitwhich also saw the flowering of the Detroit Soundin gospel. This helped inspire the greatest crossover success of Christian Contemporary Music(CCM), as well as the Miami Soundof Cuban pop.
In the beginning of the 1990s, formulaic metal bands dominated the charts until 1991, when
G Funk gangsta rap, led by Dr. Dre, and Seattle-born grunge music, led by Nirvana, knocked metal off the charts. Both genres were full of energy at the beginning of the decade, with grunge reacting against the perceived superficiality of recent rock trends, and Dr. Dre's Death Row Recordsstable of artists proudly placing the West Coast on the hip hop map. Both genres died out, however, both in the matter of the few months later in the decade. In its place arose a variety of brief, minor trends that failed to catch on. In rock, third wave of skaand pop punkbands, British techno music, funk metal, nu metal, riot grrl, alternative rockand industrial rockachieved sporadic success. Hip hop saw the East Coast reassert its primacy, and other cities, including Atlanta, Saint Louis, Detroitand New Orleansbecame major centers of commercial hip hop. Alternative hip hopalso flourished into the next millennium, when it accompanied the much-hyped garage rockrevival and a massive pop interest in teen idol boy bands and divas, many with a Latin flourish.
The American music industry of the very early 1980s was in a state of flux, which Reebee Garofolo claims reflects the state of American society, in turmoil with the election of
Ronald Reagan(p. 353). Disco, the most popular style of the late 1970s, was dead, and the once vibrant field of punk rock was fractured, producing offshoots like New Wave music. The term "New Wave" was used very loosely, describing a vast range of styles from the arty punk of Elvis Costelloto the Talking Headsand the New Romantics; this vagueness temporarily threw the "marketing categories of the music industry" into "disarray" (Garofolo, 353). The record industry itself suffered a recession during this period, a feat which many had thought impossible during the early 1970s, when the industry's profits had risen phenomenally quickly. Between 1978 and 1979, sales within the United States dropped by 11% (Garofolo, 354).
New Wave's main-stream popularity was brief. By 1984 (
1984 in music), hair metal, long a dormant part of the Los Angeles music scene, started its reign on the charts. Led by hypermasculine bands like Quiet Riot(" Metal Health"), Van Halen("Van Halen") and Mötley Crüe(" Shout at the Devil"), hair metal reached its popular peak in the late 1980s with Def Leppard's "Hysteria" and Bon Jovi's "New Jersey". Guns N' Roses' " Appetite for Destruction" burst onto the scene late in the decade, and launched a new, short-lived era of more machoistic posturing and harsh, critical lyrics, mixed with the occasional ballad and virtuosic riff.
Popular music in the 1980s focused on two developments. A smooth, ballad-oriented pop-soul fusion labeled
contemporary R&Bevolved and dominated the pop charts, especially in the early part of the decade. Lionel Richie("Can't Slow Down"), Michael Jackson("Thriller"),Madonna (" Material Girl/ Like A Virgin/ Like A Prayer") Whitney Houston("Whitney Houston") Prince ("Purple Rain") George Michael(" Faith") Cindy Lauper(" Time AfterTime") exemplified this field. Madonna's look and manner of dress, live performances and music videos, became increasingly influential among young girls and woman, define by jewelry bearing the christian cross, skirts over capri pants, bleached hair.This style became an iconic female fashion trend in the 80's.
Hip hop began its course to mainstream popularity with occasional fringe success in the early 80s --
Kurtis Blow("Kurtis Blow") and LL Cool J("Radio") introduced the sound to white listeners, while Afrika Bambaataa & the Soulsonic Force("") and Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five("The Message") innovated new methods in MCing and DJing. Distinct regional variations including Miami bass, LA electro hop, DC go goand Chicago hip housebecame popular locally and influenced later artists. Of these, bass artists like 2 Live Crew(" 2 Live Crew Is What We Are") became most famous for sexually explicit lyrics and controversy, while hip house has proven enormously influential on the then developing house musicscene and would go on to influence much of electronicaand techno.
In the 1980s, punk music began incorporating
reggae, skaand other international influences, while heavy metal diversified in the wake of the success of hair metal. Thrash, death and power metalemerged. Bands like R.E.M. ("Murmur") also led an interest in the alternative rockscene. All around the country, pop- and hard rock-oriented bands evolving in a state of popular dismissal but critical acclaim had developed a unique sound. Bands like the Pixies("Doolittle") and Hüsker Dü(" New Day Rising") made only minor waves on the charts, but fermented a serious revolution in music. A new generation of listeners hated the bombastic, corporate sterility of formulaic glam metalbands, and reacted against them.
The 1980s also saw intense diversification in
salsa music, which added Latin rap, jazzand other influences. Cuban songo influenced the form, and helped lead to a period of Cuban salsa dominating the genre. Popular salsa from the United States during the '80s including salsa romanticaand Miami Soundperformers.
1980s gospel was marked by a slick, pop form of
Contemporary Christian Music(CCM), most influentially performed by artists like Amy Grant, as well as both traditional and radical singers and choirs, including Kirk Franklinand the Sounds of Blackness. The Detroit Soundof gospel arose during the '80s and remained current in the '90s, dominated by The Winansand The Clarks. Klezmermusic took two different directions during the 1980s. Perennial favorites The Klezmatics, alongside artists like the Flying Bulgar Klezmer Bandand Brave Old World, radically reinvented the genre, adding influences from around the world. Another movement, based primarily in Europe, brought klezmer back to its traditional roots.
R. Carlos Nakai, a Navajo-Ute, released "Changes", a multi-platinum album that launched a revival in the Native American flute. Combined with sounds of nature and ambient electronics, this set the stage for the modern incarnation of New Age music. Three years later, a tradition of Navajo spoken wordpoetry began with John Trudell's " Aka Graffiti Man".
In 1981, David Byrne and
Brian Enoreleased "My Life in the Bush of Ghosts", which defined what came to be known as world musicby fusing African and Arab vocals over trance-like dance beats. A year later, Peter Gabriellaunched WOMADin Britain; the festival has since become a world music showcase and launched the careers of artists like Youssou N'Dour. In 1986, Paul Simon's blockbuster "Graceland" made world music briefly mainstream, bringing in South African artists like Ladysmith Black Mambazoand Mahlathini & the Mahotella Queens. In 1989, David Byrne and Peter Gabriel founded record labels ( Luaka Bopand RealWorld, respectively) that soon dominated the field.
in the mainstream.
"Nevermind" changed everything and carried a number of other grunge albums around it into popularity. "
Smells Like Teen Spirit" gained "anthem of a generation" status. The following singles "Come As You Are", "Lithium", " On a Plain", and " In Bloom" all charted very successfully and tickets on the supporting "Nevermind" tour sold out quickly. However, in 1994 lead singer and principle song writer Kurt Cobaincommitted suicide in his Seattle home. Nirvana drummer Dave Grohlformed his own band called Foo Fighterswho have achieved success in their own right. Krist Novoselicremains active both musically and in politics.
Though "Nevermind" had more of a jumpstart, and is generally thought of as being more influential,
Pearl Jam's "Ten" album is the most successful grunge album to date, with the hit songs "Alive", "Jeremy", " Even Flow", "Once", and "Black" gaining popularity on radio and MTV. Since "Ten" Pearl Jamhas had seven studio albums to date and they are still continuing to tour and produce albums. Pearl Jam's new singles " World Wide Suicide", and " Life Wasted" are currently getting heavy rotation on alternative rock stations. Alice in Chainshit the mainstream in 1991 with their singles " We Die Young", and " Man in the Box." But in 1992 they released their follow-up album "Dirt", and the singles " Would?", " Them Bones", "Rooster", and " Angry Chair." Though not as successful as "Nevermind" and "Ten", "Dirt" is considered to be one the best albums of the grunge era. In 2002 lead singer Layne Staleydied of a drug overdose. However, Alice in Chainscontinue to tour but have not recorded an album since 1995. Soundgardenwas the second band labeled grunge, although they formed in the mid 80s. However, they were the last in the grunge era to enjoy major success. Though nominated for a Grammy, " Louder Than Love" was not very successful commercially. Their second hint of success came in 1991 with the release of " Badmotorfinger" with 2 hit singles and a sold out tour with Guns N' Roses. But four years later after extensive touring and writing Soundgardenreleased their breakthrough album " Superunknown", with the singles " Spoonman", " Fell on Black Days", and the most successful, " Black Hole Sun." By that time, Soundgardenwere considered the "next big thing" though they only released one more album, which was not as successful as its predecessor. The band broke up on the tour, Chris Cornell, after leaving the band Audioslaveafter seven years is currently releasing solo albums.l
Other grunge bands that enjoyed lesser degrees of success include
Stone Temple Pilotswith the lead single "Plush." Kurt Cobain's wife Courtney Lovehad a popular band entitled Hole with the such singles as "Miss World" and " Doll Parts". Other less commercially successful bands include L7, Mudhoney, and Mother Love Bone.
In addition, former
N.W.A.member Dr. Dre(" The Chronic") brought gangsta rapto pop audiences. By the mid-90s, alternative rock groups had died out among mainstream listeners, and gangsta rap took over. The middle of the decade also saw a boom in electronic music's (sometimes referred to generically as " electronica") popularity. Despite the fact that Detroitoriginally developed techno and Chicagodeveloped house both in the mid-1980s, these forms remained largely underground and unknown in their country of origin. Electronic music genres were popularized primarily in Britain through the acid house, rave of the late 1980s and early 1990s and were later reinterpreted and "re-exported" back into the United States. Electronica's many permutations achieved some mainstream success throughout the last half of the decade. Bubblegum poplike the Spice Girlsalso returned after a decade of more-or-less dormancy during the period of hair metal and grunge, both highly opposed to clean, slick and shiny content. Also, by the late 90's Madonna created one of the great Pop masterpieces of the 90's (" Ray Of Light")which garnered her the Grammy for best Pop album of the year.
Gangsta rap in the 1980s had focused on the two coasts originally, with West Coast pioneers like
Ice-T("6 N Da Mornin'") and Too $hort (" Born to Mack") and East Coast artists like Schoolly D(" Saturday Night - The Album") achieving fame among blacks and mainstream success being limited to hardcore groups like N.W.A.(" Straight Outta Compton"), politically controversial groups like Public Enemy (" It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back") and fledgling alternative hip hopgroups like De La Soul(" 3 Feet High and Rising") and A Tribe Called Quest(" The Low End Theory"). East Coast rappers like Slick Rick(" The Great Adventures of Slick Rick") had defined that coast's sound in the late 80s, and it had been far and away the center for hip hop until Dr. Dre's " The Chronic" put the West Coast on the hip hop map. Boasting a radio-friendly G funksound, based primarily off funksamples, West Coast rapsoon became the dominant sound among pop audiences with rappers like Snoop Doggy Dogg(" Doggystyle") and Tupac Shakur(" Me Against the World") achieving mainstream success. East Coast rappers like Notorious B.I.G.(" Ready to Die") and Nas (" Illmatic") tended to be more well-received critically, but were consistently unable to match the West Coast in pop sales. The rivalry between the two coasts came to a head by 1996 ( 1996 in music), when the deaths of Notorious B.I.G. and Tupac Shakur rocked the world of hip hop. With West Coast head Suge Knightimprisoned (unrelated to the murders) and East Coast quickly becoming dominated by Puff Daddy's releases aimed at purely pop audiences, rap music splintered. A new generation of southern rappers like OutKast(" ATLiens") and Goodie Mob("Soul Food") emerged from Atlanta, as well as vibrant scenes in St. Louis and New Orleans. The Fugees("The Score") also fused hip hop sounds with dub, dancehalland reggae, popular Jamaican forms, to great mainstream success. East Coast rap's reputation among critics during its popular domination by watered-down pop acts like Puff Daddy("No Way Out") and Mase(" Harlem World") was saved by the Wu Tang Clan(" Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)"), DMX (" And Then There Was X"), Busta Rhymes(" The Coming") and other rappers that used a distinctively East Coast sound without catering to mainstream markets. On the West Coast, a period of relatively poor sales for Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg and the imprisonment of Suge Knight, led to the subsequent collapse of Death Row Recordsand a drought in mainstream popularity. In the late part of the decade, Eminem(" The Marshall Mathers LP") emerged as one of the country's biggest stars. The Missouri-born rapper achieved success early in his career with radio-friendly hooks and pop beats; he quickly became the first white rapper to cross over to mainstream audiences without losing his critical viability. Alanis Morissettealso reached popularity during this point, giving rise to the singer-songwritertraditions of predecessors Carole King, Joni Mitchelland Tracy Chapman. Her album " Jagged Little Pill" became one of the most popular albums of the decade. Following her success included other popular female performers including Fiona Appleand Jewel.
Other 90s trends
Power popbands like Weezer("The Blue Album"), jam bands like Phish(" A Picture of Nectar") and pop-punkand skacoregroups like Green Day(" Dookie") and Sublime ("Sublime") rose to some prominence, with late punk and ska bands achieving the most mainstream success. No Doubt(" Tragic Kingdom"), Rancid (" ...And Out Come the Wolves") and similar bands released blockbuster albums in the middle of the decade.
The American indie rock scene also thrived in the early and mid 90s, with bands such as Pavement,
Guided by Voices, and Sonic Youthhaving a little success. Mostly these bands went unnoticed by the average music consumer but indie albums such as Slanted and Enchanted, Bee Thousand, and Goo are now acknowledged as some of the best of the decade.
After a decade of hip hop influenced R&B recordings from artists such as
Mary J. Blige, TLC, and BLACKstreet, early 1970s the sounds of soul music re-emerged with a sub-genre called neo soul; Lauryn Hill(" The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill"), Erykah Badu(" Baduizm") and D'Angelo("Voodoo") spearheaded this movement. Most of the conteporary music scene continued to follow the pop-styled template set by Michael Jackson, Prince, Whitney Houston and others during the 1980s, and continued by Boyz II Men, Mariah Carey, Celine Dion, and Babyface. Successful stars such as Usher, Beyoncé, and Destiny's Child, and others finding fame during this period. In hard rock, multiple trends developed. Industrial rockexperienced widespread popularity throughout the mid to late 90's, primarily through the efforts of Trent Reznorand his band Nine Inch Nails, released in 1994, The Downward Spiralsold over 5 million copies and cemented Reznor's mainstream success and for a period positioned him as the heir to Cobain in the minds of disaffected teenagers. Industrial received a further shot in the arm with the success of Reznor's protege Marilyn Mansonand his breakthrough album Antichrist Superstarin 1996, however the Columbine Massacreled to unsubtantiated criticism of Manson's music and it's effect on teenagers and significantly affected his mainstream popularity. Industrial had largely decline in popularity by the turn of the century, however both Nine Inch Nails and Manson are still active with large fanbases and members of the musical community have credited Reznor's production and musical style as a huge influence on the nascent nu metalscene. Thrash metalwas invented in the early 80s by bands like Metallica(" Kill 'Em All") and Slayer(" Reign in Blood"), drawing influence from Punk Rock and New Wave of British Heavy Metalacts. It achieved some mainstream success before mutating into nu metal(such as System of a Down("Toxicity")) in the latter half of the 1990s. However, thrash metal artist Panterasaved thrash from extinction just as nu metal was hitting its stride. Rapcorebands (that mix hip hop and metal) also emerged; Limp Bizkit("Significant Other") and KoЯn(" Life Is Peachy") were the most popular, drawing heavily upon early pioneers in the field like Faith No More("Angel Dust") and Anthrax (" Among the Living").
The 1990s also saw a boom in
funk metalbands like Red Hot Chili Peppers("Californication") and female singer-songwriterslike Tori Amos(" Boys for Pele"), relying on late 80s pioneers like Tracy Chapman("Tracy Chapman") and P.J. Harvey(" Rid of Me").
Another major musical style of the 1990s was pop-country groups, beginning with
honky tonkcrooners like Clint Black("Killin' Time"), Alan Jackson(" A Lot About Livin' (And a Little 'Bout Love)") and Garth Brooks(" Ropin' the Wind"), the sound exploded into mainstream audiences with the crossover success of Shania Twain("Come on Over"), the Dixie Chicks("Fly"), Faith Hill("Breathe"), and other female singers in the middle of the decade. Verdell Primeauxand Johnny Mikereleased "", an influential album that fused Peyote Songs with electronic backwashes and other modern flourishes. In 1994, part Mohawk Robbie Robertson(of The Band) put together the soundtrackfor a documentary as part of an exploration of his Native American heritage. The resulting album, " Music for the Native Americans", was extremely popular and has proven itself influential, bringing Native American artists to some segments of mainstream audiences.
Since the turn of the millennium, two major developments in American popular music have occurred. The dominance of
bubblegum poplike *NSYNC(" No Strings Attached") and Backstreet Boys(" Backstreet's Back") continued from the 90s, and also grew to include Latin stars like Shakira(" Laundry Service"), Ricky Martin(" Sound Loaded") and Christina Aguilera("Christina Aguilera"). In addition to these slick sounds, a growing number of domestic and foreign garage rockbands have achieved notable success, including The Strokes(" Is This It?") and the White Stripes("White Blood Cells"). Also, with the increasing popularity of online catalogs of music, (such as iTunes, Rhapsody, and Amazon) there has been a rise in niche and independent music.
A return to the roots of American country-rock music is slowly becoming an American music trend as artists like
Brandi Carlileemerge. Also, with the echo boom generation taking over, more music is starting to influence the music of baby boomersand many teenagers and young adults are starting to be interested in music from older decades, especially the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s.
Other styles that emerged in the 2000s includes a newer form of hip-hop, which is more melodic and has cleaner (usually overly-sexual) themes than the older hip-hop that was dominant in the 1980s and 1990s. Examples of those include
snap musicand crunk, and the rise of emo and pop-punk, which had been rising since the late 1990s.
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