The 1280s is the decade starting
January 1, 1280and ending December 31, 1289. Europein the 1280s was marked by naval warfare on the Mediterranean Seaand consolidation of power by the major states. Ongoing struggles over the control of Sicilyprovoked lengthy naval warfare: after the Sicilian Vespersrebellion, the French Angevins struggled against Aragonfor control of the island. King Rudolph I of Germanyestablished the Habsburgdynasty in Austriawhen he invested his two sons with power there. In England, King Edward I of Englandcompleted the conquest of Walesand annexed the territory via the Statute of Rhuddlan; he also constructed a series of castles in Wales to suppress any future rebellions. Edward I also established several important legal traditions, including a court system to hear claims on the king's behalf and a codification of the separation of church and state legal powers. The death of King Alexander III of Scotlandfomented political wrangling in Scotlandwhich would soon lead to increased English influence over Scotland. In Sweden, King Magnus I of Swedenfounded a Swedish nobility.
Asia, the Mongol Empirecontinued to expand, although at a slower pace and with less success than in previous decades. Kublai Khan's Yuan dynastyestablished control over the Khmer empirein Cambodia, the Pagan Empire in Myanmar, and a kingdom of Laos, but failed a second attempted invasion of Japanand was twice defeated in attempted invasions of Vietnam. The Thai kingdoms of Lannaand Sukhothai also exercised power in the region, avoiding conflict with the Mongol Empire to the north. Across the continent in the Middle East, the Mamluksultanate of Egyptcontinued to extinguish crusader states under the leadership of Qalawun, capturing Margat, Latakia, and the County of Tripoli. In Anatolia, Osman Ibecame a local chief, or " bey", planting the seed that would eventually grow into the Ottoman Empire.
The 1280s was also a busy decade in culture. In Thailand, King
Ramkhamhaeng the Greatinvented the Thai alphabet. In Holland, the St. Lucia's floodkilled 50,000 while creating the Zuider Zee, thus giving Amsterdamthe sea access it would later need to rise to prominence as an important port. In legal reforms, King Edward I of Englandstarted the use of drawing and quarteringas punishment for traitors, King Philip IV of Francecreated the gabelle, an onerous tax on salt, and the Scots Parliament passed laws allowing women to propose marriage to men, but only in leap years. The northern branch of the Grand Canal of Chinawas constructed during the first half of the decade, the Uppsala Cathedralwas begun, and a partial collapse set back construction of the Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvaisin a blow to the aspirations of its Gothic architecture. Colleges at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded. The cities of Al Mansurah, Egyptand Guiyang, Chinawere founded, while Hamburg, Germanyburnt to the ground in a catastrophic fire. Jews continued to be persecuted across Europe, while Taoists suffered under Kublai Khanin Mongol China.
War and politics
War and Peace
Continental Europe and the British Isles
*1282 - March -
Dafydd ap Gruffydd, brother to Prince of Wales Llywelyn the Last, attacks an English castle; his brother feels compelled to support him despite poor preparation for war, quickly leading to the final English conquest of Walesby King Edward I of England.
*1286 - Prussians settled in exile in
Serbiastage a famous uprising.
June 5- John I of Brabantdefeats the duchy of Gueldersin the Battle of Worringen— one of the largest battles in Europe of the Middle Ages — thus winning possession of the duchy of Limburg. The battle also liberates the city of Colognefrom rule by the Archbishopric of Cologne; it had previously been one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire.
August 8- Pope Nicholas IVproclaims a crusade against King Ladislaus IV of Hungary, who had lost credibility by favoring his semi-pagan Cuman subjects and in general refusing to conform to the social standards of western Europe.
Pope Martin IVauthorizes the Ninth Crusadeagainst the newly re-established Byzantine Empirein Constantinople; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year.
*1281 - An offensive by the
Byzantine Empiresignificantly reduces the size of the Kingdom of Albania, as it recaptures land seized from the Despotate of Epirusby Charles I of Sicilyten years earlier.
March 30- The Sicilian rebellion known as the Sicilian Vespersbegins against the rule of AngevinKing Charles I of Sicily; over the next six weeks, thousands of French are killed. The rebellion forces Charles to abandon the Ninth Crusadewhile still en route to the target city of Constantinople, and allows King Peter III of Aragonto take over rule of the island from Charles (which in turn leads to Peter's excommunicationby Pope Martin IV).
July 8- At the naval Battle of Maltaat Valletta, an Angevinfleet sent to help put down a rebellion on Maltais defeated by the fleet of Roger of Lauria.
*1284 - King
Charles II of Naplesis captured in a naval battle off Naplesby Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon.
*1284 - The Italian
city-stateof Genoadefeats its rival Pisain the naval Battle of Meloria, ending Pisa's marine power and hastening the city's decline in power.
September 4- Roger of Lauriadefeats King Philip III of Francein a naval battle off of Barcelona.
January 17- King Alfonso III of Aragoncaptures the island of Minorcafrom the Moors.
*1284 - The
Statute of Rhuddlanis created, formally incorporating Walesinto Englandin the entity England and Wales.
Stefan Dragutin, king of Serbia, receives Belgrade, Syrmia, and other territories from Hungarywhen his son marries the king of Hungary's cousin.
*1280 - King
Magnus I of Swedenfounds a Swedish nobilityby enacting a law accepting a contribution of a cavalry-member in lieu of ordinary tax payments.
*1280 - King
Edward I of Englandforms the Court of King's Benchto hear petitions for justice instead of the king hearing them himself.
*1285 - The
writ Circumspecte Agatis, issued by King Edward I of England, defines the jurisdictions of church and state in England, thereby limiting the church's judicial powers to ecclesiastical cases only.
People and dynasties
*1280 - The
Asen dynastyof tsars of Bulgariaends.
*1282 - Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolph I of Germanyinvests his sons Albert I of Germanyand Rudolph II of Austriaas co-rulers of the duchies of Austriaand Styria, thus founding the Habsburgdynasty in those territories.
June 1- The young Duke Rudolph II of Austriais forced to yield his claim on the Duchies of Austriaand Styria to his elder brother, Albert I of Germany, under the Treaty of Rheinfelden.
March 19- King Alexander III of Scotlanddies in a horse accident with Queen Yolande de Dreux's unborn child and the 3-year-old Margaret, Maid of Norway as heirs; this sets the stage for the First war of Scottish Independence and increased influence of Englandover Scotland.
The Mongol Empire sphere of influence
The Yuan dynasty: east Asia
August 15- The second Mongol invasion of Japan is foiled at the Battle of Kōan(or Battle of Hakata Bay) as a large typhoon— famously called a " kamikaze", or divine wind — destroys much of the combined Chinese and Korean fleet and forces, numbering over 140,000 men and 4,000 ships.
*1281 - The Mon kingdom of
Haripunchaifalls as its capital Lamphun(in present-day Thailand) is captured by King Mengrai's Lannathai kingdom.
Kublai Khan's Mongol Empireinvades the Khmer empireof present-day Cambodia; King Jayavarman VIIIdecides to pay tribute rather than fight the invasion, buying peace and preserving the empire.
Tran Hung Daoleads Vietnamese forces in victory over an invading Yuan dynastyMongol army.
*1286 - In
Laos, King Panya Lengis overthrown in a coup d'etatled by his son Panya Khamphong, which is likely to have been supported by the regionally dominant Mongol Empire( Yuan dynastyof China).
Kublai Khanplots a final Mongol invasion of Japan, but aborts the plan due to a lack of necessary resources.
*1287 - Kings
Mengraiof the Lannakingdom and Ramkhamhaeng the Greatof the Sukhothai kingdomagree to a peace pact in their region of southeast Asia(present-day Thailand).
*1287 - The
TheravadaBuddhist kingdom at Pagan, Myanmarfalls to the invading Mongol Empirein the Battle of Pagan.
Vietnamese general Tran Hung Daosinks the entire fleet of an invading Yuan dynastyMongol army by placing steel-tipped bamboo stakes in the Bach DangRiver, near Halong Bay.
Franciscanfriars begin missionarywork in China.
The Ilkhanate: southwest Asia
*1281 - Second Mongol invasion of Syria. Defeated by
*1287 - Mongol Ilhan Arghun Khan dispatches
Rabban Bar Saumato the leaders of Europeto negotiate an alliance against Muslimstates, specifically the Mamluksultanate of Egypt.
The Golden Horde: Eastern Europe
*1285 - Second Mongol raid against
Hungary, led by Nogai Khan.
*1287 - Third Mongol raid against
The Mamluk Sultanate sphere of influence: the Middle East
Syriaattempts to secede from the Mamluksultanate of Egypt, but Qalawundefeats the rebels and keeps Syria within the Egyptian sultanate.
October 29- Mamluksultan Qalawundefeats an invasion of Syriaby Mongol Ilkhan Abaqa Khanat the Battle of Homs.
Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, becomes " bey" of the Sögüttribe in central Anatolia; in 1299he will declare independence from the Seljuk Turks, marking the birth of the Ottoman Empire.
Mamluksultan of Egypt Qalawunsigns a ten-year truce with the Crusader city of Acre; he will violate the truce on pretexts in 1290.
April 25- Mamluksultan Qalawunbegins a siege of the Crusader fortress of Margat(in present-day Syria), a major stronghold of the Knights Hospitallerthought to be impregnable; he captures the fortress a month later.
Mamluksultan Qalawuncaptures the port city of Latakiain present-day Syria.
April 27- Mamluksultan Qalawuncaptures the County of Tripoli(in present-day Lebanon) after a month-long siege, thus extinguishing the crusader state.
*1280 - The Wolf minimum of solar activity begins (approximate date).
*1282 - The most recent eruption of
Larderello, a volcanoin southern Tuscany, is observed.
December 14- A fringing barrier between the North Seaand a shallow lake in Hollandcollapses during a heavy storm, causing the fifth largest flood in recorded history which creates the Zuider Zeeinlet and kills over 50,000 people; it also gives sea access to Amsterdam, allowing its development as an important port city.
*1287 - The English city of Old Winchelsea on
Romney Marshis destroyed by catastrophic flooding during a severe storm; a new town of the same name is later constructed some two miles away on higher ground.
cience, literature, and industry
*1280 to 1283 - The E codex of the
Cantigas de Santa Maria, a collection of Portuguese musical manuscripts, is dated to between 1280and 1283.
*1282 - The technology of
watermarks is introduced by papermanufacturers of Bologna, Italy.
*1283 - The
Libro de los juegos, an early European treatise on board games (including chess, dice, and a version of backgammon), is commissioned by King Alfonso X of Castilebetween 1251and 1283.
*1283 - King
Ramkhamhaeng the Greatof the Sukhothai kingdomcreates the Thai alphabet, according to tradition.
Jean de Meuntranslates Vegetius' 4th centurymilitary treatise De Re Militarifrom Latin into French.
*1285 - The English romantic poem "The Lay of Havelok the Dane" is written (approximate date).
*1289 - The 5,452 meter (17,887 feet) high
volcano Popocatépetlis first ascended by members of the Tecuanipastribe in present-day Mexico.
Civic laws and institutions
*1280 - The second of two main surveys of the
Hundred Rolls, an English censusseen as a follow up to the Domesday Bookcompleted in 1086, is completed; it began in 1279.
*1282 - The form for the
Trial of the Pyx, during which it is confirmed that newly-minted coins conform to required standards, is established.
October 3- Death by drawing and quarteringis first used as a form of capital punishment(for the newly created crime of high treason) by King Edward I of Englandin his execution of Dafydd ap Gruffydd, the last ruler of an independent Wales.
*1284 - The
Republic of Venicebegins coining the ducat, a gold cointhat is to become the standard of European coinage for the following 600 years.
*1285 - The Second statute of Westminster is passed in
England, reforming various laws; it includes the famous clause " de donis conditionalibus", considered one of the fundamental institutes of medieval law in England.
*1286 - King
Philip IV of Franceimposes the gabelle— a tax on saltin the form of a state monopoly— which would become immensely unpopular and grossly unequal, but persist until 1790.
*1288 - The
Scottish Parliamentcreates a law allowing women to propose marriageto men during leap years; men who refuse such proposals are required to pay a fine to the spurned bride-to-be.
Art and architecture
*1280 - Construction on the northern section of the
Grand Canal of Chinais begun; it is completed in 1283.
*1280 - The final expansion of the
Lincoln Cathedralis completed.
*1283 - Construction of
Caernarfon castle, Conwy Castle(completed in 1289), and Harlech Castleis begun in Walesby King Edward I of Englandas a system of defenses against possible future Welsh uprisings.
*1284 - Construction on the
Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvaisis interrupted by a partial collapse of the choir; the event unnerves French masons working in the Gothic style.
*1286 - In
Glasgow, the wooden Glasgow Bridge is constructed to span the River Clyde.
*1287 - The
Altar of St. Jamesat the Cathedral of San Zenoin Pistoia, Italy— a masterwork of the silversmithing trade containing nearly a ton of silver— is begun; it will not be completed for nearly 200 years.
*1287 - Construction on the Cathedral of Uppsala is begun; it will not be completed until
*1288 - The oldest surviving bell in the clocks atop the dome of
St. Peter's Basilicain Romedates to 1288.
*1289 - Construction of the Belaya Vezha tower in
Cities and institutions
*1280 - The
Egyptian city of Al Mansurahis founded.
*1282 - Hertford College is founded at the
University of Oxford.
*1283 - The city of
Guiyangis founded in China.
*1284 - The German city of
Hamburgis destroyed by a fire.
*1284 - Peterhouse, the oldest college at the
University of Cambridge, is founded by Hugo de Balshamas "The Scholars of the Bishop of Ely".
Pope Nicholas IVformally constitutes the University of Montpellierin Franceby papal bull, combining various existing schools under the mantle of a single university.
January 6- Archbishop Jakub Świnka orders all priests subject to his bishopry in Polandto deliver sermons in Polish rather than German, thus further unifying the Catholic Church in Poland and fostering a national identity.
March 7- The Catholicon, a religious Latindictionary, is completed by John Balbiof Genoa.
*1282 - The
Archbishop of Canterburyorders all synagogues of Londonto close, and forbits Jewish doctors from practicing on non-Jews.
*1283 - King
Philip III of Francecauses a mass migration of Jews when he outlaws their residence in the small villages and rural localities of France.
*1286 - King
Rudolph I of Germanydeclares all Jews to be "serfs of the Treasury", thus negating all their political freedoms.
*1287 - King
Edward I of Englandarrests the heads of Jewish households, and demands their communities pay hefty ransoms for their release.
Jews are expelled from Gasconyand Anjouin France.
Kublai Khanorders the burning of sacred Taoist texts, resulting in the reduction in number of volumes of the Dao Zheng(Taoist Canon) from 4,565 to 1,120.
Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor(d. 1347)
April 25- King Edward II of England(d. 1327)
William of Ockham, English Franciscan to whom Occam's Razoris attributed (approximate date; d. 1349)
*1286 - Duke Frederick I of Austria (d.
*1286 - Odoric of Pordenone, famous traveller (approximate date; d.
Gersonides, Jewish philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer (d. 1344)
October 4- King Louis X of France(d. 1316)
November 15- Albertus Magnus, German philosopher (b. c. 1193)
*1280 - King
Magnus VI of Norway
October 13- Nichiren, founder of Nichiren Buddhism(b. 1222)
December 11- Llywelyn the Last, last independent Prince of Wales(b. c. 1228)
December 11- Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologusof the Byzantine Empire(b. 1225)
Abaqa Khan, Mongol Ilkhan (b. 1234)
April 4- King Alfonso X of Castile(b. 1221)
October 5- King Philip III of France(b. 1245)
*1285 - Emperor
Yekuno Amlak of Ethiopia
March 19- King Alexander III of Scotland(b. 1241)
Ibn Nafis, Arabic scientist (b. 1210)
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