Arad, Romania

Infobox Settlement
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
timezone=EET
utc_offset=+2
timezone_DST=EEST
utc_offset_DST=+3
map_caption = Location of Arad, Romania



image_caption = Arad city Hall



flag_link = |official_name=Arad
image_shield=Coa Arad RO.png

subdivision_type1=County
subdivision_name1=Arad County
subdivision_type2=Status
subdivision_name2=Autolink|Municipality
settlement_type=Municipality|, County capital
leader_title=Mayor
leader_name=Gheorghe Falcă
|leader_party=Democratic Party
area_total_km2=46.18
population_as_of=2002
population_total=172,827|latd=46|latm=10|lats=|latNS=N|longd=21|longm=19|longs=|longEW=E|
website=http://www.primariaarad.ro

Arad (pronunciation in Romanian: IPA|/a'rad/; Hungarian: "Arad"; Serbian: Арад, "Arad") is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in Crişana, Ardeal, on the river Mureş.

Arad is a modern-built city and contains many charming private and public buildings, including a cathedral. An important industrial center and transportation hub, it is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox bishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training school for teachers, and a music conservatory.

Population

(1.31%); and 2,116 of other nationalities (1.22%).

The principal religious groups were the Romanian Orthodox (72.7%), Roman Catholic (12.1%), Baptist (4.5%), Pentecostal (4.4%), Reformed (3.1%), and Greek-Catholic (1.1%) churches.

History

Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed that defensive fortifications were needed, and in the second half of the 13th century stone fortresses at Soimos (Solymos), Siria (Világos), and Dezna (Dézna) were built. The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. She was also an eyalet center, which compromised sanjaks of Varad (Arad), Logoş, Kacaş, Beşlek and Yanova since 1660 until 1697, when she was captured by Austrians during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683-1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 German families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.

The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.

Bravely defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the revolution. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (August 11, 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.

The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender of Görgey to the Russians at Şiria/"Világos" and is now used as an ammunition depot.

Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on October 6, 1849, by order of the Austrian general Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals. According to a legend has it that during the execution, the Austrian soldiers were drinking beer and clinking the glass celebrating the victory over the Hungarians. After that Hungarians promised not to clink glasses when they drank beer for 150 Years (it was considered dishonoring to the 13 generals).

Arad enjoyed a great economic development. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.

"Aradu Nou" / "Újarad" ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mureş/Maros, is a suburb of Arad, to which it is connected by a bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.

In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans. [Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, [http://www.talmakiado.hu/ Talma Kiadó] ]

Chronology

*1028 - First time the area was mentioned
*1078 - 1081 - The first mention of the town
*1131 - Arad is mentioned in "The Painted chronicle from Vienna"
*1551 - 1697 - The town was occupied and administered by the Ottoman Empire
*1702 - The furriers' guild was registered - the oldest one
*1715 - Camil Hofflich, a minorite monk, set up the first school - German language
*1765 - 1783 - A new fortress was build, in "Vauban" style
*1812 - The foundation of Preparandia - "the first Romanian pedagogy school in Transylvania"
*1817 - Hirschl Theatre was built - the first stone theatre in the country
**1868 - Mihai Eminescu participated as prompter
*1833 - "The sixth European Music School was set up in Arad", after Paris, Prague, Brussels, Vienna, and London - "Arader Musik Conservatorium"/"Aradi Zenede"
*1834 – Arad obtained the "free royal town" statute
*6 October1849 - 13 generals of the Hungarian revolutionary army executed
*1890 - The founding of The Philharmonic Society""
**1846 - Ferencz Liszt performed
**1847 - Johann Strauss the Son performed
**1877 - Pablo Sarasate and Henryk Wieniawski performed
**1922 - George Enescu performed
**1924 - Béla Bartók performed
*August 15, 1899 - The first official football game was held
*April 10, 1913Arad - Podgoria, the first electrical railway in Eastern Europe and the eighth in the world was built in Arad
*1918 - Arad becomes the headquarters of "The Romanian National Central Council" and a non-official capital of Transylvania
**May 13-15 - Iuliu Maniu expresses the decision of separation from Hungary and the union of Transylvania with Romania
*1937 – Arad was the most important economic centre in Transylvania and occupied the fourth position in Romania
*1989 – Arad was the second town in Romania to rise against communism
*1999 - The Arad Industrial Zone was inaugurated

Economy

With a rich industrial and commercial tradition, Arad is one of the most prosperous towns in Romania. Thanks to numerous investments, Arad has a booming economy.

The main industries are: freight and passenger railcars, clothing and textiles, food industry, furniture and furniture accessories, equipment for the car industry, electric components, meters, and shoes.

Neighborhoods

Aradul Nou,Aurel Vlaicu,Micalaca,Grădişte,Alfa,Confectii,Functionarilor,Centru,Gai,Sânnicolaul Mic,Colonia,Subcetate.

Transport

Arad is the most important trans-European road and rail transportation junction point in western Romania, included in the 4th Pan-European Corridor linking Western Europe to South-Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. The city has an extensive light rail network and a few bus lines.
Arad International Airport, with a cargo terminal, is situated four km from downtown Arad.

Employees by occupation

*Industry - 41.5%
*Commerce - 13.75%
*Transport and telecommunications - 9.27%
*Construction - 7.92%
*Education - 5.99%
*Health and social services - 5.14%
*Utilities - 3.16%
*Public administration - 2.28%
*Agriculture - 1.97%
*Credit and insurance institutions - 1.70%

ome tourist attractions

Architectural monuments

* "The Fortified Town of Arad" is one of the Transylvanian fotresses built in the Vauban star-shaped style, in the second half of the 18th century. It was used as a prison for the rebels led by Horia, Cloşca, and Crişan
* "Administrative Palace", built in 1872-74, renaissance architecture
* "Ioan Slavici Classical Theatre", built in 1874, neoclassical architecture, architect Anton Czigler
* "Neuman Palace", built in 1891, eclecticism
* "Judiciary Palace", built in 1892, eclecticism
* "Cenad Palace", built in 1894, eclecticism and neoclassical architecture
* "National Bank Palace", built in 1906, neoclassical architecture
* "Bohuş Palace" built in 1910, Vienna Secession. (For the first time in Arad, reinforced concrete was used)
* "Szantay Palace", built in 1911, Vienna Secession
* "Cultural Palace", built in 1913, neoclassical, gothic, renaissance architecture, and Corinthian capitals
* "Cloşca Street", Vienna Secession

Historic buildings

* " The House with Cannon Balls", built in 1800. Its name derives from the fights between 1848 and 1849. Seventeen cannon balls are incorporated in its walls.
* "The High Teacher Training School (Clădirea Preparandiei)", the first school for Romanian-language teachers from Transylvania, 1812
* "The House with the Padlock", built in 1815
* "The Old Theatre (Hirschl)", built by Jacob Hirschl in 1817, the oldest stone theatre in Romania
* "Water Tower", built in 1896, "medieval dungeon" architectural style
* "The Old Custom House", built in 1907, used as a customs point for goods entering the Arad markets

Monuments

* "The Statue of St. John of Nepomuk", raised in 1729, baroque sculpture
* "The monument of the Holy Trinity", raised in 1746 to commemorate the plague that swept the town in 1738-1740
* "Reconciliation Park"
** "The Statue of Liberty", raised in 1890 by György Zala in the memory of the heroes of the Hungarian revolutionary army
** "The Arch of Triumph", raised in 2004 by Ioan Bolborea in memory of the heroes of the 1848 - 1849 Romanian Revolution (fighting against the Hungarians)
* " Martyrs' Cross", raised in 1936, in memory of the priests martyred between November 1918 and spring 1919
* "The Bust of Vasile Goldiş" (1862 – 1934) * "The Bust of Moise Nicoară" (1784 – 1861)

Religious tourism

* "The "St. Peter and Paul" Serbian Church", raised in 1698-1702, early Baroque architecture
* " "St. Simon" Monastery ", raised in 1762, Baroque architecture
* " "St. Anthony of Padua" Cathedral" (Roman Catholic). The Order of Minorite Monks raised this cathedral in 1904, in a renaissance architecture style
* "The "Birth of Saint John the Baptist" Cathedral" (Romanian Orthodox), raised in 1862-1865, Baroque architecture, architect Antoniu Czigler. The mural painter, Anastase Damian, started his work in 1957 and finished it one year later
* "The Red Church" (Evangelical-Lutheran), built in 1906, Neo-gothic architecture
* "The Neolog Synagogue", built in 1834, "Greek, Tuscan " architectural style

Recreational tourism

* "Neptun" Swimming Place, known in Romanian as "Strandul Neptune", one of the most beautiful places of amusement of this kind in Romania
* The Mureş Embankment
* The Grove
* The Ceala Forest with "Măltăreţ" Lake and Mureş Isle
* The Vladimirescu Forest
* Ghioroc Lake
* Miniş - Măderat Vineyard, situated about 30 km east of Arad

Culture and education

chools

Arad has two universities, the private Vasile Goldiş University of the West, founded in 1990, and the public Aurel Vlaicu University, founded in 1991. Also "Spiru Haret" long-distance studies University has a branch in Arad.

There are about two dozen high schools, some of the more famous being the [http://www.moisenicoara.ro Moise Nicoară] and Elena Ghiba-Birta national colleges, the Economics College, the Technical College for Constructions and Environmental Protection and the "Vasile Goldiş" theoretical lyceum. High schools in minorities' languages include the Hungarian Csiky Gergely school group and the German A.M. Guttenbrunn( ro - [http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_M%C3%BCller-Guttenbrunn] ) theoretical lyceum.

Cultural life

* Arad State Theater, hosting an annual Classical Theater Festival
* Philharmonic orchestra
* Puppet theater

Museums and exhibitions

* Arad Museum Complex
** History Department
** Natural Sciences Department
** Art Department
* "Vasile Goldiş" Memorial Museum
* "Doina and Baruţu Arghezi" Art Collection
* Delta Gallery, with three major events of Arad artistic life: The International Biennial Drawing Saloon, The Biennial Small Sculpture Saloon, The Annual Art Saloon.
* Alfa Gallery
* Clio Gallery
* Water Tower Gallery
* Takács Gallery
* Carola's Gallery
* Expo Arad, The Exhibition Centre of the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of the County of Arad.

Twinnings

ister cities

*
*
*
*, Hungary
*, Israel
*
*, Hungary

Partner cities

*
*
*, Germany
*, Slovakia
*, Hungary
*, Serbia

ports

The UTA Arad (formerly ITA) football team was founded in 1946 and has won six Romanian championships and two Romanian Cups. As of the 2006-2007 season, it plays in the first national league.

In basketball, the women's ICIM and the men's West Petrom teams have national prominence, their record including some recent national championship wins (ICIM in 1998 through 2001, West Petrom in 2001 and 2002).

In men's water polo, Astra Arad also plays in the first division.

The men rugby team Contor Group Arad plays in the National Rugby League, reached the playoff final in 2006.

World Champion and Olympic medalist in gymnastics, Emilia Eberle was born in Arad.

Notes

References

*

External links

* [http://www.aradeni.ro City website]


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