Maxfield Parrish


Maxfield Parrish
Maxfield Parrish

The Dinky Bird, by Maxfield Parrish, an illustration from Poems of Childhood by Eugene Field, 1904. This work exemplifies Parrish's characteristic use of androgynous figures.
Birth name Frederick Parrish
Born July 25, 1870(1870-07-25)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Died March 30, 1966(1966-03-30) (aged 95)
Nationality American
Field Painting

Maxfield Parrish (July 25, 1870 – March 30, 1966) was an American painter and illustrator active in the first half of the twentieth century. He is known for his distinctive saturated hues and idealized neo-classical imagery.

Contents

Life

Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he was the son of painter and etcher Stephen Parrish. He began drawing for his own amusement as a child. His given name was Frederick Parrish but he later adopted the maiden name of his paternal grandmother, Maxfield, as his middle name, and later as his professional name. His father was an engraver and landscape artist, and young Parrish's parents encouraged his talent. He attended Haverford College, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and Drexel Institute of Art. He entered into an artistic career that lasted for more than half a century, and which helped shape the Golden Age of illustration and the future of American visual arts.

He lived in Philadelphia until the age of 28, and the rest of his entire adult life at his New Hampshire home/studio at The Oaks with his wife, Lydia, who died in 1953, and his mistress and model, Sue Lewin, who survived his death in 1966 at age 95. He was by all accounts a charming and intelligent man whose writings add a great deal to the text in Ludwig's biography of him.

Princess Parizade Bringing Home the Singing Tree from Arabian Nights, 1906, oil on paper

Launched by a commission to illustrate L. Frank Baum's Mother Goose in Prose in 1897, his repertoire included many prestigious projects including Eugene Field's Poems of Childhood (including 8 color plates) (1904) (see illustration) and such traditional works as Arabian Nights (including 12 color plates) (1909). Books illustrated by Parrish, in addition to those that include reproductions of Parrish's work—including A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales (including 10 color plates) (1910), The Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics (including 8 color plates) (1911) and The Knave of Hearts (including 23 color images) (1925) – are highly sought-after collectors items.

He had numerous commissions from popular magazines in the 1910s and 1920s including Hearst's, Colliers, and Life. He was also a favorite of advertisers, including Wanamaker's, Edison-Mazda Lamps, Fisk Tires, Colgate and Oneida Cutlery. In the 1920s, Parrish turned away from illustration and concentrated on painting for its own sake. Androgynous nudes in fantastical settings were a recurring theme. He continued in this vein for several years, living comfortably off the royalties brought in by the production of posters and calendars featuring his works. An early favorite model was Kitty Owen in the 1920s. Later another favorite, Susan Lewin, posed for many works, and was employed in the Parrish household for many years. Parrish himself posed for many images that featured male—and occasionally female—figures (see Potpourri, 1905).

In 1931, he declared to the Associated Press, "I'm done with girls on rocks", and opted instead to focus on landscapes. Though never as popular as his earlier works, he profited from them. He would often build models of the landscapes he wished to paint, using various lighting setups before deciding on a preferred view, which he would photograph as a basis for the painting (see for example, The Millpond). He lived in Plainfield, New Hampshire, near the Cornish Art Colony, and painted until he was 91 years old. He was also an avid machinist.

Technique

A fantastical Parrish illustration titled Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's Teeth, which appeared in Collier's in 1908 and A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales, by Nathaniel Hawthorne.

Parrish's art features dazzlingly luminous colors; the color Parrish blue was named in acknowledgement.[1] He achieved the results by means of a technique called glazing where bright layers of oil color separated by varnish are applied alternately over a base rendering (Parrish usually used a blue and white monochromatic underpainting).

He would build up the depth in his paintings by photographing, enlarging, projecting and tracing half- or full-size objects or figures. Parrish then cut out and placed the images on his canvas, covering them with thick, but clear, layers of glaze. The result is realism of elegiac vivacity. His work achieves a unique three-dimensional appearance, which does not translate well to coffee table books.

The outer proportions and internal divisions of Parrish's compositions were carefully calculated in accordance with geometric principles such as root rectangles and the golden ratio. In this Parrish was influenced by Jay Hambidge's theory of Dynamic Symmetry.[2]

Parrish devised many innovative techniques which no other major artist has successfully copied. A technique which Parrish used frequently involved creating a large piece of cloth with a geometric pattern in stark black-and-white (such as alternate black and white squares, or a regular pattern of black circles on a white background). A human model (often Parrish himself) would then pose for a photograph with this cloth draped naturally on his or her body in a manner which intentionally distorted the pattern. Parrish would develop a transparency of the photo, then project this onto the canvas of his current work in progress. Using black graphite on the white canvas, Parrish would painstakingly trace and fill in all the black portions of the projected photo. The result was astonishing: in the finished painting, a human figure would be seen wearing a distinctive geometrically-patterned cloth which draped realistically and accurately.

Influence

Parrish's work defies categorization since he was part of no traditional movement or school, and developed an original and individual style. However, his work has been highly influential.

The Elton John album Caribou has a Parrish background. The Moody Blues album The Present uses a variation of the Parrish painting Daybreak for its cover. In 1984, Dali's Car, the British New Wave project of Peter Murphy and Mick Karn, used Daybreak as the cover art of their only album, The Waking Hour. The Irish musician Enya has been inspired by the works of Parrish. The cover art of her 1995 album The Memory of Trees is based on his painting The Young King of the Black Isles [1]. A number of her music videos include Parrish imagery including Caribbean Blue. In the 1995 music video "You Are Not Alone", Michael Jackson and his then wife Lisa Marie Presley appear semi-nude in emulation of Daybreak.

The cover of the 1985 Bloom County cartoon collection Penguin Dreams and Stranger Things comprises elements of Daybreak, The Garden of Allah, and The Lute Players.

The poster for The Princess Bride was inspired by one his works.

Kurt Vonnegut's work The Sirens of Titan alludes to "Maxfield Parrish light" coming from treetops.

In 2001, Parrish was featured in a U.S. Post Office commemorative stamp series honoring American illustrators, including Rockwell Kent, Norman Rockwell, Frederic Remington, and 16 others.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, along with many other museums, has samples of his work. The San Diego Museum of Art toured a collection of his work in 2005. The National Museum of American Illustration claims the largest body of his oeuvre in any collection, with sixty-nine works by Parrish. Some of his works are located at the Hood Museum of Art (Hanover, New Hampshire) and the Cornish Colony Art Museum (Windsor, Vermont).

Family

His second son Maxfield Parrish, Jr. is known for his important contribution to the development of the first self-developing camera at Dr. Edwin H. Land's Polaroid Corporation. He also collaborated with his cousin, inventor John Haven Emerson, in an important patent lawsuit involving iron lungs.

Maxfield Parrish's third son, Stephen Parrish II, worked for Pan American as a mechanic. His daughter Jean Parrish was a noted artist in her own right. She died in 2004. With her death, there are no living children of Maxfield Parrish. There are seven grandchildren, six great grandchildren, and several great great grandchildren as of 2007.

Notes

  1. ^ Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art: Guide to the Collection. London, UK: GILES. pp. 135. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5. http://www.birminghammuseumstore.org/gutoco.html. Retrieved 2011-07-19. 
  2. ^ Cutler, Parrish & Cutler 1995, p. 2.

References

  • Cutler, Laurence S.; Parrish, M.; & Cutler, J. G. Maxfield Parrish: A retrospective. San Francisco: Pomegranate Artbooks, 1995. ISBN 0876545991
  • Ludwig, Coy. Maxfield Parrish. New York: Watson Guptill, 1973

Further reading

  • Laurence S. Cutler; Judy Goffman Cutler; National Museum of American Illustration. Maxfield Parrish and the American Imagists. Edison, NJ: Wellfleet Press, 2004. ISBN 0785818170; ISBN 9780785818175 (Worldcat link: [2])
  • Flacks, Erwin, Maxfield Parrish Identification and Price Guide, 4th ed. Portland, OR: Collectors Press, 2007
  • Smith, Alma Gilbert, Maxfield Parrish: Master of Make-believe. London : Philip Wilson, 2005

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Maxfield Parrish — Fotoatelier William Jennings: Maxfield Parrish, um 1905 Maxfield Parrish (eigentlich Frederick Parrish; * 25. Juli 1870 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; † 30. März 1966 in Cornish, New Hampshire) war ein US amerikanischer Maler und Illustrator.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Maxfield Parrish — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Parrish. Cadmos semant les dents du dragon, illustration de 1908 Maxfield Parrish (25 juillet&# …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Maxfield Parrish — noun United States painter (1870 1966) • Syn: ↑Parrish, ↑Maxfield Frederick Parrish • Instance Hypernyms: ↑painter …   Useful english dictionary

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  • Maxfield — may refer to: People Surname Max Maxfield Mike Maxfield Richard Maxfield Stuart Maxfield Given name Maxfield Parrish, American painter and illustrator Place names In the United States: Maxfield Township, Bremer County, Iowa Maxfield, Maine …   Wikipedia

  • Parrish — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Anne Parrish (1888–1957), US amerikanische Schriftstellerin Avery Parrish (1917–1959), US amerikanischer Jazz Pianist Charles H. Parrish Sr. (1841–1931), US amerikanischer Bürgerrechtler und Theologe… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Parrish — may refer to:Places in the United States* Parrish, Alabama * Parrish, Florida * Parrish, Wisconsinurname* Carolyn Parrish, Canadian politician * Jerry Wayne Parrish, American defector to North Korea * John Parrish (baseball), baseball player *… …   Wikipedia

  • Parrish, Maxfield — ▪ American artist in full  Frederick Maxfield Parrish   born July 25, 1870, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. died March 10, 1966, Plainfield, New Hampshire  American illustrator and painter who was perhaps the most popular commercial artist in… …   Universalium

  • Parrish — noun United States painter (1870 1966) • Syn: ↑Maxfield Parrish, ↑Maxfield Frederick Parrish • Instance Hypernyms: ↑painter * * * /par ish/, n. 1. Anne, 1888 1957, U.S. novelist and author of books for children …   Useful english dictionary

  • Maxfield Frederick Parrish — noun United States painter (1870 1966) • Syn: ↑Parrish, ↑Maxfield Parrish • Instance Hypernyms: ↑painter …   Useful english dictionary


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