Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency

Infobox_Disease
Name = PAGENAME


Caption = The dimeric IgA molecule. 1 H-chain, 2 L-chain, 3 J-chain, 4 secretory component
DiseasesDB = 29569
ICD10 = ICD10|D|80|2|d|80
ICD9 = ICD9|279.01
ICDO =
OMIM = 137100
MedlinePlus = 001476
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 1159
MeshID = D017098

Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic immunodeficiency. People with this deficiency lack immunoglobulin A (IgA), a type of antibody that protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways, and digestive tract. It is defined as an undetectable serum IgA level in the presence of normal serum levels of IgG and IgM. It is the most common of the primary antibody deficiencies.

Epidemiology

Prevalence varies by population, but is on the order of up to 1 in 333 people,cite web |url=http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec13/ch164/ch164j.html |title=IgA Deficiency: Immunodeficiency Disorders: Merck Manual Professional |accessdate=2008-03-01 |format= |work=] making it relatively common for a genetic disease.

Pathophysiology

There is an inherited inability to produce immunoglobulin A (IgA), a part of the body's defenses against infection at the body's surfaces (mainly the surfaces of the respiratory and digestive systems). As a result, bacteria at these locations are somewhat more able to cause disease.

ymptoms and diagnosis

People with selective IgA deficiency are asymptomatic, or have increased frequency of infections, particularly in the respiratory and digestive system, for example, sinusitis and urinary tract infections. These infections are generally mild and would not usually lead to an in-depth workup except when unusually frequent. When suspected, the diagnosis can be confirmed by laboratory measurement of IgA level in the blood. Patients have an increased susceptibility to pneumonia and recurrent episodes of other respiratory infections and a higher risk of developing autoimmune diseases in middle age. [cite journal | author=Koskinen S | title=Long-term follow-up of health in blood donors with primary selective IgA deficiency. | journal=J Clin Immunol | volume=16 | issue=3 | pages=165–70 | year=1996 | pmid=8734360 | doi=10.1007/BF01540915]

Treatment

The treatment consists of identification of comorbid conditions, preventive measures to reduce the risk of infection, and prompt and effective treatment of infections. Infections in an IgA-deficient person are treated as usual (i.e., with antibiotics). There is no treatment for the underlying disorder. In the absence of normal IgA, the body can develop an immune response against IgA itself (anti-IgA antibodies), which can lead to severe reactions including anaphylaxis to blood transfusions or intravenous immunoglobulin. Therefore, people known to have this condition must notify their healthcare providers.

Prognosis

Prognosis is excellent, although there is an association with autoimmune disease. Of note, selective IgA deficiency can complicate the diagnosis of one such condition, celiac disease, as the deficiency masks the high levels of certain IgA antibodies usually seen in celiac disease.

As opposed to the related condition CVID, selective IgA deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of cancer. [cite journal |author=Mellemkjaer L, Hammarstrom L, Andersen V, "et al" |title=Cancer risk among patients with IgA deficiency or common variable immunodeficiency and their relatives: a combined Danish and Swedish study |journal=Clin. Exp. Immunol. |volume=130 |issue=3 |pages=495–500 |year=2002 |pmid=12452841 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1906562 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.02004.x]

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Immunoglobulin M deficiency — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = Immunoglobulin M DiseasesDB = ICD10 = ICD10|D|80|4|d|80 ICD9 = ICD9|279.02 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 3436 MeshID = Immunoglobulin M deficiency (or selective IgM… …   Wikipedia

  • Immunoglobulin — A protein produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes. Immunoglobulins are an essential part of the body s immune system which attach to foreign substances, such as bacteria, and assist in destroying them. Abbreviated Ig. The classes of… …   Medical dictionary

  • Immunoglobulin A — (IgA) is an antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity. More IgA is produced in mucosal linings than all other types of antibody combined. [cite journal |author=S Fagarasan and T Honjo |title=Intestinal IgA Synthesis: Regulation of… …   Wikipedia

  • selective IgA deficiency — the most common immunodeficiency disorder: deficiency of IgA with normal levels of the other immunoglobulin classes and normal cellular immunity. It is marked by recurrent sinopulmonary infections and an increased incidence of allergy,… …   Medical dictionary

  • IgG deficiency — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = Immunoglobulin G DiseasesDB = ICD10 = ICD10|D|80|3|d|80 ICD9 = ICD9|279.03 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 1161 MeshID = D017099 IgG deficiency (Selective deficiency of… …   Wikipedia

  • Primary immunodeficiency — Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body s immune system is missing or does not function properly. To be considered a primary immunodeficiency, the cause of the immune deficiency must not be secondary in nature (i.e.,… …   Wikipedia

  • Common variable immunodeficiency — Classification and external resources ICD 10 D83 ICD 9 279.06 …   Wikipedia

  • Hypogammaglobulinemia — Classification and external resources ICD 10 D80.0 D80.1 ICD 9 …   Wikipedia

  • Congenital hypothyroidism — Classification and external resources ICD 10 E00, E03.0, E03.1 …   Wikipedia

  • Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia — Classification and external resources ICD 10 Q82.4 ICD 9 757.31 …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.