Goal (sport)

Goal refers to a method of scoring in many sports. It can also refer to the physical structure or area of the playing surface in which a score is made.

Method of Scoring

In some sports, the goal is the sole method of scoring, and in these sports, the final score is expressed in “goals” where the winner is the team that accumulates the larger number of goals in the given time.

In other sports, a goal is the primary, but not the sole method of scoring. In these sports, the goal is worth a set number of points, and there is another method of scoring which scores fewer points (often one point). In these sports, the score is expressed as the number of goals plus the number of alternate scores and the combined total of points with the winner being decided on total points. For example, an Australian Rules Football the score may be expressed as follows:

Sydney 10-4-64 Brisbane 9-12-66

In this example Sydney scored 10 goals (at six points each) and 4 behinds (one point each) for a total of 64 points. Brisbane scored 9 goals and 12 behinds for a total of 66 points. Despite having fewer goals, Brisbane won the game.

Other sports use a Field Goal as one of several methods of scoring. The field goal can be a primary or secondary score and is used when there are several possible scoring methods. In these sports, the object of the game is to score a greater number of total points than the opponent. Scores are expressed solely as numbers of points.

tructure

The structure of a goal can vary widely from sport to sport. In sports where goals are the sole method of scoring, the goal is often a rectangle structure set in the center of each end of the playing surface. Frequently, there is a net to catch the ball or puck as it is sent into the goal. Some sports do not require the net within their rules (see Association Football (Soccer) below) while others do (See Ice Hockey, below). The vertical supports are usually called "Goal Posts" and the horizontal top is usually called the "Crossbar". Scores in these games normally require that the ball or puck be sent between the posts, under the crossbar and completely behind the goal line. The space under the crossbar and between the goal posts is colloquially referred to as the "goal mouth".

Other sports, especially those that use field goals, have very different structures. Most have a variation on the theme of goal posts and crossbars (frequently an elevated crossbar supporting goal posts with the object being to have the ball pass "over" the crossbar, rather than under it.)"

Goals in Goal-Only Sports

Here we will see various examples of goals in games where the goal is the only method of scoring. In each of these cases the winner is the team that scores the most goals within the allotted time.

Association Football (Soccer)

In Association Football (Soccer), the goal is the sole method of scoring. It is also the term used for the scoring structure. To score a goal, the ball must pass completely over the goal line between the goal posts and under the crossbar and no rules may be violated (such as touching the ball with the hand or arm). cite web |url=http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws10_01.htm |publisher=Federation Internationale de Futbol Associacion (FIFA) |title=Laws of the game (Law 10) |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure is defined as a frame 24 feet (7.32 m) wide by 8 feet (2.44 m) tall. Most commonly, a net is used both to catch the ball and indicate that a goal has, indeed, been scored, however, the net is not absolutely required.cite web |url=http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws1_04.htm |publisher=FIFA |title=Laws of the game (Law 1) |accessdate=2008-04-29]

Ice Hockey

In Ice Hockey scoring a goal is similar to scoring a goal in Soccer. In Ice Hockey, the puck must be put completely over the goal line between the posts and under the bar either off the offensive player's stick or off any part of the defensive player's body. If the puck is inadvertently deflected by an offensive player's skate or body, the goal counts, but not if the puck is kicked, batted, or thrown into the goal. The goal is placed within the playing surface, and players may play the puck behind the goal.cite web |url=http://www.nhl.com/hockeyu/rulebook/rule57.html |publisher=National Hockey League (NHL) |title=NHL Rulebook (Rule 57: Goals and Assists) |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure in Ice Hockey is a frame 4 feet tall and 6 feet wide with a net attached. It is attached to the ice surface by flexible pegs and will break away for safety when hit by a player. Ice Hockey goals are placed within the rink and play behind the goal is allowed.cite web |url=http://www.nhl.com/hockeyu/rulebook/rule03.html |publisher=NHL |title=NHL Rulebook (Rule 3: Goalposts and nets) |accessdate=2008-04-29]

Field Hockey

In Field Hockey, as in other sports, a goal is scored when the ball passes completely over the goal line under the crossbar and between the goal posts. Peculiar to field hockey is a rule that the shot must be taken within a semicircle 14.63 meters from the goal. cite web |url=http://www.usfieldhockey.com/hockey/rules_of_hockey07_08.pdf |publisher=Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (FIH) |title=Rules of Hockey 2007-2008 |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure in Field Hockey is 3.66 meters wide by 2.14 meters tall. Nets are required to hold the ball in.cite web |url=http://www.usfieldhockey.com/hockey/rules_of_hockey07_08.pdf |publisher=Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (FIH) |title=Rules of Hockey 2007-2008 |accessdate=2008-04-29]

Team Handball

A goal in Team Handball is scored the same way as a goal in Soccer: the ball passes completely over the goal line, below the crossbar, and between the goal posts. In Handball, the ball must be thrown rather than kicked.cite web |url=http://www.ihf-online.info/upload/PDF-Download/rules_english.pdf |publisher=International Handball Federation (IHF) |title=International Handball Federation: Rules of the Game |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure in Team Handball is 2 meters high and 3 meters wide. A net is required to catch the ball.cite web |url=http://www.ihf-online.info/upload/PDF-Download/rules_english.pdf |publisher=International Handball Federation (IHF) |title=International Handball Federation: Rules of the Game |accessdate=2008-04-29]

Lacrosse

Lacrosse goals are scored in the same manner as all of the above goals, the ball passing completely through the goal mouth. Goals can be disallowed if there is an infraction by the offensive team.cite web |url=http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_m_lacrosse_rules.pdf |publisher=NCAA |title=NCAA Lacrosse: 2008 Men's Rules and Interpretations |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure in Lacrosse is 6 feet tall and 6 feet wide and a net is required to prevent the ball from reentering the field of play. Lacrosse goals are not positioned on the boundary line, and behind the goal play is allowed.cite web |url=http://www.ncaa.org/library/rules/2008/2008_m_lacrosse_rules.pdf |publisher=NCAA |title=NCAA Lacrosse: 2008 Men's Rules and Interpretations |accessdate=2008-04-29]

Water Polo

A goal in Water Polo is scored in the same manner as all the above sports, with the ball passing completely through the goal mouth. A goal may be scored by contact with any part of the attacker's body except a clenched fist.cite web |url=http://www.usawaterpolo.org/media/usaplayingrules.pdf |publisher=USA Water Polo |title=USA Water Polo Rules/FINA |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure in Water Polo is dependent upon the depth of the water. If the water is at least 1.5 meters, the goal mouth is 3 meters wide by 0.9 meters high. If the water is less than 1.5 meters, the crossbar is 2.4 meters above the floor of the pool. Nets are required.cite web |url=http://www.usawaterpolo.org/media/usaplayingrules.pdf |publisher=USA Water Polo |title=USA Water Polo Rules/FINA |accessdate=2008-04-29]

Polo

In Polo a goal is scored if the ball passes completely between the goal posts, regardless of how far off the ground the ball is. The ball must be between the goal posts or the imaginary lines extending above the inside edges of the posts. A ball passing directly over a goal post does not score a goal.cite web |url= http://www.us-polo.org/rules/outdoor_rules.pdf |publisher=United States Polo Association |title=Outdoor Rules |accessdate=2008-04-29]

The goal structure in Polo consists of two poles, at least 10 feet high and exactly 8 yards apart. There is no crossbar and no net is required. The height at which a goal may be scored is infinite.cite web |url= http://www.us-polo.org/rules/outdoor_rules.pdf |publisher=United States Polo Association |title=Outdoor Rules |accessdate=2008-04-29]

ports with Goals as a Primary Method of Scoring

The following games have more than one possible method of scoring where the goal is the primary method, "i.e." the method that scores the most points. In many cases the score is shown as the number of goals, plus the number of secondary scores (usually 1 point), plus the total number of points. Total points determines the winner.

Australian Rules Football

In Australian Rules Football a goal is scored when the ball is kicked by an offensive player completely between the goal posts. The ball may not contact or pass over the goal post, touch a player on the defensive team, or be touched by any part of the body of an attacker other than the foot or lower leg. The ball may be punted, drop kicked, or kicked off the ground if the ball is loose. There is no height restriction on an Australian Football Goal and a goal can be scored from ground level up to an infinite height. A goal scores 6 points. The alternate method of scoring is a behind, which scores one point. A goal disallowed by the above provisions still scores a behind.cite web |url=http://afl.com.au/portals/0/afl_docs/2007_LAWS_OF_THE_GAME.pdf
publisher=Australian Football League |title=Laws of Australian Football: 2007 |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

The goal structure consists of two poles at least 6 meters in height and spaced 6.4 meters apart. There is no crossbar and no net is required.cite web |url=http://afl.com.au/portals/0/afl_docs/2007_LAWS_OF_THE_GAME.pdf
publisher=Australian Football League |title=Laws of Australian Football: 2007 |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

Gaelic Football and Hurling

In Gaelic Football a goal is scored in the same manner as in Soccer, with the ball passing completely through the goal mouth. While the ball may be played with the hands in the field of play, the hands may not be used to score a goal.cite web |url=http://www.gaa.ie/files/official_playing_rules.pdf
publisher=Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)|title=Official Guide 2003: Playing Rules, Hurling and Football |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

In Hurling the ball must also pass completely through the goal mouth. The ball may be played by any legal method except by the hand of the attacker. A ball in flight "may", however, be deflected into the goal off the hand of an attacker.cite web |url=http://www.gaa.ie/files/official_playing_rules.pdf
publisher=Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) |title=Official Guide 2003: Playing Rules, Hurling and Football |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

In both sports, a goal scores three points. The alternate method of scoring is a point. A point scores by legally playing the ball "above" the crossbar and between the extended goal posts.cite web |url=http://www.gaa.ie/files/official_playing_rules.pdf
publisher=Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) |title=Official Guide 2003: Playing Rules, Hurling and Football |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

Hurling and Gaelic Football use the same goal structure. It is a 6.5 meter wide frame with a net attached. The goal posts are at least 7 meters high, and the crossbar is 2.5 meters above the ground. A goal scores below the crossbar and a point above it.cite web |url=http://www.gaa.ie/files/official_playing_rules.pdf
publisher=Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) |title=Official Guide 2003: Playing Rules, Hurling and Football |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

Basketball

In Basketball a field goal scores when a ball, during normal play, passes completely through the hoop from above. A field goal scored from inside the three-point line scores 2 points. From outside the three-point line a field goal scores 3 points. The three point line's distance from the goal varies by level. Any ball touched by a defender before going through the hoop scores two points regardless of where the shot originated. The alternate method of scoring in basketball is the free throw which scores one point. A free throw scores the same way as a field goal, except that it is taken unopposed from the free-throw line after a foul. Basketball scores are expressed in total points. [cite web |url=http://www.nba.com/analysis/rules_5.html?nav=ArticleList
publisher=National Basketball Association (NBA) |title=Rule no. 5 – Scoring and Timing |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

The goal in Basketball is a metal hoop, 18 inches in diameter. The hoop is suspended horizontally, 10 feet above the floor. There is a net attached below the hoop to briefly check the ball's downward progress and indicate a score. [cite web |url=http://www.nba.com/analysis/rules_1.html?nav=ArticleList
publisher=NBA |title=Rule no. 1 – Court Dimensions -- Equipment |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

ports with Goals as Secondary Scoring

The following sports have a goal – sometimes called a Field Goal -- as a secondary method of scoring. The field goal is worth a set number of points that may vary with the situation. These sports express their scores solely in points.

American and Canadian Football

A Field Goal in American or Canadian Football is a secondary method of scoring in both sports. The field goal is scored when the ball is place kicked or drop kicked completely over the crossbar and between or directly over the goal posts. A field goal scores three points in both versions of the sport. [cite web |url=http://www.nfl.com/rulebook/beginnersguidetofootball
publisher=National Football League (NFL) |title=NFL Beginner's Guide to Football |accessdate=2008-04-29
] cite web |url=http://www.cfl.ca/themes/cfl3/pdf/07rulebook.pdf
publisher=Canadian Football League (CFL) |title=Official Playing Rules for the Canadian Football League, 2007 |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

In the NFL and CFL, the goal structure consists of a crossbar suspended 10 feet off the ground and goal posts extending at least 30 feet above the crossbar. The whole apparatus is 18 feet, 6 inches wide. In the NFL, a net is placed behind the goal to prevent the ball from leaving the field of play. [cite web |url=http://www.nfl.com/rulebook/field
publisher=NFL |title=NFL Digest of Rules: Field |accessdate=2008-04-29
] cite web |url=http://www.cfl.ca/themes/cfl3/pdf/07rulebook.pdf
publisher=CFL |title=Official Playing Rules for the Canadian Football League, 2007 |accessdate=2008-04-29
] Goals at levels other than professional may have different dimensions.

Arena Football

In Arena Football the Field Goal is nearly identical to that of the NFL and the CFL. Place kicked, the AFL field goal scores 3 points, but drop kicked, it scores 4 points.cite web |url=http://www.arenafootball.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=3500&KEY=&ATCLID=99180
publisher=Arena Football League (AFL) |title=AFL 101 |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

The goal structure in Arena Football consists of a crossbar 15 feet above the playing surface and 9 ½ feet wide. The goal posts are attached to nets on either side of the crossbar. The nets are 30 feet wide and 37 feet high and do not represent a scoring area. There is also a “slack net” between the goal posts to keep the ball in the field of play.cite web |url=http://www.arenafootball.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=3500&KEY=&ATCLID=99180
publisher=Arena Football League (AFL) |title=AFL 101 |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

Rugby

A goal is scored in Rugby by place kicking or drop kicking a ball over a crossbar and between goal posts. In rugby union, a goal scored from the field either as a drop kick during normal play or a place kick after a foul scores 3 points. In rugby league, a goal scored from the field as a drop kick scores one point, and a goal from a place kick after a foul scores two points. In both codes, a goal scored by place kick after a try scores 2 points. [cite web |url=http://www.uidaho.edu/clubs/womens_rugby/RugbyRoot/rugby/Rules/LawBook/law11.html
publisher=University of Idaho |title=Law 11. Method of Scoring |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

The goal structure consists of a crossbar 5.6 meters wide suspended 3 meters above the field. The goal posts must be at least 3.4 meters high, measured from the ground. [cite web |url=http://www.uidaho.edu/clubs/womens_rugby/RugbyRoot/rugby/Images/plan.gif
publisher=University of Idaho |title=Field Plan |accessdate=2008-04-29
]

ee also

*Field goal is a term used in American and Canadian Football, Rugby, and Basketball.
*Goal (ice hockey)
*Goalkeeper
*Own goal

References


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