Adams, Massachusetts


Adams, Massachusetts

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Adams, Massachusetts
nickname =
motto =


imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Hoosic River
image_






mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in Berkshire County in Massachusetts


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = Massachusetts
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Berkshire
established_title = Settled
established_date = 1762
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2 = 1778
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
government_type = Board of Selectmen Representative town meeting
leader_title =
leader_name =
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 59.4
area_total_sq_mi = 22.9
area_land_km2 = 59.4
area_land_sq_mi = 22.9
area_water_km2 = 0.0
area_water_sq_mi = 0.0
population_as_of = 2000
settlement_type = Town
population_total = 8809
population_density_km2 = 148.3
population_density_sq_mi = 384.1
elevation_m = 244
elevation_ft = 799
timezone = Eastern
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = Eastern
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 42 |latm = 37 |lats = 27 |latNS = N
longd = 73 |longm = 07 |longs = 05 |longEW = W
website = [http://www.town.adams.ma.us/ www.town.adams.ma.us]
postal_code_type = ZIP code
postal_code = 01220
area_code = 413
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 25-00555
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0619415
footnotes =

Adams is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. It is part of the Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 8,809 at the 2000 census.

History

Nathan Jones purchased the township of East Hoosac at auction from the state for £3,200. First settled in 1762, it was officially incorporated in 1778 as Adams, named in honor of Samuel Adams, revolutionary leader, signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor. Much of the land had been subdivided into convert|100|acre|km2|sing=on and convert|200|acre|km2|sing=on lots. These were mostly farms with frontage on the Hoosic River, which over time would provide water power for woolen, cotton, lumber and plastic mills.

First settled in 1737, North Adams was originally part of Adams until the town split in 1878. Although there has never been a town of South Adams, the name was used prior to 1878 to specify the southern part of the town that had long had two primary centers, and survives in the name of the South Adams Savings Bank, which was incorporated in 1869.

Early settlers in the 1760s included a group of Quakers, many of whom came together from Smithfield, Rhode Island. The Quaker civil rights leader, abolitionist and suffragist Susan B. Anthony was born in Adams, and her childhood home is today a museum.

The town's population declined from 1810 to 1820 as farmers moved west for better soil. But the War of 1812 allowed the textile industry to gain a foothold in the United States because British textiles were no longer available. In 1814, the Adams South Village Cotton Manufacture Company opened. With the establishment of a number of mills on the Hoosic River, Adams' population more than doubled to 4,000 between 1820 and 1835. Growth in both halves of Adams was further propelled by the opening of the Hoosac Tunnel in 1875.

President William McKinley made two visits to the town, the second in 1897 to lay the cornerstone of the Adams Free Library. He was a friend of the Plunkett brothers, founders in 1889 of the Berkshire Cotton Manufacturing Company, and of the textile industry generally. In 1903, the assassinated president was honored with a larger-than-life statue beside the library. Berkshire Cotton later became a major part of Berkshire Hathaway, whose large factory in Adams was closed in 1958 (the 1,000 lost jobs were not the fault of Warren Buffett, who did not take over the firm until 1965). The mill town's only major remaining mill, Specialty Minerals, mines and processes limestone for calcium carbonate, used in antacids and food supplements, as well as paper whiteners and other industrial purposes.

The town's more recent move toward tourism, part of a broader trend in the Berkshires, is primarily centered on its natural beauty and outdoor activities, and on its proximity to the galleries, museums and colleges of North Adams and Williamstown.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.9 square miles (59.4 km²), lying along the valley surrounding the Hoosic River and its tributary brooks. Set between the Taconic Range to the west and the Hoosac Range of the Berkshires to the east, Adams includes the summit of Mount Greylock, elevation 3,491 feet (1,064 m) above sea level. The mountain, located within the state reservation of the same name, is the highest point in Massachusetts, a waypoint on the Appalachian Trail, and in the 19th-century inspired writers including Herman Melville. The town also includes a corner of Savoy Mountain State Park.

Adams is bordered to the north by North Adams, to the east by Florida and Savoy, to the south by Savoy and Cheshire, and to the west by New Ashford and Williamstown.

Massachusetts Route 8 is the primary north-south road through town, and was originally signed as New England Interstate Route 8, which extended southward to Bridgeport, Connecticut. The town is also the northern terminus of Route 116, which extends to Springfield in the south.

Freight rail once ran through the town, but is now mostly converted to the paved Ashuwillticook Rail Trail. The town lies along the northern route of the Berkshire Regional Transit Authority. Regional bus service can be found in North Adams, as can regional air service at Harriman and West Airport. The nearest airport with international flights is Albany International Airport in New York.

Demographics

"See also:" Adams (CDP), MassachusettsAs of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 8,809 people, 3,992 households, and 2,431 families residing in the town. Adams is the third most populated town in Berkshire County, and ranks 184th out of the 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts. The population density was 384.1 people per square mile (148.3/km²), ranking it third in the county and 197th in the Commonwealth. There were 4,362 housing units at an average density of 190.2/sq mi (73.4/km²), albeit packed in to a fairly small portion of lower-lying land. The racial makeup of the town was 98.02% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population.

There were 3,992 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.1% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.81.

In the town the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 20.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $32,161, and the median income for a family was $40,559. Males had a median income of $34,110 versus $23,556 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,572. About 7.0% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Adams employs the representative town meeting form of government, and is led by a town administrator and a board of selectmen. The town has its own services, including police, fire and public works. The nearest hospital, North Adams Regional Hospital, is located in neighboring North Adams. The Adams Free Library was founded in 1897, and was established as a war memorial, with the cornerstone being laid by President McKinley himself.

On the state level, Adams is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by the First Berkshire district, which covers northern Berkshire County, as well as portions of Franklin County. In the Massachusetts Senate, the town is represented by the Berkshire, Hampshire and Franklin district, which includes all of Berkshire County and western Hampshire and Franklin Counties. [ [http://www.mass.gov/legis/citytown.htm Senators and Representatives by City and Town] ] The town is patrolled by the Fourth (Cheshire) Station of Barracks "B" of the Massachusetts State Police. [ [http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eopsterminal&L=5&L0=Home&L1=Law+Enforcement+%26+Criminal+Justice&L2=Law+Enforcement&L3=State+Police+Troops&L4=Troop+B&sid=Eeops&b=terminalcontent&f=msp_divisions_field_services_troops_troop_b_msp_field_troop_b_station_b4&csid=Eeops Station B-4, SP Cheshire] ]

On the national level, Adams is represented in the United States House of Representatives as part of Massachusetts's 1st congressional district, and has been represented by John Olver of Amherst since June 1991. Massachusetts is represented in the United States Senate by senior Senator Ted Kennedy and junior Senator John Kerry.

Education

Adams is joined with neighboring Cheshire to form a regional school district. Each town runs its own elementary school, with Adams operating the C.T. Plunkett Elementary School, serving students from pre-kindergarten through fifth grade. Both towns send students to Adams Memorial Middle School, located in Adams, and Hoosac Valley High School, located in Cheshire. Hoosac Valley's colors are red and white, and their teams are nicknamed the "Hurricanes."

In addition to public schooling, high school students may choose to attend McCann Technical High School in North Adams. There is a parochial school in Adams, Saint Stanislaus Kostka, which serves students from pre-kindergarten through eighth grade, and other private schools are located in neighboring towns.

The nearest community college is Berkshire Community College in Pittsfield. The nearest state college is Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts in North Adams, and the nearest university is University of Massachusetts Amherst. The nearest private college is Williams College in nearby Williamstown.

Events and Activities

* The Berkshire Visitors Bureau, at 3 Hoosac Street, offers maps, pamphlets and personal help to visitors throughout the region.
* The Quaker Meeting House, dating from 1782, is open Sundays from Memorial Day to Labor Day.
* Adams celebrates Susan B. Anthony with a festival in late July.
* The Adams Agricultural Fair is held in early August.
* The Fall Run Weekend and Motorcycle Ride, which benefits the Shriners Children's Hospital in Springfield, is held each September.
* The Mount Greylock Ramble attracts crowds of hikers to the summit each Columbus Day; this is also generally the end of the season for driving to the summit, and for using the Massachusetts Veterans Memorial tower and Bascom Lodge at the summit. (The summit roads are closed to autos, for repaving and improvements, for 2007-2008.)
* The Western Mass Athletic Club runs numerous road, trail and snowshoe races along Adams streets and at the Greylock Glen area at the foot of Mount Greylock.

ites of interest

* Ashuwillticook Rail Trail
* [http://www.adamsfair.com Adams Agricultural Fair]
* [http://www.adamshistorical.org/ Adams Historical Society]
* [http://www.susanbanthonybirthplace.com/ Susan B. Anthony Birthplace & Museum]
* [http://www.mass.gov/dcr/parks/western/mgry.htm Mount Greylock State Reservation]
* [http://www.berkshireweb.com/quakers/index.html Quaker Meeting House (1782)]

Notable residents

* Daniel Read Anthony, (1824-1904), publisher & militant abolitionist
* Susan B. Anthony, (1820–1906), women's suffragist
* George N. Briggs, (1796-1861), Governor of Massachusetts
* George P. Lawrence, (1859-1917), US Congressman

References

* [http://www.rootsweb.com/~maberksh/towns/adams/gazeetteer.htm History of Adams, Massachusetts (1885)]

External links

* [http://town.adams.ma.us/ Town of Adams, Massachusetts]
* [http://www.berkshires.org/ Berkshire Visitors Bureau]
* [http://www.celebrateadams.com/ Celebrate Adams (local events)]
* [http://www.thetranscript.com/ "North Adams Transcript" (closest newspaper)]


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