Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency
Name = PAGENAME
Caption = The dimeric IgA molecule. 1 H-chain, 2 L-chain, 3 J-chain, 4 secretory component
DiseasesDB = 29569
ICD10 = ICD10|D|80|2|d|80
ICD9 = ICD9|279.01
OMIM = 137100
MedlinePlus = 001476
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 1159
MeshID = D017098
Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a relatively mild genetic
immunodeficiency. People with this deficiency lack immunoglobulin A (IgA), a type of antibody that protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways, and digestive tract. It is defined as an undetectable serum IgA level in the presence of normal serum levels of IgG and IgM. It is the most common of the primary antibody deficiencies.
Prevalence varies by population, but is on the order of up to 1 in 333 people,cite web |url=http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec13/ch164/ch164j.html |title=IgA Deficiency: Immunodeficiency Disorders: Merck Manual Professional |accessdate=2008-03-01 |format= |work=] making it relatively common for a genetic disease.
There is an inherited inability to produce immunoglobulin A (IgA), a part of the body's defenses against infection at the body's surfaces (mainly the surfaces of the respiratory and digestive systems). As a result, bacteria at these locations are somewhat more able to cause disease.
ymptoms and diagnosis
People with selective IgA deficiency are asymptomatic, or have increased frequency of infections, particularly in the respiratory and digestive system, for example,
sinusitisand urinary tract infections. These infections are generally mild and would not usually lead to an in-depth workup except when unusually frequent. When suspected, the diagnosis can be confirmed by laboratory measurement of IgA level in the blood. Patients have an increased susceptibility to pneumonia and recurrent episodes of other respiratory infections and a higher risk of developing autoimmune diseases in middle age. [cite journal | author=Koskinen S | title=Long-term follow-up of health in blood donors with primary selective IgA deficiency. | journal=J Clin Immunol | volume=16 | issue=3 | pages=165–70 | year=1996 | pmid=8734360 | doi=10.1007/BF01540915]
The treatment consists of identification of comorbid conditions, preventive measures to reduce the risk of infection, and prompt and effective treatment of infections. Infections in an IgA-deficient person are treated as usual (i.e., with antibiotics). There is no treatment for the underlying disorder. In the absence of normal IgA, the body can develop an immune response against IgA itself (anti-IgA antibodies), which can lead to severe reactions including
anaphylaxisto blood transfusionsor intravenous immunoglobulin. Therefore, people known to have this condition must notify their healthcare providers.
Prognosis is excellent, although there is an association with
autoimmune disease. Of note, selective IgA deficiency can complicate the diagnosis of one such condition, celiac disease, as the deficiency masks the high levels of certain IgA antibodies usually seen in celiac disease.
As opposed to the related condition
CVID, selective IgA deficiency is not associated with an increased risk of cancer. [cite journal |author=Mellemkjaer L, Hammarstrom L, Andersen V, "et al" |title=Cancer risk among patients with IgA deficiency or common variable immunodeficiency and their relatives: a combined Danish and Swedish study |journal=Clin. Exp. Immunol. |volume=130 |issue=3 |pages=495–500 |year=2002 |pmid=12452841 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1906562 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.02004.x]
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