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# Clause (logic)

In logic, a clause is a finite disjunction of literals.[1] Clauses are usually written as follows, where the symbols li are literals:

$l_1 \vee \cdots \vee l_n$

In some cases, clauses are written (or defined) as sets of literals, so that clause above would be written as $\{l_1, \ldots, l_n\}$. That this set is to be interpreted as the disjunction of its elements is implied by the context. A clause can be empty; in this case, it is an empty set of literals. The empty clause is denoted by various symbols such as $\empty$, $\bot$, or $\Box$. The truth evaluation of an empty clause is always false.

In first-order logic, a clause is interpreted as the universal closure of the disjunction of literals.[citation needed] Formally, a first-order atom is a formula of the kind of $P(t_1,\ldots,t_n)$, where P is a predicate of arity n and each ti is an arbitrary term, possibly containing variables. A first-order literal is either an atom $P(t_1,\ldots,t_n)$ or a negated atom $\neg P(t_1,\ldots,t_n)$. If $L_1,\ldots,L_m$ are literals, and $x_1,\ldots,x_k$ are their (free) variables, then $L_1,\ldots,L_m$ is a clause, implicitly read as the closed first-order formula $\forall x_1,\ldots,x_k . L_1,\ldots,L_m$. The usual definition of satisfiability assumes free variables to be existentially quantified, so the omission of a quantifier is to be taken as a convention and not as a consequence of how the semantics deal with free variables.

In logic programming, clauses are usually written as the implication of a head from a body. In the simplest case, the body is a conjunction of literals while the head is a single literal. More generally, the head may be a disjunction of literals. If $b_1,\ldots,b_m$ are the literals in the body of a clause and $h_1,\ldots,h_n$ are those of its head, the clause is usually written as follows:

$h_1,\ldots,h_n \leftarrow b_1,\ldots,b_m$
• If m=0 and n=1, the clause is called a (Prolog) fact.
• If m>0 and n=1, the clause is called a (Prolog) rule.
• If m>0 and n=0, the clause is called a (Prolog) query.
• If n>1, the clause is no longer Horn.

In computer programming, a clause is a series of statements executed upon the evaluation of a conditional expression. A condition may not always be explicitly applied to a clause; these are usually called non-conditional, main, or functional clauses. A clause may also be referenced by the structure of the conditional expression, for example I am inserting a case-clause where \$type is equal to 'auto'. Modifications are necessary to the if-then clause where the ninth subscript of \$array (\$array[9]) is equal to 'Sam'.

## References

1. ^ Chang, Chin-Liang; Richard Char-Tung Lee (1973). Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem Proving. Academic Press. p. 48. ISBN 0121703509.

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